Communities of practice

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Learning within communities of practice in preservice secondary school teachers education

Learning within communities of practice in preservice secondary school teachers education

(p. 945), and encourage the building of professional communities in the future (Lachance & Confrey, 2003, p. 38). If we, as trainers, value the learning that ta- kes place when a group works as a community of practice, how to promote and cultivate such a setting? Answering this question requires that teachers’ trainers, besides taking care of what they expect preservice teachers to be able to do and to know, get concerned about how preservice teachers learn and what kind of teaching is coherent with that learning. The design of the training program (in particular, issues as the methodology and the trainers’ performance and attitudes) can make a difference in that learning. Next, we consider three of those issues. They are examples of the type of questions that should be considered while de- signing a methods course in which communities of practice and interdependent learning are expected to take place. They refer to the trainers’ written commen- taries to the groups’ work, the definition of the tasks, and the groups’ tutoring.
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12 Lee mas

Linking communities of practice with learning communities in computer science education

Linking communities of practice with learning communities in computer science education

Abstract. MoKEx (Mobile Knowledge Experience) is an international project in cooperation with universities and industrial partners. The project focuses on didactical, organizational and technical problems with regard to blended learning and knowledge management scenarios. In a project-based learning approach students of two different universities are being prepared for their future work. They are working on real-world problems in an interdisciplinary team and are collaborating within a geographically and temporally separated team. Therefore means for communication and collaboration over the Internet must be provided. From the didactical perspective the aspects of autodidactic education and team learning are playing an important role, while teachers are acting primarily as coaches. In the meantime the results of the first execution of the project have been enhanced and put into operation by the companies and a second execution has been started.
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DIAGNÓSTICO DEL CONOCIMIENTO ONTOLÓGICO DE UNA COMUNIDAD DE PRÁCTICA EN EL DOMINIO DE LOS SISTEMAS DE INFORMACIÓN / DIAGNOSIS OF ONTOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE POSSESSED BY COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE IN THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS DOMAIN

DIAGNÓSTICO DEL CONOCIMIENTO ONTOLÓGICO DE UNA COMUNIDAD DE PRÁCTICA EN EL DOMINIO DE LOS SISTEMAS DE INFORMACIÓN / DIAGNOSIS OF ONTOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE POSSESSED BY COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE IN THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS DOMAIN

It is presented the diagnosis of the knowledge of a community of practice, in the information systems domain. The community is composed by individuals of two firms, who have decided to join forces for designing a new consulting service. The service vision is to impact on organizational management systems, based on Information Technology capabilities. The main goal of the diagnosis is to evaluate the systemic approach of the community’s thinking. In order to accomplish such goal, an instrument was designed, having as foundation the ontological dimension of individual and inter-organizational knowledge. The diagnosis results proved that both firms have different and non-systemic conceptualizations about the enterprise architecture concept; none of them conceive the enterprise architecture concept as a basis for the design of information systems aligned to the business strategy. The diagnosis conclusion is that the differences in conceptualizations compromise the firms’ capabilities to interact and innovate.
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14 Lee mas

