Excessive alcohol consumption by collegestudents is being recognized more and more, and its negative effects justify the implementation of prevention programs. Positive expectancies of alcohol are frequently acquired in adolescence and assume an important role in young-adult consumption patterns. This paper describes validation of the brief version of the Alcohol Expectancy-Adolescent Questionnaire (AEQ-AB) carried out with a sample of 317 freshman-year collegestudents at a public Portuguese University. Results of confirmatory factor analysis, invariance and internal consistency showed some difficulties in the internal structure of the questionnaire. The two-factor model did not fit because no factor emerged to represent the negative expectation items. A single-factor structure was assumed and its invariance by gender was confirmed, as well as good internal consistency. The validity criterion showed positive and negative correlations with several variables depending on whether they were positively or negatively related to alcohol consumption. The oldest students and students drinking alcohol from early ages had the lowest expectancy of positive effects of the use of alcohol. With regard to academic performance, freshmen with a high GPA showed strong expectancies for the positive effects of alcohol. Positive correlations have been observed between positive alcohol expectancy and consumption levels. Further studies are necessary to include a negative dimension in the measure of expectancies of alcohol consumption.
In Argentina, the population with the highest prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substance use is collegestudents, particularly men (Observatorio de Drogas Argenti- no [Argentine Drug Observatory], 2005; 2010; 2011). None- theless, few studies address the environmental and individ- ual characteristics of this behavior or its link with mental health or the problems experienced by these youths. More- over, reviews of this topic have indicated a lack of studies that consider both environmental and individual variables to interpret the role of environmental characteristics (Jackson, Denny & Ameratunga, 2014). Accordingly, this study seeks to evaluate the existence of hierarchical links in the predic- tion of alcohol-related problems between socio-demograph- ic characteristics, use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, based on environmental characteristics. This hierarchical structure was evaluated among collegestudents in the city of Mar del Plata, Argentina, also taking gender into account as a possible moderating variable. The follow- ing environmental characteristics that could be considered environmental stressors were selected: overcrowding rate by home, which is used as an indicator of neighborhood pover- ty (Galobardes, Shaw, Lawlor, Lynch & Smith, 2006), and crime rate (since it has been observed that substance use is greater in neighborhoods with a higher crime rate). The in- dividual socio-demographic characteristics considered were individual socioeconomic level, age, and gender.
Tackling difficulties related to student participation in the college classroom is central on the learning process. In this action-research study, we designed and implemented an action plan to boost participation on the grounds of (1) explaining the objectives and procedures for each activity to students; (2) requesting student participation by name; (3) giving them time to reflect before participating; and (4) requesting that students who are not paying attention participate. A survey was used in order to assess students' perceptions of the action plan. The questionnaire included 10 items (1-4 Likert scale) and was completed by a total of 103 students. The scores’ mean was 3.19, demonstrating a positive student perception of the action plan. The statements with the highest average scores were: “Teacher allows time for reflection after posing a question” and “Teacher addresses specific students by name.” The instructors recorded their perceptions into writing, providing opinions on the development of the action plan. These teachers' comments were summarized into categories. In conclusion, we considered that the action plan helped to improve student participation, and we believe that in order to obtain sufficient participation we have to attain a classroom environment that favors motivation, confidence and respect for students. Keywords: Participation, collegestudents, learning climate, action research
The voluntary or involuntary postponement responsibilities that must be delivered at a set time is also known as procrastination. This phenomenon is not new in the act of man, being that recorded many years ago. It is interesting to see that one of the weaknesses that the practical man more momentum and both the least understood. The aim of the study was to determine the level of procrastination in collegestudents based Peruvian Union University Tarapoto. Sample: 302 subjects, both sexes between 16 and 25 years. We used a non-experimental descriptive. Instruments: Procrastination Questionnaire created by Ramirez Tello and Vasquez (2013). The psychometric properties of the instrument indicate that it is valid and reliable. The results show that 33.7% of students from the Universidad Peruana Union belongs to the female gender, on the other hand can be seen that 44% of collegestudents are between the ages of 16 and 20 years old respectively, and those with higher levels of procrastination. Also students of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture are those with a high level of procrastination (15.9%).
