Taking a comprehensive approach to the phenomenon involves understanding that improving attention to the women who work as prostitutes makes it easier for them to access social services and job-placement programmes. It is possible to deal with situations in which women suffer from infringement of their human rights and to help to dignify the social image of sex workers. A global policy must also make it possible to deal with failure to comply with regulations and with the problems of coexistence and safety that may be generated in the city. ABITS must go beyond being a space for coordination focused on social care to become an agency that takes a comprehensive approach to the phenomenon and be the instrument of the plan that allows it to integrate the different areas of the city council that are involved in this matter.
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sen et al. (2001) for references). Among all of these, the WLS method stands out in the water distribution sector for solving both the state estimation (Bargiela, 1984; Powell et al., 1988; Brdys and Ulanicki, 2002; Kang and Lansey, 2009) and parameter estimation problems (Datta and Sridharan, 1994; Piller, 1995; Reddy et al., 1996; Kapelan et al., 2003). With this approach the solution is typically found via the so called Gauss Newton or normal equa- tion method, which fundamentally transforms the unconstrained WLS problem into a linear system of equations that must be solved iteratively. With this approach, weights must be assigned to the different available measurements in order to show how accurate these are. This constitutes a numerical problem when there are hydraulic constraints or high precision measurements, as the weight associated with these must in theory be infinite or very large, respectively. This could be true for null demands at transit nodes, null flows at closed pipes, pumps or valves, etc., which should act as exact measurements for the SE problem. To over- come this problem, these measurements are typically considered to be highly accurate, but alternative constrained WLS methods have been developed in the power supply field (Korres, 2002; Abur and Exp´ osito, 2004; G´ omez-Quiles et al., 2013), which lessen the risk associated with working with ill-conditioned systems. These approaches have proved to be computa- tionally efficient, hence application of similar techniques to water management systems would help to control ill-conditioning, inherent to the matrices involved in the normal equation ap- proach as reported by Bargiela (1984). Additionally, a constrained WLS approach would enable upper and lower bounds for the SE of some variables, such as head levels at tanks, to be set.
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The 2x2 achievement goals in physical education scale (Moreno et al., 2008) was applied. It was composed of 12 items that measured four different aspects: 1- performance-approach (3 items; i.e. item 1: “It is important for me to do it better than other students”) 2- mastery-approach (3 items; i.e. item 6: “It is important for me to understand the subject content as much as possible”), 3- performance-avoidance (3 items; i.e. item 3: “I just want to avoid doing it wrong”), and 4- mastery- avoidance (3 items; i.e. item 8: “I often worry about not being able to learn everything I need”). It was valued on a Likert scale from 0 (strongly disagree) to 10 (strongly agree). Questions were preceded by the following introduction: "In physical education lessons...". A high FC =.92 and VME greater than .50 (58.87%) were obtained. Cronbach Alpha reliability parameter was controlled and
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On the other hand there exist many cases in which it is very difficult or directly impossible to implement human intelligence using KBS 15 . This is mainly the field in which connectionist approximations such as ANNs have been developed. ANNs have been widely utilized and accepted methods for the diagnosis in data intensive domains. They are special kind of machine learning models that mimic how the biological neurons work. Basically they are composed of a set of interconnected nodes. Each connection has a weight which is a measure of the relative importance of this connection. Different models of ANNs are available throughout the literature depending on the architecture that mainly differs on the topology and in the activation functions of the processing elements . ANNs possess some advantages over RBR: they present a complementary approach with respect to the numeric knowledge representation by the network weights, and the adaptive capability of adjusting the weights based on training is widely regarded as learning-like. Although ANNs have been successfully used in many areas of medicine , they also possess some drawbacks. In this respect, structure of ANNs is not transparent, approaching behavior of a black-box that simply maps the input to the output; additionally, often expert knowledge cannot be used in order to initialize net parameters for better initializing and improve convergence.
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25 The DIR (Comprehensive Operation for Reintegrating Women Sex Workers into the Labour Market) and ITI (personal advisory itinerary for professionalising women who have worked in prostitution) projects were reconsidered to create the DIMO (Comprehensive Operation for Improving Employability) programme. That is why no edition of the ITI programme was carried out in 2016 and only the final part of the last edition of the DIR programme, which had started in 2015, was run. The ACCIÓ programme, Comprehensive Interventions Among the Collective of Transsexual People Linked to Prostitution in Barcelona, was not renewed in 2016, as a study had been commissioned, entitled “Proposed initiatives aimed at the collective of trans women performing sex work (DTTS) in Barcelona”, at Spora Consultoria Social and the University of Vic. Certain initiatives that had to be carried out in the future were given priority based on the conclusions of this study.