A Community of Practice Approach to Teaching International Entrepreneurship

A Community of Practice Approach to Teaching International Entrepreneurship

based on Wenger’s initial research (Wenger 1998; Wenger and Snyder 2000; Lave and Wenger 1998), but also on his latest conceptualization (Wenger 2000, 2011). Initially, CoP has been thought to be based on self-selection with members informally bound together by their interest in undertaking joint learning (Lave and Wenger 1998; Handley et al. 2006), named here as emergent CoP. However, later Wenger (2011) suggested an instrumental usage of CoP in practice reflecting his transition from an analyst of social learning systems to a designer of them (Clegg 2012). Instead of an individual’s identity becoming aligned with his or her CoP, the CoP becomes a way of connecting individual identities to the achievement of collective learning aims (Arthur 2016). In spite of being organic and self-directed, deliberate CoPs can be defined and cultivated explicitly by organizations to achieve specific learning goals. Thus, CoPs can also be applied as a specific methodology used for particular learning purposes, specifically when the joint practice is supposed to be an important learning element, engendering situated learning (Handley et al. 2006; Pharo et al. 2014). Examples of this instrumental usage of CoP can be found in organizations to foster knowledge sharing among employees, named as organizational communities of practice (Ceptureanu and Ceptureanu 2015; Koliba and Gajda 2009; Lee and Williams 2007; Aljuwaiber 2016). Authors such as Hodge et al. (2014), Howlett et al. (2016), and Tight (2015) support the usage of deliberate CoP in an educational context to enhance students’ situated learning. In summary, the deliberate CoP approach can be considered in an educational context to offer a space of learning in which students can experiment with different tasks requiring communication and interaction among them. Table 1 below summarizes the key differences between emergent and deliberate CoP.
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17 Lee mas

Open wall churches. Catholic construction of online communities

Open wall churches. Catholic construction of online communities

same religious thoughts and values. Among all websites offering this service, the Catholic ones have a more segmented target; so possibilities for people to have success in finding a partner are higher. In these cases, time and place play a remarkable role: people usually look for a partner of the same or similar age and living near them. Virtual barriers are broken by knowing that the relationship people want goes beyond the screen. This kind of service does not create a virtual community directly – as we understand the concept – but attract a loyal number of users interested in the space until they find a partner (if they finally do). So, indirectly, this service builds some kind of virtual community that creates bilateral relationships more than a solid community. There are several websites for finding a partner, but this service on a Catholic website gives the user previous information that others do not. Other users using the same service have some kind of Catholic interest, so it is easier for them to agree on several subjects and perspectives, which makes it easier for them to cultivate a friendship and perhaps even a relationship.
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Diversity and functions of microbial communities in seagrasses

Diversity and functions of microbial communities in seagrasses

seagrass tissues. There is evidence of pathogen protists that caused massive mortality events in seagrasses, reducing vast extensions of seagrass meadows. These die off events were called wasting disease and the causative agent was identified as the unicellular protist Labyrinthula sp. The first mass mortality event related to Labyrinthula infections was recorded in 1930s when Zostera marina meadows declined in the Atlantic Coast (Renn 1936, Young 1943, Muehlstein et al. 1991). Later in 1960s, Labyrinthula sp. also caused a mass mortality event in New Zealand, in this case, infecting Z. capricornii (Armiger 1964) and in 1980s Robblee et al. (1991) associated Labyrinthula sp. with a mass mortality observed in Thalassia testudinum in Florida Bay. After those seagrass mass mortality events, the interest in understanding the infection mechanisms, transmission, and distribution of Labyrinthula spp. increased. Labyrinthula spp. has been reported to be present in many seagrass species, although its presence not always has been linked to lesion appearance, pointing out the possibility of some strains being more virulent than others.
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Modifications of the non linear parameters of the heart rate variability related to the systematic practice of physical exercise

Modifications of the non linear parameters of the heart rate variability related to the systematic practice of physical exercise

The autonomic nervous system is organized into two subsystems or branches with opposite but complementary functions: sympathetic and parasympathetic or vagal. Both, by chronotropic, dromotropic and inotropic effect, act on the depolarization of the cardiac muscle and condition the sinoatrial node function. The sympathetic branch (noradrenaline) stresses the system increasing the heart rate and decreasing the HRV whereas the parasympathetic (acetylcholine) decreases the heart rate and increases the HRV. Both are interconnected by thousands of neurons and hundreds of ganglia that make up what some call the Cardiac Intrinsic Nervous System or cardiac brain. (3)
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12 Lee mas