Another relatively frequent online sexual practice noted was sexual contact with other users. This prevalence ranges from 9.4-30% in males and 14.9-34% in females (Daneback, Cooper, & Månsson, 2005; Goodson, McCormick, & Evans, 2001; Shaughnessy et al., 2011). Among male and female collegestudents, Döring et al. (2015) found that 30.8% reported having engaged in cybersex. The age where sexual contact with other users was most commonly found was between 18 and 24 years, gradually decreasing thereafter (Daneback et al., 2005). The females showed a preference for sexual contact with other users, rather than viewing pornography (Wright, Bae, & Funk, 2013). Studies among virtual environments (Second Life) users have revealed that the main motivation to maintain sexual contacts on the Internet is to achieve sexual stimulation and pleasure, followed by the satisfaction of establishing an emotional bond with another person, and to sexually experiment in a safe environment, with the
The field of health care raises numerous ethical concerns. Accordingly, Health Sciences students should comprehend what the values accepted in society are and be trained in those directly linked to their particular profession. This way, they may become better professionals able to act on ethical values held by their patients and their own. To the best of our knowledge, no studies exist regarding ethical values related to a professional context in collegestudents. The aim of this study, therefore, was to design the first tool to assess the perception of ethical values in a professional context by undergraduate students in the Health Sciences.
control were somewhat artificial and laboratory- dependent. As an example, it could well be that the effect occurred because many of those experiments were conducted many years ago and made use of computers and other automated devices with which the regular student-participant was not fa- miliar at the time. Today’s collegestudents, who are used to work with computers at all times, should not generate the same illusion of control in such a simple preparation as that used for previ- ous experiments. Additionally, it is also possible that, because most participants in previous experi- ments had been psychology students, the results might not apply to a more general population. The purpose of the present research was therefore to assess whether the illusion of control is still today a reliable phenomenon and whether it can be ob- served outside of the psychology laboratory. To this end we used the Internet as our testing arena in order to best assess the generality and reliability of this effect.
Bisson and Levine (2009) explored FWB experiences with a sample of 125 undergraduate students. They found 60% lifetime prevalence, while one third had a FWB at the moment of the study. These findings are similar to those found by Owen and Fincham (2011) where 47.2% of the sample reported a FWB relationship within the last year. For their part, Puentes, Knox and Zusman (2008), utilizing a sample 1,013 of young aduls (X=19 years) found that 50.1% reported at least one FWB in their lifetime. Regardless of the difference in prevalence rate, we know that it is increasingly common for North American collegestudents (40%-60%) to incorporate aspects of friendship and sexual behavior into some of their relationships (Claxton & van Dulmen, 2013).
Abstract. Introduction: scientific evidence suggests that stress and psychological symptoms play an important role on diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate clicking in individuals with stress and different psychopathological symptoms. Methods: we compared 30 collegestudents who experienced clicking with 60 healthy control volunteers. The participants received the pss-10 and scl-90-r Spanish versions. Odds ratio (or) and 95% ci were calculated to determine the risk for these variables for the presence of clicking using logistic regression. Results: stress was weakly associated with the occurrence of clicking (or = 1.35, 95% ci: 0.46-3.95, p = 0.57). Being an individual with stress and depression (or = 2.92, 95% ci: 0.61-14.0, p = 0.16) and anxiety (or = 2.80, 95% ci: 0.69-11.31, p = 0.13) may increase the risk for clicking. In addition, depression (or = 7.00, 95% ci: 0.66–74.28, p = 0.07) and anxiety (or = 4.90, 95% ci: 0.78-30.80, p = 0.07) adjusted by pain symptoms seem to be important variables for some subjects. The risk for clicking in students with anxiety-depression comorbidity and stress was higher (or = 2.11, 95% ci: 0.40-11.15, p = 0.37). Moreover, there was a different risk when this comorbidity, stress and pain symptom were present (or = 4.30, 95% ci: 0.35-51.90, p = 0.21). Conclusion: depression, anxiety, stress and pain may be predictors for development of tmd such as clicking. In this sense, the measurement of those conditions in these patients should be a priority.
Besides, when developing activities specially reading we tend to ask the students to do it individually. This happened for many reasons but the most common one is to keep discipline under control and avoid talking or disorder among the students. Is time to change this thinking! Working in groups is a powerful element to acquire reading skills. According to Johnson & Johnson (1991), “cooperative learning engage students in their learning process, provide safe, intimate atmosphere and space where students can practice new skills. Each team member contribution is valuable and necessary in order to achieve the goals”.
