We used the ConditionedPlacePreference (CPP) paradigm in PTN genetically deficient (PTN-/-) and wild type (WT) mice to assess the rewarding effects of morphine in absence of endogenous PTN. Secondly, to study if PTN may be involved in morphine physical dependence, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome was induced in PTN- /- and WT morphine dependent mice. Although the increase in the time spent in the morphine-paired compartment after conditioning tended to be more pronounced in PTN-/- mice, statistical significance was not achieved. The data suggest that PTN does not exert an important role in morphine reward. However, our results clearly indicate that PTN-/- mice develop a more severe withdrawal syndrome than WT mice, characterized as a significant increase in the time standing and in the total incidences of forepaw licking, forepaw tremors, wet dog shake and writhing. The data presented here suggest that PTN is a novel genetic factor that plays a role in morphine withdrawal syndrome.
Researches suggest that physical activity is effective to prevent or treat stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. Both, natural and drugs rewards is processed by the mesolimbic dopamine system; and also this is implicated to reward- related behavioral disorders. Studies supports the hypothesis that physical activity act as powerful natural stimulus of the mesolimbic system, using the conditionedplacepreference (CPP) paradigm with cues associates to voluntary exercise on the running wheel. On the other hand, several studies had reported that insulin can modulated aspects related to memory and learning, which are involved in reward-related behaviors, however, further data are necessary to understand these mechanisms. In addition, an important mediator of insulin/IGF1 (insulin- like growth factor-1) signaling is ERK (extracellular signal–regulated kinases). Evidence supports its implication in learning and memory, and is expressed in the NAcc and activated during exposure to natural and drugs rewards. Our hypothesis is that if insulin signaling can modulate preference to drugs via its effect on dopaminergic transmission in the mesolimbic system, it could similarly modulate preference to the context paired with voluntary exercise. In order to set up the behavior paradigm to study insulin/IGF1 signaling effect in preference for a rewarding stimulus such as exercise, male Wistar rats intraventricular insulin injections treated were used to study the rewarding effects on CPP paired to voluntary wheel running. pERK, IRS2, and IRS1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. We found that intraventricular insulin injection showed no significant differences on conditionedplacepreference using exercise as a reward stimulus. pERK phosphorylation increases in specific brain regions of the insulin injected rats. IRS1 and IRS2 expression displays a different pattern in prefrontal cortex nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. We suggest that the responses of animals in a CPP paradigm can be improved by insulin, due to insulin signaling into the reward areas. Data of immunohistochemical analysis support other studies that reported role of insulin into VTA neurons. Nevertheless, are needed additional research focus on the effects of insulin injections into mesolimbic regions as NAcc or VTA to understand what it is the role of insulin modulating reward-related behaviors.
In recent years, the place conditioning procedure has been increasingly used to study the relapse into drug seek- ing behaviors (e.g., Mueller and Stewart 2000; Parker and McDonald 2000; Mueller et al. 2002; Szumlinski et al. 2002; Sanchez et al. 2003). After the establishment of a reliable conditionedplacepreference for the drug-paired compartment, this preference is gradually extinguished by repeated expositions of the animals to the drug-paired com- partment in a drug-free state. At the end of the extinction procedure, different factors, such as priming drug injec- tions or acute stress may be tested to investigate whether they are able to reinstate a significant conditionedplacepreference. However, in spite of the growing use of the place conditioning procedure to study drug relapse, the retention course of drug-induced place preferences has not been thoroughly investigated and the factors affecting the maintenance and decline of such CPP have not been sys- tematically characterized. Several studies have shown that drug-induced CPP is maintained over time, up to 12 weeks for morphine (Mueller et al. 2002). Amphetamine-induced CPP has been shown to persist 1 week after the last con- ditioning trial in rats (Schroeder and Packard 2003). Nic- otine-induced stimulus preference is still present 2 weeks after the last conditioning session (Fudala