The Cold War, thus, poses serious challenges to historians of science since, as we noted, Latin American countries lived a very different geo-so- cio-political experience of this period in comparison to their northern counterparts. As De Grief and Nieto have noticed, this was indeed a very “hot war” for many countries on the region. Aligned with local elites, the United States intervened in several coups d’Etat (Guatemala in 1954, Brazil 1964, Argentina 1966-1770, 1976, Bolivia 1971, Chile 1973, Uruguay 1973), and faced social unrest in many countries from the 1960s up to the 1980s (for instance, through the infamous “School of the Americas” situated in Panamá from 1946 to 1984, where more than 66 000 Latin American military were trained to fight communism in their countries). In this context, Mexico’s political mood was relatively stable and characterized by a schizophrenic stance towards the United States and the rest of the Latin American countries. On the one hand, Mexico acted as a resistance wall against Unite States interventionist policies; for instance, Mexico was a refugee place for Spanish and Latin American political leftist exiles and was recognized as having relatively autonomous foreign and interna- tional affairs policies. On the other hand, the country was seen, from the South, as more politically and economically allied to the United States than their Southern partners—thanks to the post-revolutionary regimes—and, as new sources reveal, Mexico was a close watched scenario of interna- tional espionage (Morley 2010).
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Abstract: The aim of this article is to explain the political and trade union stance of the British National Union of Teachers (NUT) – representing the teachers of England and Wales – against the arms race and nuclear warheads set up in the European Continent during the Cold War (1947-1991). After adopting resolutions in support of «Education for Peace» at its Annual Conferences (Jersey, 1983 and Blackpool, 1984), the NUT held an International Peace Conference (1984) involving Western and Eastern European countries in which teachers’ unions from the following countries participated: the United States, Finland, the Soviet Union, the German Democratic Republic and Bulgaria. The international event was held in Stoke Rochford Hall (England) during the British miners’ national strike against the socioeconomic reforms instituted under the governments of Margaret Thatcher (1979-1990). The article started from the methodological presupposition based on the principle of political connection on an international scale within the scope of the trade union movement of teachers. Indeed, despite differences in nationalities, the educational processes institutionalized by schooling have acquired a universal character. Thus, teachers, irrespective of their nationality, are workers who are politically committed to the cultural values consecrated by the knowledge accumulated by humanity throughout history, especially when it comes to peace among peoples. It should be emphasized that the topic addressed has never before been analysed on an international level, and that primary sources that fall within the historical context of the facts studied were used in the production of the article.
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While the arctic countries, in particular canada and russia, might keep on militarizing its arctic coasts, the non-arctic countries will focus all their energies on maintaining the most northern region of the world as a common heritage of the humanity and, thus, imposing its shared use. (di liddo & manenti, 2017:19-20). in the last decade, there was a change in international actors' perception about the new opportunities emerging in the arctic region. twelve "outsiders," non-arctic states, all of them key players in current international arena, were accepted as observers. France, germany, the netherlands, Poland, spain, the united Kingdom, italy, china, singapore, Korea, japan and india. For european states, their participation was deserved after their strong, centennial polar research tradition. and in the case of the asian partners, their acceptance represents a process of international recognition for their key position as new emergent global powers. in the case of china, it has been seen as the last acknowledgment of its international participation as an equal power by those actors, in particular russia and the usa, who have historically stressed their superiority during the "Hundred years of Humiliation" and the cold War. (danner, 2018:64-65)
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This article analyzes the relationship between the career of Irish immigrant priest Monsignor Bryan Walsh, Miami’s increasingly activist Catholic Church, and the diverse waves of Latin American and Caribbean immigrants that transformed Miami-Dade County between 1960 and the mid-1990s. During the first half of the 1960s, Walsh’s perceived success as administrator of the Cuban Children’s Program established his enduring reputation as a committed “Cold Warrior” and loyal friend to U.S resident Cuban exiles; however, I argue that Monsignor Walsh’s support for the Cuban exile community, while harmonizing with his anti-communist politics, also reflected a deeper spiritual commitment that would lead him by the 1980s to advocacy on behalf of the other displaced Latin American and Caribbean peoples who began seeking refuge in Miami in the 1970s. Moreover, I argue that Walsh consciously deployed the powerful political capital invested in him as a result of his involvement in what would later be known as Operation Pedro Pan to critique U.S. immigration policies that admitted Cubans fleeing communist oppression while denying asylum to subsequent waves of Haitian and Central Americans seeking refuge from the violent repression of U.S. allied dictatorships in their homelands. In adopting this inclusive stance on behalf of the “stranger and the poor” in Miami-Dade County, I conclude that Monsignor Walsh anticipated the Catholic Church’s new priorities following the Second Vatican Council, even as he offered an early challenge to the Cold War calculus underlying immigration policies that continue to draw arbitrary and self- serving distinctions between those who are welcomed as political exiles and those who are excluded as economic and ostensibly “voluntary” migrants.