The Theory and Practice of Spatial Econometrics

The Theory and Practice of Spatial Econometrics

Toolboxes are the name given by the MathWorks to related sets of MAT- LAB functions aimed at solving a particular class of problems. Toolboxes of functions useful in signal processing,optimization,statistics,finance and a host of other areas are available from the MathWorks as add-ons to the standard MATLAB software distribution. I use the term Econometrics Toolbox to refer to my public domain collection of function libraries available at the internet address given above. The MATLAB spatial econometrics functions used to im- plement the spatial econometric models discussed in this text rely on many of the functions in the Econometrics Toolbox. The spatial econometric functions constitute a “library” within the broader set of econometric functions. To use the spatial econometrics function library you need to download and install the entire set of Econometrics Toolbox functions. The spatial econometrics func- tion library is part of the Econometrics Toolbox and will be available for use along with more traditional econometrics functions. The collection of around 500 econometrics functions and demonstration programs are organized into li- braries,with approximately 40 spatial econometrics library functions described in this text. A manual is available for the Econometrics Toolbox in Acrobat PDF and postscript on the internet site,but this text should provide all the information needed to use the spatial econometrics library.
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309 Lee mas

A Continuum of Specialists and Generalists in Empirical Communities

A Continuum of Specialists and Generalists in Empirical Communities

tence of an interaction between species i and species j [29]. For each network, we calculate its size (Z = L × T), and connectance (Co, the proportion of established interactions). We focus our analyses on the upper level, since we have more knowledge of specialization mechanisms for these organisms [30]. Nestedness, a measure that reflects whether specialist species interact with the same species as generalists, is calculated using the NODF (Nestedness based on Over- lap and Decreasing Fill) measure [31]. NODF is insensitive to network asymmetry (the relative number of species at each of the two levels) and size. Modularity measures the extent to which species form well defined, densely connected, groups, with few connections between groups. Modularity is estimated using the LP-BRIM method [32], which both increases detection com- pared to the adaptive BRIM method, and is less computationally intensive [33]. For each net- work, we retained the highest modularity Q bip [34] observed in a total of 1000 replicate runs.
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Genius and the practice of ethical reading

Genius and the practice of ethical reading

Confessio has a history –from Genius and Amans to the stories drawn from pagan and Christian literature– and even if Gower does not always make use of those histories, he certainly makes no attempt to conceal them, since a large part of his project depends on the transfer of knowledge from authors to readers, and from teachers to students (or, to put it another way, from confessors to penitents). At the same time, we should recognize that “the experience it provokes in the reader” is “its represented action.” In other words, what the Confessio portrays is that same process of reading and learning that readers are expected to experience, particularly if you keep in mind Coleman’s (2002) argument that the “readers” of the Confessio may just as well have been “listeners.” Amans listens to Genius. He learns to read (i.e. interpret), and his understanding of each story is quite obviously influenced by his knowledge of the topic at hand and the way in which he applies the story to his own experience. In other words, since it is the very process of reading that is enacted in this poem, we might say that the experience provoked in the reader, which, for Simpson, constitutes the “real meaning” of the poem, is itself an important part of what Gower is doing in the Confessio, and is, therefore, situated as much in the text itself as it is in the person who happens to be reading it.
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17 Lee mas

A Phoenician Way to be Roman

A Phoenician Way to be Roman

The main hypothesis of our thesis is none other that the consideration of an early and intense political movement of the Phoenician peninsular communities toward the orbit and interests of Rome, along with a parallel adaptation of their political elites into Roman power structures. I defend that, from the end of the Second Punic War on, and especially in the early Imperial period, the communities of Phoenician origin and tradition in the West may have carried on amongst themselves a new ethnic discourse full of Phoenician content, at the same time that the gradually integrated into the political structures of the Roman world.
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Percepción de la contaminación del río Tlapaneco por la población ribereña.