and Iwamoto 1986), while a significant preference for a place that had been associated with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol was ob- served 5 days after conditioning (Lepore et al. 1995). Con- ditioned place aversions have also been shown to persist over long periods of time. For example, naloxone-induced conditionedplace aversion was still observed 1 month after the last conditioning session (Mucha and Iversen 1984). Regarding cocaine, significant CPPs were observed after 4 and 6 weeks in rats (Nomikos and Spyraki 1988; Mueller and Stewart 2000) and 4 weeks in mice (Zhang et al. 2002). Although it has been shown that the CPP for various drugs is a long lasting phenomenon, very few studies have in- vestigated the duration of its persistence until complete disappearance. Despite their potential relevance for the understanding of addiction maintenance, the factors that control CPP persistence are also mostly undefined. Zhang and co-workers (2002) reported the influence of mice strains with C57BL/6J mice showing a greater persistence of co- caine-induced CPP than 129/J mice. According to learning theories, procedural factors, such as the intensity of an unconditioned stimulus and the number of learning trials, have a major impact on learning retention (Spear 1978; Anderson 2000). For instance, in a passive avoidance test, the magnitude of the foot shock used in learning trials de- termines the retention of an avoidance behavior (Bucherelli
The degree of sensory preference and acceptance of two typical Colombian sweet milk products (Arequipe and Manjar Blanco) were evaluated. Two kinds of tests - preference and acceptance - (Seven-point Hedonic Test) were applied. The judging panel consisted of 76 untrained consumers from Cali. The analyses of the data were done using two statistical tests (Friedman and Wilcoxon). We found that flavor was the sensory parameter that obtained the highest ranking and consumers preferred Arequipe more than Manjar Blanco.
In this paper we characterize the reconstruction of a fuzzy set from its subsets by means of Lukasiewicz triplets. This result allows us to introduce a new definition of fuzzy strict preference, which is also satisfied in the crisp framework. The usual definitions of fuzzy indifference and fuzzy incomparability together with this one enable to construct and to characterize fuzzy preference structures from a reflexive fuzzy binary relation.
The evolutionary roots of aesthetics: an approach-avoidance look at curvature preference adopta un enfocament més constructiu que descriptiu, proposant un mètode d'estudi encarnat, naturalista i evolucionista de l'estètica. Aquí s'introdueix el concepte de primitiu estètic com la unitat sensorial menor amb contingut informatiu significatiu; i, a manera d'exemple, es planteja un programa d'estudi pràctic centrat en l'estudi de la curvatura. Les connotacions epistemològiques de la curvatura són explorades a Preference for curvature: A historical and conceptual framework, a la qual s’informa de com l'evidència empírica sembla indicar una tendència generalitzada en l'ésser humà a preferir les formes corbes; així com a relacionar sensacions d'estrès i amenaça amb les formes anguloses. No obstant això, la heterodòxia dels enfocaments, l'absència de rèpliques experimentals i d'una definició unívoca de curvatura exigeixen precaució a l'hora d'interpretar l'evidència acumulada. A Preference for curved Contours across cultures i Common Visual Preference for Curved Contours in Humans and Great Apes presentem les nostres propis troballes fruit de la investigació experimental; duta a terme tant amb poblacions humanes de diferents cultures, com amb grups captius de ximpanzés i goril·les. En tots els casos, observem una tendència significativa a preferir els contorns corbs enfront dels angulosos; la qual cosa resulta coherent amb la literatura prèviament revisada i podria ser indici que la curvatura actua com a primitiu estètic per als primats o, almenys, a la majoria dels membres de la família Hominidae.
And if they appreciate it, people may support efforts to conserve or protect the place concerned. As Freeman Tilden described it, interpretation not only tells people what is interesting about a place, it aims to convince people of its value, and encourage them to want to conserve it. Some have seen this as an essential part of all interpretation. It is important when you are dealing with sensitive or threatened areas such as nature reserves. In other cases you may not want to directly encourage a ‘conservation ethic’ – interpretation in an historic town centre, for example, does not usually include anything about how visitors can care for the buildings. But behind all interpretation there is still a sense that what is being interpreted is valuable.