Noticeably, (Curtis, 2002; Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001; Kamil, 2003; NICHD, 2000; RAND Reading Study Group, 2002) are cited by Hock (2005) who claims that reading comprehension is the ultimate goal of any reading activity, especially functional literacy tasks. For this author reading comprehension is a collective term that describes the result of grasping the meaning from a text with one’s intellect-a task that involves many skills. In addition, Lewis M. & Tregenza J. (2007) talk about the importance of helping students develop reading comprehension – from the very early stages of learning to read to becoming fluent readers. They claim that understanding what they read is at the heart of the reading process, for without it reading becomes a purposeless activity. Understanding a text also im- pacts upon a reader’s motivation and engagement. If a student struggles to understand what they have read, they are unlikely to find reading a rewarding and enjoyable activity.
During these meetings, we gathered information about everyone’s daily experiences working at the counseling centers. For example, we explored experi- ences related to intervention with students with mental health issues. Meeting participants also shared their experiences and interventions with suicidal crises. One important aspect identified was the fact that none of the centers had developed a crisis protocol, which was necessary. Another aspect was the importance of integrating every component of the academic commu- nity in the prevention of suicide. To accomplish this we needed to develop strategies because the main problem was that the academic community was not involved and only relied on professionals at the counseling center for suicide prevention. We were interested in learning how other colleague counselors in the UPR system per- ceived the role of other community members (faculty, staff, students) in promoting wellness and prevention. It became quickly evident that we were confronting similar situations. For example, students’ participation in workshops was scarce. Typically, students do not attend activities that are not related to their courses, or their attendance is very limited. We needed to develop strategies that would stimulate student participation in the different activities.
necessity of implementing novel measures for individual use of SNSs. Both scales combined the traditional approach of measuring duration and frequency of exposure to the medium with the approach of gauging individuals’ emotional attachment to it. Moreover, this study innovated by measuring exposure to specific types of Facebook Groups. As expected, offline political participation is associated to online political groups and offline civic participation is associated to online civic groups. Thus, this study supports the notion that both a medium’s technological capabilities as well as the actual content it transmits can influence students’ attitudes and behaviors. Likewise, the multifaceted concept of social capital was broken down into three levels, which allowed for a fine-grained assessment of the potential impact of using social network sites. The results show a stronger association of Facebook use with the intrapersonal and behavioral components of social capital than with the interpersonal dimension. Thus, it could be argued that although the different components of social capital are interrelated, SNSs have a stronger connection with some components only. Another contribution of this study is related to the demographic portrayal of Facebook users. A popular myth is that Facebook is dominated by idle, young, female, upper-middle class college undergraduates. The characteristics of our sample show a more nuanced picture. For instance, over a third of Facebook members in the 18 to 29 age group were male and a similar proportion were seniors or graduate students or students whose parents did not complete a college degree. Nearly one out of five members was a minority student. Moreover, almost 95% of respondents had an account on Facebook and reported using the online network on a daily basis. Nevertheless, the small sample size of nonusers does not allow us to elaborate more on the differences found between them and Facebook users.
The main reason given for temporally or permanent- ly abandoning PA by 4,247 of the students surveyed (89.5% of the sample) was “fear of injury”, followed by “lack of skill” (82.1%) and then closely by “lack of resources” (66.0%) and “social influence” (65.5%). Other frequently mentioned barriers for justifying such abandonment were “lack of willpower” (50.5%), “lack of energy” (40.2%) and “lack of time” (30.1%). Table II shows that “fear of injury” and “lack of ski- ll” were the most frequently mentioned self-perceived barriers against engaging in PA in both males and fe- males. Table II also shows that the younger students (< 20 and 20-23 years old) gave “lack of time” as the least frequent cause (36.3% and 36.6%, respectively), the respondents stating that their reduced weight was the main barrier for ceasing to engage in PA as their age advanced.
Twenty-nine early childhood students, enrolled in two sections of the same literacy development and teaching course during the fall of 2015 and the spring of 2016, participated in this study. This course was offered by a 4-year college located in a large metropolitan area in the northeastern United States. All participants were female, which is common in early childhood courses. Because this study was conducted as part of the typical educational experience of collegestudents, demographic data was not collected; however, participants seemed to represent a similar cross section of the overall diversity of the university. The ethnic breakdown of the university was 25.35% White, 19.51% Hispanic, 17.72% Black or African American, 16% Asian, 19.55% Missing/Other, 1.46%, two or more races, 0.26% American Indian or Alaskan Native, and 0.17% Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Information on student GPA was available and that data was subject to analysis by a t-test (see Results section). The key characteristic examined was point of admission to college: 2-year community college or 4-year institution. Seventeen participants started at community colleges and then transferred to the college where this study took place, and 12 participants started at 4-year institutions.