Percepción de la contaminación del río Tlapaneco por la población ribereña.

previous knowledge, and values. Humans perceive environmental variables in a given moment and construct their own perception of the world, in accordance with their sociocultural context and their own experience (Ittelson, 1978; Feijoó and Momo, 1991). Experiences and perceptions generate the storage, organization, and construction of images of the physical world (environmental knowledge), in addition to a favorable stance (or not) towards the characteristics of the physical world (attitude), which is the sum of evaluative beliefs (Eiser et al., 1998) and a behavior or action (conduct). In this process, the values and previous experiences, positive or negative, are defining (Spash et al., 2006; Dolisca et al., 2007). That is why environmental perception, knowledge, attitude and conduct involve a high degree of subjectivity and singularity. The decision makers and resource managers should understand that apart from technical and economic aspects, the social capital and social learning processes of water resource users should be considered (Jiggins et al., 2007). Comprehensive models for environmental management that consider learning processes are required. The elements of social learning for the management of a river strive to reach a shared perception of the problem in a group or in actors, build trust for self-reflection, and recognize mutual dependencies and interactions to initiate a collective process of learning and decisions (Wostl, 2007).
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16 Lee mas

Restoration of monuments in Spain. Theory and practice

Restoration of monuments in Spain. Theory and practice

In 1836 the transfer of properties of the regular clergy left many buildings unused, being impossible to inventory. It was believed that there was a need to create an institution to care for these impaired monuments. The Commission for Historical and Artistic Monuments was created by Royal Order on June 13, 1844, since the Royal Academy of History had neither the money nor the means. From 1845, many monuments started to claim funds, complaining of their poor condition. It was at this time when the School of Architecture was created in Madrid by Royal Decree of 1844.
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10 Lee mas

Practice-led Research is concerned with the nature of practice and leads to new knowledge

Practice-led Research is concerned with the nature of practice and leads to new knowledge

When the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) drew up its regulations for the higher degrees to be awarded from Polytechnics, they included a critical clause, “The written thesis may be supplemented by material in other than written form”. This enabled a student to include an artefact, or the record of an artefact, as an integral part of their PhD submission. For example, when Susan Tebby submitted her PhD, “Patterns of Organisation in Constructed Art”, (Tebby, 1983), she put up an exhibition and included a full set of 35mm slides of its contents bound with the thesis. The examination was based on the artworks and the written thesis together. Practice-based PhDs today are most simply identified by the inclusion of such artefacts within the submission.
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19 Lee mas

Solidarity in Local and Multicultural Communities in the South of Russia

Solidarity in Local and Multicultural Communities in the South of Russia

However, the interpretation of social solidarity in various communities “with the help of universality terms” looks, as noted by some researchers, quite vulnerable in our time of increasing risks, social and cultural polarization (Reutov, 2017, 113). Therefore, other researchers in their comprehension of solidarity in Russian society primarily take into account its sociocultural specificity (Volkov et al., 2018). In this regard, solidarity in Russian society is interpreted not only as the ability of citizens to unite for the sake of attaining common goals. As noted by researchers, an important component of solidarity is normative axiological and cultural identity of citizens, as well as its pragmatist aspect related to their self-organization and mutual aid (Reutov, 2017, 118). Various types of solidarity can be identified in the modern academic literature: historical, civilizational, nationwide, social, ethnic, faith based, civil, everyday, professional (Khokonov, 2016).
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Effects of the amount and schedule of varied practice after constant practice on the adaptive process of motor learning

Effects of the amount and schedule of varied practice after constant practice on the adaptive process of motor learning

From this point, we sought to investigate the practice during the diversification process. Two main questions were posed: whether the amount of practice in the diversification pro- cess would affect the adaptation, and whether the diversification of motor skills could occur in a different schedule of varied practice (ran- dom and blocked). In fact, blocked practice has been used in numerous motor learning studies in the last four decades as an alternative to random practice (see Brady, 1998, 2004; Magill & Hall, 1990; for a review). While random practice is characterized by the execution of different tasks in a non-systematic or unpre- dictable way, the blocked practice is character- ized by a sequence of stable conditions because the learner performs all trials of each task vari- ation before moving to next variation. There- fore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different amounts and schedules of varied practice after constant practice on the adaptive process of motor learning.
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12 Lee mas

The concept of control of COPD in clinical practice.

The concept of control of COPD in clinical practice.

