The present study included 202 individuals from three indigenous groups that inhabit the ColombianCaribbean Region. The samples obtained took into account the phenotypic traits characteristic of these indigenous populations (thin, straight black hair, dark eyes, red tinted skin, and average stature), their geographic location, the preservation of their traditional activities and rites according to their socio-cultural behavior and originating during the pre- Hispanic time, and the low consanguinity grade. The larger groups of the indigenous group Ette ennaka or Chimila (own people), also known in ethnographic literature as Simiza, Chimíle, Simza, or Shimizya (Preuss, 1926; Ortiz, 1965 and Loukotka, 1968, cited by 13), are located in the central prairies of the Department of Magdalena, which is in the Naara Kajmanta settlement in Puerto Mosquito bordering the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and located in Sabanas de San Angel county protected by the Issa Oristunna reservation (Land of New Hope). These groups speak the ette taara (tongue of the people) language, which belongs to the linguistic family Chibcha. Their population is estimated to be 910 individuals 13-16 . The indigenous group Wiwa, also known as
Eels of the family Muraenidae are conspic uous elements of the reef fish communities of tropical seas, but they live also on muddy bot toros (Cervigón 1980). For more than ten years we have studied ColombianCaribbean reef fish es, and felt surprised by the high number of moray species. In this note we discuss the pres ence of two rare forms near Santa Marta and the abuildance of muraenids in Colombian Ca ribbean water.
Abstract: Sexual reproduction of the coral Diploria labyrinthiformis was studied for the first time. Monthly histological analyses at the Corales del Rosario National Park (ColombianCaribbean) from May 1997 to April 1998 show that D. labyrinthiformis is a hermaphroditic broadcasting species. It presents an annual gametogenic cycle with a 10-11 month period for gonad investment, in which oogenesis begins in August and ends in May- June. Spermiogenesis is short because sperm cysts were only observed in May tissue samples. In histological collected in May, an average of four mature eggs and six spermatic cysts per fertile mesentery were found. The mean diameter of mature eggs was 297 µm (± 97 SD) and 90 µm (± 33) for spermatic cysts. Rapid maturation of eggs from stage II to stage III coincides with increases in air temperature, high number of solar hours per month, decreases in wind velocity and absence of rainfall. Reproductive effort for D. labyrinthiformis (14.07 mm 3 /cm 2 /year) was similar to other Faviidae species. Although gamete release was not observed in the field, the
Barranquilla, and Santa Marta, through the analysis of data from the Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales (Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies Institute) of Colombia during the period 1981-2008, and a detail analysis in the city of Santa Marta with data from the station of the Jorge Tadeo Lozano University of Bogotá in the period January 1st to December 31, 2010. Gustavsson´s method was used to identify the marine breeze cycle, its duration, frequency, and hourly pattern; hodograph repre- sentation and spectral analysis were performed according to the periodogram modified by the Welch method. It was established that the marine breeze signal in the ColombianCaribbean coast is stronger during the dry season (December-March), when it reaches the highest gradients of sea-land temperature and with a predom- inantly diurnal component. In the city of Santa Marta and central Caribbean, the sea breeze is stronger and more defined compared to those of the cities of Riohacha at the northeast, and Barranquilla at the southwest, reaching an estimated medium value of 4 m s –1 in March, and minimum values of 2 m s –1 in August. In
Objective: To examine the correlates associated with treatment failure in patients living in the ColombianCaribbean city of Barranquilla, an aspect that was poorly studied in this region. Methods: Treatment failure (TF) was evaluated in a cross-sectional study from virological, immunological and clinical standpoints. Results: It was established that 29.5% of patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) could be considered in TF. Among those, virological failure was most frequent (20.9%), followed by immunological- (14.0%) and clinical failure (4.7%). In patients showing lack of adherence to the treatment, the likelihood of suffering from treatment- and virogical-failure were respectively increased by 6.67-fold and 12.19-fold, compared with patients showing good adherence. Although there was no statistically significant association, TF tended to be more frequent in young adults, in patients with low income and, low level of education. When ART regimens were compared, there was no apparent difference in TF between regimens based on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and those based on protease inhibitors. This is very important in the context of recent ART strategies, such as early-initiated ART, aimed at achieving long- term infection control.