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The propose of this study was analyze the students’ performance in small handball teaching-unit based on comprehensive game approaches. This study was a research action in the school year 2016/2017. Sixteen students from 6th grade were involved. We designed a specific teaching unit based on ideas of Estriga e Moreira (2014) which included a seven teaching sessions, of 90 min each. Data collection included the video evaluations in pre and post test during 10 minutes in Gr+3vs3+Gr game form. To analyze the individual and collective behavior in attack, we used two techniques: i) a notational analysis to characterize the offensive sequences and (ii) a tactical evaluation tool focusing on individual offensive technical-tactical behaviors (decision, execution and effectiveness). The non-parametric Wilcoxon's tests revealed a significant increase on individual game performance: decision-making without the ball, motor execution and efficacy (p≤0.05). In the simple collective indicators of the offensive sequences the non-parametric Wilcoxon's tests not revealed a statistically differences on: time of attack, total number with ball actions and number of players involved in the attack (p> 0.05). The results support the possibility of increase offensive performance even in small Handball teaching units.
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The revised case definition for the chronic fatigue syn- drome is modeled on the 1988 chronic fatigue syndrome working case definition (1). The purpose of our revisions was to address some of the criticisms (25) of that case definition and to facilitate a more systematic collection of data internationally. We dropped all physical signs from our inclusion criteria because we agreed that their pres- ence had been unreliably documented in past studies. The required number of symptoms was decreased from 8 to 4 and the list of symptoms was decreased from 11 to 8 because we agreed that multiple symptom criteria had increased the restrictiveness of the 1988 chronic fatigue syndrome working case definition without increasing the homogeneity of cases (Reyes M, et al. Unpublished data). Whether to retain any symptom criteria other than chronic fatigue generated the most disagreement among the authors. Disagreement occurred between those who favored a more restrictive approach (using several symp- tom criteria), as was done in the 1988 chronic fatigue syndrome working case definition, and those who favored a broader definition of chronic fatigue syndrome (using fewer symptom criteria) as was done in the Australian (3) and British (4) chronic fatigue syndrome case definitions. Those favoring multiple symptoms argued that use of multiple symptoms best reflected the empiric clinical sense of the chronic fatigue syndrome as a distinct entity. Others argued that no symptoms have been shown to be specific for the chronic fatigue syndrome (28) and that some studies suggest that a requirement for multiple symptoms biases the selection of cases toward those with psychiatric disorders (28, 44). Disagreement over this par- ticular issue underscores the need to establish specific features of the chronic fatigue syndrome and the validity of any chronic fatigue syndrome case definition.
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which also contains the Horsehead Nebula (Barnard 33). NGC 2023, NGC 2024, Barnard 33 and the surroundings of the O-type supergiant star ζ Ori constitute the south part of the Orion B molecular complex. In this work, we present a comprehensive study of X-ray emitters in the region of NGC 2023 and its surroundings. We combine optical and infrared data to determine physical properties (mass, temperature, luminosity and the presence of accretion discs) of the stars detected in an XMM–Newton observation. This study has allowed us to analyse spectral energy distribution of these stars for the first time and determine their evolutionary stage. Properties of the X-ray emitting plasma of these stars are compared to those found in other nearby star-forming regions. The results indicate that the stars that are being formed in this region have characteristics, in terms of physical properties and luminosity function, similar to those found in the Taurus–Auriga molecular complex.
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However, these two approaches (the graphics-to-music and the pre-generated sequences) only scratch the surface of the technical possibilities to generate music with L-systems; many other mappings are possible (Worth & Stepney, 2005). In some cases, these mappings can become exceedingly complex, such as the implementation of Manousakis (2006), whose L-systems drove a multidimensional automata whose trajectory was then interpreted as music. While most composers and researchers experimented with context-free L-systems, McCormack (1996, 2003a) used context-sensitive, parametric L-systems to increase the expressiveness of the compositions and enable the implementation of polyphony. He also used a rich and comprehensive mapping from the symbol sequence to the musical score, interpreting the symbols in the sequence as instructions to modulate the parameters of an automata driving a MIDI synthesizer, though the grammars were ultimately specified by hand. DuBois (2003) used a simpler but also rich approach, mapping the symbols to elemental musical objects (as notes or instruments) or simple transformations applied to them, using brackets to encode polyphony. He also used L-systems to drive real-time synthetic accompaniment, by extracting features from the audio signal of a performer (as the pitch and loudness of the notes), encoding them as symbols to be expanded by L-system rules, and using the resulting symbol sequences to drive MIDI synthesizers. In spite of these developments, new mappings based on the images rendered by the turtle method are still investigated (Wilson, 2009).