A cohort of patients not previously published was recruited including 59 patients with mild to moderate COPD according to the GesEPOC classification (BODE or BODEx #4 points) with a mean age of 71 (standard deviation [SD] = 9) years and a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) (%) of 55% (SD = 17%). In the first visit the clinical phenotype, the level of severity, and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score, as measure of impact, were determined. In a follow-up visit 3 months later the CAT score was repeated assessing both the impact as well as the changes observed during this time period (stability) with the aim of identifying the degree of control of COPD.
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9 Lee mas

Racism in the American press and policies

Racism in the American press and policies

the stops have resulted in arrests and approximately 2% in the recovery of weapons.”(2013, p. 1). Not only does this show how futile this program is, but it also demonstrates that it enables unjustified psychological coercion towards innocent and unarmed citizens. People often claim –and politicians largely profit from this assertion– that this practice lowered the number of crimes committed in New York City. While figures illustrate that crime rate in NYC has lowered considerably (New York City Bar Association’s report, 2013, p. 11), the Brennan Center for Justice sustains that “statistically, no relationship between stop-and-frisk and crime seems apparent” (Cullen, J., & Grawert, 2016, p. 2) since the trend continued in the same direction regardless of the decrease in number of stops between 2012 and 2014. Similarly, the effectiveness of this tactic has proven to be almost nonexistent when it comes to gun possession. Only less than 0.02 percent of stops resulted in the recovery of a gun in New York City –known for its highly restrictive firearm policy (New York Civil Liberties Union, 2014). Therefore, there exists no factual basis to a claim that “stop and frisk” is beneficial to society.
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12 Lee mas

THE IDEOLOGICAL PRACTICE OF NATIONALITY

THE IDEOLOGICAL PRACTICE OF NATIONALITY

Thus a similar ideological network of meaning grew and developed among Western states. It supported the notion that state and nation ought to be closely connected and that the nation was one and indivisible; the nation’s center of gravity remained the individual un- der the protection of the state. State bureau- cracies worked from these premises and were able to create meanings of nationality that appeal to most. They also instituted social rituals to maintain these notions alive. Nation building centered upon the practice of recruit- ing individuals into a unifying nation rather than binding people together under the same ethnicity or religious beliefs into different nations. Historically, in non-Western sates divide and conquer was an accepted strategy of nation building. By contrast, in the West unite and conquer became the most common formula. While “the nation” could be defined in different ways by different peoples living under the jurisdiction of the state, different bureaucracies made sure to promote common semantic meanings palatable to all groups, making it possible for individuals to feel con- nected to a larger whole. By late twentieth century, the Western model (the creation of IPNs in which disparate meanings could none- theless operate as unifying conceptualizations of identity) became world standard. Today, a majority of states in the world have developed similar ideologies or nationality and it seems that the Western model has won the day. Many non-western states, however, still re- main only partially successful at imposing en- compassing notions of national identity. All these points beg for some clarification and this takes us to a discussion of the origins and development of IPN.
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17 Lee mas

Lessons for research policy and practice: The case of co enquiry research with rural communities

Lessons for research policy and practice: The case of co enquiry research with rural communities

CBIDSI has provided continuous support to a variety of Tsimané communities over the years. At the outset of the project, the two selected communities for the COMBIOSERVE project had little experience of participatory research. Throughout the project, a collaborative process was established between CBIDSI and UMSS, and an incipient collaboration was established between them and the communities through the establishment of community research teams. Although they had not collaborated prior to the project, CBIDSI and UMSS teams rapidly developed a close collaboration. The community research teams were engaged and willing to work, in spite of their lack of experience, in co-enquiry research. The two institutions are located far apart from each other, and the communities CBIDSI serves are very remote, meaning communication was never easy throughout project implementation. Moreover, given political turmoil in the original Bolivian COMBIOSERVE field site, the Pilón Lajas communities were invited to participate in the project relatively late, in comparison to the other field sites, meaning that the process of developing collaboration started much later.
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21 Lee mas

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