Abstract: Cryptobiota of dead fragments of five branehes in live position and five fallen pieces of the coral Acropora palmata each one of approximate Idm3, eovered by filamentous algae were extraeted from the north reef erest of Isla Grande (ColombianCaribbean), in April 1991. There were three groups of organisms according lo size and position (on and wi!hin the coral): 1) mobile epibenthos, mainly microcrustaceans ¡ive among the fIlamentous algae 2) boring microcryptobiota, located in lhe layer between ¡he epilithic organisms and the coral skeJeton itself and, perforating macrocryptobionts Ihat bore <LTld penetrate the coral skeleton. Polychaetes, sipunculíds, mollusks and crustaceans were mos! abundant in !he las! group. There were no dífferences in macrocryptobiont composition between standing dead branches and fallen fragments. There was a large variation in total biomass and type and density of macrocryptobionts, possibly associated to stochastic factors such as placement and thickness of branches and small scale variations in recruitment.
Abstract: Live coral predation by fish in Tayrona Nature National Park, ColombianCaribbean. Live coral predation by fish was evaluated in two bays of the Tayrona National Natural Park (Colombia), as a possible biological agent causing coral mortality. Visual censuses were used to identify the most important predator. Predation incidence was determined by examining all colonies present in permanent belt transects (20 x 2 m) in two reef environments (one dominated by Colpophyllia natans and the other one by Montastraea faveolata), for two climatic seasons (rainy and dry seasons). The parrotfish Sparisoma viride was the most important predator due to its biting frequency and bite size. S. viride adults of the initial and terminal phases, removed live tissue and part of the calcareous matrix of M. faveolata, M. annularis, Porites astreoides and C. natans, of which, the last one lost a major amount of tissue per area (3.51 cm 2 ) and volume (3.22 cm 3 ) per bite. A negative exponen-
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the species composition of the family Calliphoridae from samples collected in four different cities in the colombianCaribbean coast. Van Someren-Rydon traps were used baited with human faeces, rotten fish and fermented fruit were used. Six traps were placed in each city (two traps per type of bait), for a total of 24 traps. They were left for 72 hours in each site and samples were collected every 12 hours (day and night). 5654 individuals were identified, belonging to the subfamilies Chrysomyinae and Luciliinae. The identified species were Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala, Lucilia eximia, Lucilia sericata and Chloroprocta idioidea, expanding the range of distribution for the last two species. The best bait was the rotten fish and the best time to collect these species was during daylight.
these alleles in different Colombian subpopulations will clarify whether it is useful to genotype them during clinical assessments for lactase persistence. We have aimed at genotyping the SNPs C/T -13910 and G/A -22018 in a ColombianCaribbean population. The observed frequencies for these SNPs are presented and discussed in light of the existing Colombian and international information.
(Aronson & Precht 1997, 2001, Garzón-Ferrei- ra et al. 2001, Sutherland et al. 2004) among others have contributed to coral reductions. Algae have become more abundant on many reefs across the Caribbean as a result of coral mortality (McClanahan et al. 1999, Williams et al. 2001) and reduced herbivory (Hughes 1994, Hughes et al. 1999, Williams & Polunin 2001, Mumby et al. 2006). Thus, coral decline and algal increase appear to be the most conspicu- ous features of coral dynamics in recent times. Natural and anthropogenic factors have contributed to coral decline during the last decades in Colombia (Garzón-Ferreira & Díaz 2003). Noticeable degradation has been observed on oceanic reefs and remote atolls (Garzón-Ferreira & Kielman 1994, Zea et al. 1998, Garzón-Ferreira et al. 2005) as well as in continental complexes and fringing reefs (Acosta 1994, Díaz et al. 2000b, Martínez & Acosta 2005). In the last few decades for instance, live coral cover declined more than 50% on the oceanic island of San Andrés, while Acropora spp. lost about 80-90% on the mainland coast at Islas del Rosario (Garzón- Ferreira & Kielman 1994, Garzón-Ferreira & Díaz 2003). Evaluations on the structure of coral communities showed that algae have been the predominant biotic component (Diaz- Pulido et al. 2004, Rodríguez-Ramírez et al. 2006, 2008a). Modern natural disturbances in ColombianCaribbean reefs include hurricanes, bleaching events, epidemic diseases and algae proliferation, although some of these may also be the indirect result of human activities. Anthropogenic disturbances comprise sedi- mentation, eutrophication, chemical pollution, overfishing, dynamite fishing, nautical activi- ties and coral mining. (Garzón-Ferreira & Díaz 2003).