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Abstract The optical tracking information in manufac- turing can provide valuable support and time saving for autonomous operations, but ill environment conditions pre- vent a better performance of vision systems. In this work, a method for estimating object position under semi-controlled environment where lighting conditions change dynamically is proposed. This method incorporates regression analysis that combines light measurement and an augmented real- ity (AR) system. Augmented reality (AR) combines virtual objects with real environment. Furthermore, every AR appli- cation uses a video camera to capture an image including a marker in order to place a virtual object, which gives user an enriched environment. Using a tracking system to estimate the marker’s position with respect to the camera coordinate frame is needed to positioning a virtual object. Most research studies on tracking system for AR are under controlled envi- ronment. The problem is that tracking systems for markers are sensitive to variations in lighting conditions in the real environment. To solve this problem, a method is proposed to better estimate a marker position based on regression analy- sis, where lighting conditions are taken into account. Our approach improves the accuracy of the marker position esti- mation under different lighting conditions. The experimental data obtained under a laboratory context with changes on light condition are fitted with this approach with an accuracy of 99 %.
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setting up the complaint management system enhances firm performance (Homburg & Fürst, 2005). The mechanistic approach reflects the notion that establishing protocols and guidelines in order to design and organize tasks can help employees act in a more disciplined manner and can improve their attention towards the activities they must engage in on a daily basis. Particularly, there are three types of guidelines in the proposed model: procedural, behavioural and outcome guidelines. Procedural guidelines deal with the existence of formal and consistent organizational procedures for registering, processing and resolving customer complaints (Homburg & Fürst, 2005). These guidelines range from making available to the customer the various services and channels for receiving the complaint to recording and processing customer complaints and by making customer involvement in processing and dealing with the complaint possible. The present proposal considers four variables as constituents of procedural guidelines: facilitation (Goodwin & Ross, 1992; Blodgett, Hill & Tax, 1997; Davidow, 2003), processing protocol (Conlon & Murray, 1996; Smith et al., 1999; Davidow, 2000), customer participation in the process (Lind & Tyler, 1988; Saxby et al., 2000; Homburg et al., 2010) and in the resolution (Heide & John, 1992; Tax et al., 1998; Smith et al., 1999). As for behavioural guidelines, these norms guide employee behaviour in their interactions with complainants so as to ensure that appropriate personal treatment and relevant information concerning the complaint in question are provided. Based on this definition, two dimensions are considered within this type of norm: interpersonal treatment of the customer (Estelami, 2000; McCollough, Berry & Yadav, 2000; Davidow, 2003) and the level of explanation the company gives the customer (Greenberg, 1990; Conlon & Murray, 1996; Davidow, 2003). Outcome guidelines refer to both the financial or non- financial compensation that the company might award the customer for the damage caused. The explanation given to customers –defined as a behavioural norm–, often proves insufficient to maintain and regain their trust. In this research context, outcome guidelines are defined by two dimensions: apology (Hoffman, Kelley & Rotalsky, 1995; Webster & Sundaram, 1998; Smith et al., 1999) and redress (Hoffman et al., 1995; Davidow, 2003; Kwon & Jang, 2012).
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We searched literature on epilepsy in the Arab world, published in both English and French. These were obtained via Google and PubMed, using speciﬁc keywords and their combinations: epilep- sy, convulsive disorders, seizure disorder, Arab, epilepsie, crise e´pileptique, crise convulsive, Arabe, and the name of individual countries. The search was conducted principally on Google, followed by a similar search on PubMed. No restrictions were made pertaining to the year of publication. On Google, only the ﬁrst ﬁve pages were taken into consideration while on PubMed, all the results were looked at (titles ﬁrst, then abstracts, then full-text) for identifying suitable studies. Our target approach was to identify all formal and informal estimates of the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy by including studies that were population based, and had clearly deﬁned methodological parameters. The bibliography of each of these articles was thoroughly looked into as well.
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In addition, we are faced with the problem of which con- straints (and on which candidate sections of the Monoceros stream) to include in our modeling. Guided by the goal of finding the largest number of stream portions that may have arisen from a single disruption event, we have used an iterative procedure. Starting with the original stream detections (Newberg et al. 2002; Yanny et al. 2003) and the comprehensive kinematic survey of M stars (Crane et al. 2003) spanning 100 in the sky. Initial mod- eling of these constraints made it clear that other, independently found overdensities are most likely also part of the stream. In particular, the Tri/And stream (Majewski et al. 2004), a more dis- tant metal-poor stellar stream, showed a location in the sky and a radial velocity curve fairly similar to the predictions of our first-iteration model. Therefore, the available data (including radial velocities from Rocha-Pinto et al. 2003) on the Tri /And stream were then included as inputs in a second iteration of our survey of the best-candidate orbit to better constrain its prop- erties and reduce the number of possible scenarios.