The ﬁrst row shows the distances between these two preference-approvals with respect to three diﬀerent values of λ. Consensus levels are illustrated in the second row. Note that when the size of the proﬁle is doubled by cloning the preferences of each agent, as it is shown in the third row, consensus levels are increased for each values of λ. According to the results in table, we see that as the number of replications are increased the level of consensus also increases as it might be expected. However, our results also show that there exists a limit for increasing the homogeneity level in a group of individuals by simply replicating their preferences.
In an attempt to provide a unified general character- ization of the three patterns, we identified the common traits that are approximately revealed from expert’s de- scriptions (Table 5). Roughly speaking, Pattern 1 can be assimilated to weak PNNs and Pattern 3 to strong PNNs, while Pattern 2 exhibits more intermediate, less clear-cut appearance, even though a distinctive round shape is still identified. It is worth noticing that Ex- pert 3 associated the Pattern 3 directly with animals in the conditioned group. Interestingly, the 9 out of 10 im- ages selected automatically for this pattern came from mice in the conditioned group, whereas in Patterns 1 and 2, only 3 out of 10 images came from conditioned mice. These observations suggest the proposed descrip- tor has the intended ability of capturing and character- izing neurons with different visual patterns correspond- ing to different PNNs structures.
In this research line we are exploring the possibility of having multiple preference criteria to compare arguments in in Defeasible Argumentation. In this work we are assuming a goal- oriented Argumentative System, to which an application or an agent may seek an answer in response to a query. Thus, based on the current knowledge available, the system will decide whether there exists undefeated support for that query.
On account of its magnitude, but principally on account of its high variability, which is due to the uncertain character of expectations about future events, this latter source of demand played a central role in Keynes ’ s writing. It was considered to be the cause of variations in the rate of interest. Indeed, in subsequent years, some authors even identified the notion of liquidity preference with speculative motive, while many others put it at the centre of the intense debates on interest rate after the publication of the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936).
Therefore, the dissertation is divided into three publications: a review, an article about specific aspects of the stimuli, and another article on individual and contextual differences. In the first publication, we review most of the articles from the scientific literature related directly to preference for curvature. We give an historical picture of the study of preference for curvature. We explain the difference between the way in which curved stimuli directly interact with specific activation of the sensorimotor mechanism and appraisal approaches to the explanation of the preference for curvature, including the threatening hypothesis. This dichotomy (sensorimotor mechanism and appraisal approaches) maps directly on the stimulus and goal-driven proposed dichotomy. According to ideomotor theory, sensorimotor mechanisms corresponds to stimulus-driven reaction. Stimulus-driven action facilitation are treated as ideomotor phenomena (Shin, Proctor, & Capaldi, 2010). Goal driven is parallel to appraisal process because appraisal uses information from events in their context, the individual’s concerns, history, and other sensitivities (Moors, Ellsworth, Scherer, & Frijda, 2013, p. 123) which is compatible with goal driven perspective . We discuss evidence for
To study the preference for curvature, I used a 2-alternative forced choice (2AFC) paradigm with a 80ms stimuli presentation time. Based on the literature surveyed above, I predicted that humans would show a preference for curved objects by selecting the curved object above chance levels (50%). One hundred forty four gray-scale photographs of real objects were used -a subset of those used in previous studies (Bar & Neta, 2006, 2007). Each image had a resolution of 340x340 pixels so, when being shown on a 19-inch screen at 1440 x 900px (89.37 PPI), its real size was of 9.66 x 9.66 cm.
selection criteria of mice for immunohistochemical analysis according to maintenance of amphetamine-induced CPP was as follows. Mice that increased their stay in the drug- paired compartment by 15% or more in the testing phase (day 5) compared to the preconditioning phase were considered to be efficiently conditioned by the drug. After the test on day 9 of the CPP procedure, these mice were separated in two different groups per genotype: the ones that did not maintain (NM) drug-induced CPP, whose percentages of stay in the drug-paired compartment were reduced by more than 10% compared to the testing phase (day 5), and the ones that maintained (M) drug-induced CPP, whose percentages of stay in the amphetamine-paired compartment were similar or even greater to those in the testing phase (day 5).