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After being heavily involved in the regional conflicts as an external balancer, Soviet Union started falling its influence in early 1970 when the Egyptian President El-Sadat expulsed Soviet military advisors and reoriented its policies towards the U.S. The Camp David Accords (1978) signed by Sadat and the Israeli PM Begin kept the Soviet Union out of the most relevant peace agreement, while Russia continued relying on the ‘revisionist’ camp with optimal – but not always easy – relations with Syria, and balancing attitudes towards Iran and Iraq who were engaged in the First Gulf War. However, the critical turning point related to the region would be the failed military intervention in Afghanistan which would affected negatively the perceptions of Russia in the eyes of the Muslim and the Third World, triggered a US-supported insurgency based on an radical sunni interpretation, and undermined the Russian military and strategic self-confidence, as Vietnam did it for the U.S. From that failure, the Russian leadership would avoid any full-scale military involvement beyond its own zone of influence. At the end of the Cold War, Mikhail Gorbachev supported diplomatically the U.S. initiatives related to the Israel-Palestine peace process, and the military campaign against Saddam Hussein after the Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, despite having long-term relations with the Baath Regime. The Russians retreated from the Middle East, a critical indicator that the Cold War was over.
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Resumen: The Chinese people's heroic struggle for political freedom in 1989 encouraged East Europe and the USSR to abandon their single- party system. The Cold War ended abruptly under the stimulus of the Tiananmen Square Incident. This article explores the other dark side of the Tiananmen Incident in the international stage: its deep shadow over Japan. Based on the author's personal experience, the article records, reviews and analyzes Japan's failure in its political transformation in the region during this historical period from two aspects: 1) Why and how the Japanese government had to engage China economically?; 2) Why and how the Japanese government betrayed democracy and human rights regarding China? The article concludes that Sino-Japanese relations should be based on principles of human rights and democracy.
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maximum of 14.89 ºC and a minimum of 10.79 ºC. Significant differences between the studied zones were detected (P < 0.0001, F = 85.42, 3, 87). These differences oscillated from 1.6 ºC between LCZ 3 and LCZ 6, to 4 ºC between LCZ 2 and LCZ B. In agreement with Alexander and Mills (2014), the areas with more urban elements such as high anthropo- genic heat flux percentages, impervious surface and building surface fraction, had temperatures over the mean (LCZ 2 and LCZ 3), while the less urbanized areas had temperatures below the mean (LCZ 6 and LCZ B). Among the annual seasons, a 5 ºC difference between cold and warm seasons was detected (P < 0.0001, F = 602.93, 1, 87). These results agree with the findings reported by Romero-Dávila et al. (2011) for the city of Toluca, Mexico.
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The stiffness of cold asphalt mixtures (CAM) 1 with 100% recycled construction and demolition waste aggregates (CDWA) 2 was studied from three different points of view: the indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM) 3 , the dynamic modulus at different temperatures and frequencies and the correlation between them. It was found that CAM with CDWA frequently achieved higher stiffness than control mixes using natural aggregate (NA) 4 , but that they required significantly higher bitumen and water contents. They were less temperature susceptible, therefore potentially more fatigue resistant, but more complicated to design. Finally, a clear dependency on the compaction process (static and gyratory) was also found.
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Infinity War in Spanish) by Marvel Studios, one of the most renowned films of this kind produced in recent years and that has received positive reviews from specialists as well as from the audience. The study has been completed by comparing the original version of the movie script (written in the English language) and the target dialogues transferred into Spanish, translated by Quico Rovira-Beleta. The different chosen examples from this movie will be exposed along with their contexts of origin both in their original and their translated forms and each of them will be analyzed by means of a contrastive comparison system specifically designed for this paper. After that, conclusions will be drawn about the documentation requirements of each specific example, the translation techniques that have been used to transport the content between the involved languages and, last but not least, the functionality in the new sociocultural context of each of the presented equivalents will be assessed.
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A brief history of the scientific development and the Technology are accomplished and the couple with them, exposing has marched like the development of the Armament how the men strive to kill themselves among themselves more and more and the catastrophic consequences that the war for the society, showing the present-day tendencies of Fourth Generation War, whose essence is to use the scientific and technological advances to have the control carries the people's mind and to develop the technological Fascism, characterizing the weapons that they develop for North American projects and that are using themselves: cybernetics, information technologies, psychological, chemical, and of genetic, biological and of the climate manipulation; Just like the importance that you acquire highlights her study to find the forms to confront them and to develop the education in moral values, and alerting on the theft of brains and the importance that acquires the Battle de Ideas.
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Cuando comencé la realización de este proyecto, mis conocimientos sobre la tecnología Cold Ironing eran básicos, basados principalmente en la información que había adquirido mediante revistas especializadas e Internet. Decidí profundizar en el tema porque me parecía un tema todavía emergente y poco estudiado, ya que a pesar de que en otros países existen empresas que ya están apostando por él, en España todavía es un tema prácticamente desconocido. Me decidí por su implantación en el puerto de A Coruña por varios motivos, principalmente por su extensión y su importancia a nivel nacional, motivos por los cuales la implantación del Cold Ironing me pareció una apuesta segura, tanto a nivel medioambiental como a nivel comercial.