According to the above data analysis results, there are some differences in the preference to travel period between Chinese collegestudents and Spanish collegestudents. The main reasons for this discrepancy are the differences in the statutory holiday arrangements between the two countries and the different arrangements for students’ courses and tests. In China, there are only 11 days of national statutory holidays, and in addition to the 3 days holidays of the Spring Festival and National Day, the rest of the holidays are only one-day holidays. In general, during these holidays, the attractions are normally very crowded with too many tourists and many students will choose other off-time periods to avoid the crowd. Besides, collegestudents also have a one-month winter vacation and a two-month summer vacation. Therefore, for Chinese collegestudents, the summer and winter vacation with more leisure time will be the best time for traveling.
Connective leaders were compared with Non-Connective leaders to detect differences between the two groups. Connective leaders were more versatile on the AC/CE continuum than were Non-Connective leaders. This versatility in learning was not supported for Connective leaders on the RO/AE continuum. This suggests that collegestudents who learned equally well using Concrete Experience or Abstract Conceptualization may be able to translate that flexibility into versatile leadership behaviors. This is not true of students who reported versatility in learning by Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation. This supports previous research by Mainemelis et al. (2002) that demonstrated greater behavioral flexibility for Hub AC/CE learners but not Hub RO/AE learners. Perhaps the skills required to become a versatile leader are less related to the ability to balance between when to act quickly on information and when to avoid rash decisions. Moreover, balancing learning between the more concrete approaches of active experimentation and reflecting on observations may tie less into leadership behaviors. This suggests versatile leaders may demonstrate a preference between individual research and hands-on experimentation, but neither strongly impacts the flexibility of their leadership behaviors.
Introduction: gambling disorder is an emerging clinical condition with unfavorable consequences in the academic context. It is important to know the psychometric performance of a brief scale for the identification of possible cases in the college context. Objective: To examine the psychometric performance of the Gambling disorder Brief Questionnaire (GDBQ) in collegestudents of a university from the Colombian Caribbean. Methods: A validation study was carried out without a reference criterion about the performance of the four items of the GDBQ. A group of 1,349 students of different academic programs with mean of age of 20.6 years of age (SD=3.4) and 50,7% men completed the GDBQ and the brief Zung´s scale for screnning anxiety. The reliability coefficients (Kuder-Richardson -equivalent to Cronbach´s alpha- and mcdonald´s omega) and the validity coefficients (divergent, nomological, construct) were calculated. Results: GDBQ showed Kuder-Richardson of 0.761, mcdonald´s omega of 0.769, good divergent validity (Pearson´s correlation (r) of 0.038 with the score in the brief Zung´s scale for screnning anxiety), acceptable nomological validity (Men showed mean of 0.50 (SD=1.01) and women showed mean of 0.11 (SD=0.45), t=9.324; gl=946.250; p<0.001) and a construct with a dimension which indicated 58.4% of variance.
The experiences of immigrant women of color within US higher education provide a unique opportunity to understand the complex influences of intersecting identities within the context of changing social contexts. To determine how the social categories of gender, class, race, and nationality operate in Caribbean immigrant women’s experience of being collegestudents, focus groups were conducted with 27 English-speaking Caribbean-born women attending NYC undergraduate colleges. Data show when women move to the US they come from gendered cultural traditions that determined their social roles in the Caribbean. For most women, these rules continue to operate in the US. However, gender roles and traditions are not homogenous throughout the Caribbean, hence, there is variation in how they play out in women’s experiences in the US. Further, the formerly distinct boundaries between some Caribbean traditions and US traditions are being challenged. These findings underline the complex influence of intersecting identities in women’s roles and call attention to how they affect social identification in the context of college pursuits and other aspects of their lives. In light of increased cross-cultural contact and globalization these findings provide a better understanding of factors affecting the psychological
welfare that live near the university; 90% Los Placeres Hill and 10% in central Valparaiso and Viña. Those who have only fi nancial aid have a more disperse pattern within the whole metropolitan spectrum, linked to traditional university students’ residential urban offer such as “University Homes” (rooms in households). Finally, those students of higher income tend to locate with the isochronal curve, 30 minutes infl uence travel and in the most expensive real estate housing offer. Apartments that in summer are tourist costal border residential offer area related to Plan Viña, Costal Border, Agua Santa- Recreo and towards North, Reñaca-Con Con. This proves the hypothesis that university students’ descentralized residential pattern towards Gran Valparaiso follows the real estate second house offer pattern, at least in Viña de Mar’s case. Valparaiso’s case the tendency proves that new density housing (new housing solutions) in the Plan and emerging in Valparaiso Alto as in Placeres Hill that has the best conditions as they are old houses from the turn of the 20 th century