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In Ghana, Pathfinder trained local community-based organizations, community health nurses, and outreach providers attached to district hospitals, District Health Management Teams, and community-based radio operators to disseminate clear messages on contra- ception to avoid unwanted pregnancy and the dangers of unsafe abortion. They advertised availability of quality CAC services at 13 district hospitals, highlight- ing the importance of accessing services early and the dangers of abortion-related stigma. To date, nearly 180,000 community members have been reached through health talks, home visits, and community meetings. In addition 4,000 stickers with messages on the dangers of unsafe abortion and the need to seek professional services were distributed to com- mercial drivers among others, and 1,500 polo shirts saying, “Comprehensive Abortion Care Project: I’m an advocate against unsafe abortion. How about you?” were worn by health workers and school health staff.
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The increasing expansion and diversification in the strategies and practices of cybercrime has become a difficult obstacle in order both to understand the extent of embedded risks and to define efficient policies of prevention for corporations, institutions and agencies. The present study represents the most comprehensive review of the origin, typologies and developments of Cybercrime phenomenon over the past decade so far. By means of this detailed study, this paper tackles the issue first describing and discussing former different criteria of classification in the field and secondly, providing a broad list of definitions and an analysis of the cybercrime practices. A conceptual taxonomy of cybercrime is introduced and described. The proposal of a classification criterion is used in conjunction with a cybercrime hierarchy derived from the degrees and scale of vulnerability and targets.
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functional approach based on trustworthiness in order to enhance security in on-line col- laborative learning activities. Trustworthiness is closely related to interactions between agents, thus trustworthiness approaches are suitable for modelling and measuring col- laborative learning interactions, in terms of trustworthiness factors, rules and features. The research methodological approach of this thesis involves building, experimenting and validating on a comprehensive security methodology offering a guideline for the design and management of collaborative activities based on security properties and trustwor- thiness approaches. Security properties are analysed in the context of collaborative activities by considering specific security requirements for these activities. From this model, secure on-line collaborative activities based on trustworthiness approaches were designed in this thesis in terms of learning components in learning management sys- tems. The design proposed enables e-Learning tutors to discover anomalous students’ behaviour that compromises security in on-line learning activities by trustworthiness assessment and prediction. The detection model is supported by specific methods and techniques, such as peer-to-peer visualization tools as well as prediction based on neural networks. Finally, with the aim to evaluate the design process of on-line collaborative activities based on trustworthiness approaches, a solid plan of pilot experiments was developed in our real context of e-Learning of the Open University of Catalonia which validates the trustworthiness assessment and prediction methodology proposed in this thesis. Based on the results achieved in this thesis, future directions of research are proposed.
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The memory usage of each approach, displayed in Fig. 11, is different due to the nature of each algorithm. The sequential implementation uses relaxed heaps as queue data structure to store the reached nodes. When there are many connections per node in a graph, the space usually needed by this queue increases exponentially, making the computation impractical for cases with big sizes and non-low fan-out degree. In comparison, our GPU solution only has three additional vectors, in addition to the data structures to store the graph, and they do not increase their space along the execution (see Sect. 3.2), leading to a consumption of up to 11.25 × less memory space (kronecker g500- logn21 graph).
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In this paper, we present an analysis of CPP that intends to provide an insight into its meaning and relation with perturbation parameters that on the one hand helps to interpret previous find- ings mostly reported from clinical studies and, on the other hand, complements previous studies, notably those published by Mur- phy , Alpan et al.  and Samlan and Story [31 ]. To carry out this analysis, we adopt a parametric approach in which we model voice production using the traditional source-filter model  so as to infer the meaning of the log-linear regression involved in the computation of CPP and we model the first cepstral peak (first rah- monic) as a Gaussian pulse in order to derive its meaning in spectral domain. Later, we use this combined approach to deduce the effect of signal windowing and sampling on the value of CPP and also to analytically seek for a relation between CPP and perturbation parameters such as shimmer, jitter and harmonics-to-noise ratio.
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6- The results of educational training Given the results of learning, it shall be noticed that parents are completely related to the comprehensive development of the person. The students learn the multi-dimensional knowledge, acquire public cognitive skills and develop a creative attitude towards their future professional activity. Meanwhile, achieving the scientific knowledge has been enriched with moral content. Learning means the depth of humanity, obtained in all diversities of integrated personality of student. Therefore, educational training not only includes the students of university, attracting knowledge about nature and society and behavior norms, but also there is a need for a personal attitude towards ideological and moral concepts. Based on this system, a system of attitudes which motivates the behavior principles, is created. This goals can be obtained by the interaction of all components of educational training: goals, content, methods and forms of organizing
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