Abstract: Effect of herbivorous and corallivorous fishes on the survival of transplanted corals in the ColombianCaribbean. To examine the effects of herbivorous and corallivorous fishes on the survival of trans- planted colonies of Montastraea annularis, Diploria labyrinthiformis and Porites astreoides, both transplanted and native colonies were full-cage enclosed and compared to open (uncaged) colonies, while caging effects were assessed with a partial-cage (roof treatment). To evaluate if transplant stress increased the corals availability to fish predation, comparisons of fish foraging intensity among transplanted versus native colonies were made. To determine the density of herbivorous and corallivorous fishes on the transplants area visual censuses were made. The transient herbivorous fishes (Scaridae and Acanthuridae) were the most abundant fishes, and the corallivo- rous fishes (mainly Chaetodontidae) were the scarcest. A negative effect of territorial herbivorous fishes on M. annularis transplants survival was observed, mainly early on the study. Fish foraging intensity was similar on transplanted and native colonies, but differed among coral species, being lowest on D. labyrinthiformis. Fast macroalgal growth inside full-cages due to reduced fish grazing was observed. This caused partial bleaching and partial mortality in some colonies, mainly of P. astreoides. No significant difference in healthy tissue percentages among full-cage and uncaged colonies on M. annularis and D. labyrinthiformis was found, while in P. astreoides there were evident differences. The results indicate a damselfish negative effect on transplants survival early on the study, which can change depending on the fish and coral species involved. Results also indicate a fish grazing positive effect, caused by the reduction of coral-algae competition pressure, mainly on P. astreoides. Parrotfishes seem to affect corals survival both negatively through direct biting, and positively by controlling algal growth. Overall, coral transplant success was almost unaffected by fish foraging activity although several differences among coral species were obvious in relation to colony shape. Additionally, the interaction among herbivorous fish grazing and coral-algae competition balance appear important in determining transplant survival. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (3-4): 825-837. Epub 2007 December, 28.
Abstract: Taxonomic list of the asteroids (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) from the shelf and superior slope from the ColombianCaribbean. Between 1998 and 2001 we surveyed the benthic macrofauna of the continental shelf and its upper slope in the ColombianCaribbean. The INVEMAR-MACROFAUNA I-II expedi- tions used a “semi-ballon” net were for 10 minutes bottom drags from Punta Gallinas (Guajira) to Arboletes (Antioquia). These covered seven ecological sectors from the ColombianCaribbean: Guajira (GUA), Palomino (PAL), Tayrona (TAY), Magdalena (MAG), Archipiélagos Coralinos (ARCO), Morrosquillo (MOR), and Darién (DAR). We collected 4109 Asteroidea individuals belonging to six orders, 13 families, 26 genera, four subgenera, 35 species and eight subspecies. Luidia barbadensis, Luidia heterozona barimae, Luidia ludwigi scotti, Luidia sarsi elegans, Prionaster elegans, Cheiraster (Cheiraster) planus, Cheiraster (Cheiraster) sepitus, Cheiraster (Barbadosaster) echinulatus, Pseudarchaster gracilis gracilis, Rosaster alexandri, Pteraster acicula, Pteraster militarioides militarioides, Doraster constellatus, Mammaster sigsbeei and Coronaster briareus are first records for the ColombianCaribbean. Luidia sarsi elegans, Marginaster pectinatus, Tamaria halperni and Stephanasterias albula are first records for the south Caribbean and Pteraster personatus and Dipsacaster antil- lensis are first records for the Caribbean sea. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(Suppl. 3): 171-194. Epub 2006 Jan 30.
Coral bleaching is defined as the loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments by coral polyps and has been fre- quently associated with drastic changes in the physicochemical conditions of the water (tem- perature, salinity, transparency, among others), extreme low tides and diseases (Brown 1997, Banin et al. 2000, Rosenberg & Ben-Haim 2002, Sutherland et al. 2004). In most cases, if after several weeks or months the process responsible for bleaching is not reversed, the coral will die mainly because part of the nutri- ents used by corals are derived from their sym- biotic relation with zooxanthellae (Glynn 1993, Rosenberg & Ben-Haim 2002, Sutherland et al. 2004). In cases where bleaching has not caused coral mortality, a decrease in the reproduc- tive capability of corals, and disruption of the normal coral development has been observed (Rosenberg & Ben-Haim 2002). Extensive damage to reefs due to bleaching events has been documented in places such as in Indone- sia (1983), Thailand (1991 and 1995), French Polynesia (1991 and 1994), and the Great Caribbean (1998) (Brown 1997, Aronson et al. 2002). In Colombia, massive corals deaths due to bleaching were documented by Prahl in Gor- gona Island (1983 and 1985) and Vargas-Angel et al. (2001).