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rest of civil servants wanted to follow the isola- tionist foreign policy strictly, marked by both the Neutrality Acts as well as the spirit of the Roosevelt administration policies. It could be confirmed in mid-august when the president gave a speech in the city of Wyandotte, New York. His speech was entitled I hate the war, in which he analyzed the tension period from which the world was suffering in such mo- ments. He followed in that the United States never had to seek the war; they had always shown this attitude with their good neighbor policy. Moreover, he stood for a meeting of all the heads of State of the American continent, so that they did not come to war and declared themselves neutral in any war to ensure the peace of all their neighbors. 15
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In the broadest sense of the word, civil society addresses the conditions of citi- zenship in a given polity, both the virtues and dispositions of individual citizens, as well as a descriptive category for an arena of political participation (Hodgkinson & Foley, 2003, p. vii). Civil society serves as a mechanism to interact with the state and demand citizenship rights. In general, civil society can contribute to democracy in four central ways: (a) it counters state power, (b) it facilitates political participation by helping in the aggregation and repre- sentation of interests, (c) it serves as a political arena that could play an important role in the development of some of the necessary attributes for dem- ocratic development, and (d) more broadly, it plays an important role in furthering struggles for citizenship rights (for more on the conceptualization of civil society and its contribution to democracy, see Cohen & Arato, 1992; Diamond, 1996; Keane, 1988). Furthermore, in war-to-peace transitions, civil society can play a critical role in promoting peace agreements and compli- menting the work of domestic institutions. Civil society can contribute to the delivery of humanitarian relief, support the reintegration of former combat- ants, facilitate refugee return, improve the performance of political and economic institutions, and cultivate greater trust between different parties through civic engagement (Bell & O’Rourke, 2007; Belloni, 2008).
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In Aragonés’ cartoon, Franco is crying over the death of Pope John XXIII. The Generalissimo is resting on a pile of skulls and bones. In the pile of bones, Aragonés places banners with the names of those who died defending democracy during the Spanish Civil War and its exile or those who were brutally assassinated under Franco’s rule including Socialist politicians Julián Besteiro and Francisco Largo Caballero; Catalan President Lluís Companys i Jover; Communist politician Julián Grimau; Poet Miguel Moreno Barranco; anarchist Joan Peiró; Confederadas member Luís Zugadi Garmendia (Aragonés 7 June 1962: 1). The caption reads “El gran fariseo” (The Great Hypocrite). It discloses the General’s hypocritical Catholic devotion that makes him cry over the death of the Pope, while he ruthlessly executes dissenters. The funereal banners continue to hold subversive power. Many victims of the regime have not received a funeral even today because their bodies were disposed of in mass graves.
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One well-known tool to search for axion dark matter are so-called axion haloscopes . Let us briefly recap the basic principle of a haloscope. Using the abundance of axions all around us the task at hand is to exploit their coupling to photons and to convert those axions into photons which can be detected. For axions this can be achieved by utilizing off-shell photons in the form of a strong magnetic field. Moreover, this conversion can be made more efficient by employing a resonator, resonant at the frequency corresponding to the energy of the produced photons. The energy of the outgoing photons is equal to the energy of the incoming axions. As the DM particles are very cold their energy is dominated by their mass. For axions in the natural dark matter window this mass is in the 1–100 µeV range corresponding to microwave photons. A number of experiments of this type have already been done [104–108] and further improvements are underway [109–111].
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Deletion of both TRPV4 and TRPM3 channels, suggested as environmental thermosensors, did not affect the response to cold, consistent with the knowledge that these channels have been reported to play a role as heat sensors [62, 215]. However, the role of TRPA1 in cold sensation is still a big debate in literature. Several studies have shown an indirect activation of TRPA1 channel under low temperatures . The first evidence of the role of TRPA1 in cold sensitivity was shown in CHO cells transfected with TRPA1 , but other groups were unable to reproduce similar data in HEK293 cells . Also, while Munns et al. showed no correlation between TRPA1 and cold temperature in cultured DRG neurons , other groups have demonstrated that DRG neurons are cold sensitive via TRPA1 activation . Several reasons have been proposed for the different findings between studies, such as different cell types and methodologies. In spite of some discrepancies, it seems that there is substantial evidence for a role of TRPA1 as a cold sensor. However, we do not know many details regarding the mechanisms and the functional contribution of this channel in physiological and pathophysiological situations. In particular, the knowledge and understanding of TRPA1 contribution to cold-induced vascular response is still at an early stage. Karashima et al. showed that cold-induced nociceptive behavior in mice is TRPA1-dependent . TRPA1 has been proposed to play an essential role in the mechanisms involved in systemic vascular responses induced by cold . In this line, we demonstrated that algo the intrinsic vascular response to cold is modulated by TRPA1 activation. The cold-induced vasoconstriction found in precontracted isolated plantar arteries, exposed to low temperatures (10 o C), was substantially reduced in Trpa1 KO plantar arteries and in c57bl/6j pretreated with the TRPA1 antagonist HC030031.
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