Abstract: Impact of two artificial reefs on diurnal artisanal fishing at gulf of Morrosquillo, ColombianCaribbean. Fishing activity in two artificial reefs (ARs) was monitored between August 2001 and August 2002 in the gulf of Morrosquillo, to investigate their possible impact on the fishery dynamics. We determined catch per unit effort (CPUE) and catch composition, and found 19 species in Punta de Piedra and 36 in Tolú (16 species common to both). in Punta de Piedra, CPUE was 0.40 kg/hour/fisherman and estimated annual catch was 1 830 kg (Tolú values: 0.42 kg/hour/fisherman and 4 820 kg). No significant differences in CPUE were found between ARs and no seasonal pattern was evident. The differences in total composition and extracted biomass between ARs were mainly a consequence of greater effort exerted in Tolú, whereas the absence of trends and correlation with environmental factors of CPUE and species caught suggests that the ARs are near their carrying capacity. As expected, the ARs supported and improved CPUE and fishing success in comparison with reported values of natural habitats, traditional fishing grounds and some artificial habitats in the zone, owing to their greater volume, structural complexity and vertical profile. However, this increase could also be the result of biomass aggregation, not production. The potential negative impacts of ARs on the environment require experimental research. The deployment of non-extractive ARs and the controlled usage for fishery purposes could be a use- ful tool for resource enhancement and management in the area. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 993-1007. Epub 2009 December 01.
Abstract: Structure and dynamics of the mangrove forest in the Ranchería river delta, ColombianCaribbean. We registered seedling survival and biomass increase for Rhizophora mangle L., Avicennia ger- minans L. and Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f., main mangrove species in the Rancheria River delta, Colombia. Only seedlings of R. mangle were found to survive. We also measured maximum rate of litterfall. We estimated annual litterfall through interpolation within an exponential regression performed with maximum and annual litterfall data published in other sources; the value of annual litterfall for the area was estimated to be 12.9 mgha -1 y -1 . We found a 7.4 mgha -1 y -1 increase in biomass. Litterfall constitutes the larger fraction of the
Abstract. In this paper asks how places were distributed living spaces, ields for agriculture and hydraulic control in the old course of the lower river San Jorge (ColombianCaribbean), The spatial analysis allows determine the concentration, dispersion and association of the different elements found in the anthropogenic landscape.
Abstract: Ecological studies on commercial important fish species are of great value to support resource management issues. This study calculated trophic levels of those ColombianCaribbean fish species whose diet has been locally described. Usable diet data of 119 species resulted in 164 trophic level estimates. An ordinary regression model relating trophic level and fish size was formulated. The regression slope was positive and significantly different from zero (p<0.05) suggesting a scaling of trophic level with fish size. Both the list of trophic levels and the regression model should be of help in the formulation of trophic indicators and models of neotropical ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3): 1195-1203. Epub 2011 September 01.
The oblique collision and the dextral displacement of the Carib- bean plate toward the NE in this margin during Paleogene (Figs. 6 A and B), develops an regional unconformity and produced a gradual exhumation of the RFS rocks and in several sectors the milonytes belts development mainly in the faults that constitute and correspond to limit between the subduction zone and the Early - Late Cretaceous volcanic arc, represented by San Jerónimo and Silvia - Pijao faults of Cordillera Central in Colombia. This pro- cess produces the metamorphism retrograde in the rocks that form this shear zone producing reactivation or the development of ﬁ rst order faults like Pallatanga, Pujilí, Calacalí and Peltetec in Ecuador (Kerr et al., 2002; Spikings et al., 2001; 2000), Cauca – Almaguer fault in Cordillera Central in Colombia and Romeral Lineament in ColombianCaribbean platform. The accretion of the oceanic ter- ranes to the west of the RFS deﬁ nes structural limits of ﬁ rst order like Cauca – Patía Fault zone in Colombia and San Isidro - The Angel, Canande, Daule - Apuela, Pallatanga, Calacali, Pujuli and Chimbo - Toachi Lineament among others in Ecuador.
Globally, people are living longer and the life course risk of exposure to violence increases, and the diseases of old age can be exaggerated by violence and abuse. As older adults experi- ence the consequences of sexual abuse, such as depression, men- tal health care service could be strained. As this problem is better recognized, greater validation of abuse and research into its use in clinical screening is needed. Public policies strengthening mental health care could be developed and implemented to help address the mental health consequences of sexual abuse world- wide. 2,4,38 In conclusion, past sexual abuse and history of being displaced by violence were strongly associated with depression among Colombian elderly individuals.
The most widely distributed seagrass in the Caribbean is Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König, which provides ample substrate for algal epiphytes (Humm 1964, Cho et al. 2002, Barrios & Díaz 2005, Corlett & Jones 2007). The seagrasses in Parque Nacional Cahuita have been scarcely studied in recent years, focusing primarily on biomass, productivity, and seasonality of reproduction in T. testudi- num (Paynter et al. 2001, Fonseca et al. 2007, Nielsen 2007). Our knowledge regarding sea- grass epiphytes from the Caribbean of Costa Rica is extremely limited. The only report of macroalgae as seagrass epiphytes was pub- lished by Kemperman (1986), who mentioned the substrate of two macroalgal species from the Caribbean of Costa Rica.