Many people experiment with potentially addictive drugs at least once in their lifetime, but only a small percentage become addicted (Wagner and Anthony 2002; World Health Organization 2010). One of the major challenges in the drug of abuse field is to identify the mechanisms in- volved in the susceptibility of some individuals to make the transition from casual to compulsive drug use. Adolescents are more susceptible to the initiation of drug consumption (Vastola et al. 2002; Adriani et al. 2003; Belluzi et al. 2004; Mathews et al. 2011). In animal models of preference to drugs of abuse, if conditioning is initiated during adoles- cence, a higher and more stable nicotine- conditioned-placepreference (CPP) is established (Vastola et al. 2002; Adriani et al. 2003; Pastor et al. 2011; Natarajan et al. 2011; also see “Materials and Methods”). Previously, we demonstrated that adolescent rats can re-establish nicotine-preference after 12 days of extinction using a single nicotine injection (Pascual et al. 2009). These results suggested that, if nico- tine is administrated during adolescence, a preference could be maintained for long time; however, this was not the case when adult rats were used (Vastola et al. 2002; Belluzzi et al. 2004; Shram et al. 2006; Shearman et al. 2008).
Con la implementación de Smart Place, y llevando a cabo la logística total en la implementación de los tres pilares que tiene como objetivo esta empresa en los proyectos de infraestructura que manejemos, empezando en Bogotá, modernizando las viviendas y edificios, facilitando las actividades del hombre, gracias a la automatización de la iluminación, la temperatura y el circuito de seguridad, con métodos tecnológicos, llevaremos este servicio a todas las regiones del país, clasificando a Colombia en el ranking de los países más desarrollados en invocación y tecnología, beneficiando no solo a una parte pequeña de la población colombiana, sino a una gran parte, garantizando notablemente confort en el hombre, ayudando igualmente a que su relación con la tecnología sea más cercana, sacando el mayor provecho de esto.
Table 6.- Effect sizes of between-group differences found at the dorsal and ventral areas of the granular cell layer when comparing the conditioned to the non-conditioned group. Cohen’s d statistics, with its corresponding standard error (SE) and 96% confidence intervals (CI) are provided. According to Cohen’s own proposal, d values higher than 0.8 (or lower than -0.8) are considered as “large effects”. Cases in which the lower limit of the 95% CI corresponding to positive differences (increases) or the upper limit of the 95% CI corresponding to negative differences (decreases) yielded d values >0.8 or <-0.8 are highlighted.
The neurotrophic factors Midkine (MK) and Pleiotrophin (PTN) have been suggested to modulate drugs of abuse-induced effects. To test this hypothesis, cocaine (10 and 15 mg/kg)-induced conditionedplacepreference (CPP) was rendered in PTN knockout (PTN-/-), MK knockout (MK-/-) and wild type (WT+/+) mice, and then extinguished after repeated saline injections (distributed in 4 extinction sessions). Cocaine induced a similar CPP in all the three genotypes. We found a significantly increased percentage of MK-/- mice that did not extinguish cocaine CPP at the end of the extinction sessions. Particularly, 40% of MK-/- mice did not extinguish cocaine (15 mg/kg)-induced CPP compared to WT+/+ and PTN-/- mice (~ 0 – 6%). Interestingly, we found that a greater magnitude of extinction of CPP after the first extinction session (5 days after last administration of cocaine) correlates with increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the enzyme peroxiredoxin 6 in the dorsal striatum of MK-/- mice. On the other hand, a greater magnitude of CPP extinction correlates with increased tyrosine phosphorylation of aconitase 2 in the prefrontal cortex of WT+/+ mice. In contrast, a lower magnitude of CPP extinction correlates with increased phosphorylation of aconitase 2 in the prefrontal cortex of PTN-/- mice, suggesting that the correlation between the tyrosine phosphorylation levels of aconitase 2 and magnitude of CPP extinction depends on the genotype considered. The data demonstrate that MK is a novel genetic factor that plays a role in the extinction of cocaine-induced CPP by mechanisms that may involve specific phosphorylation of striatal peroxiredoxin 6.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hand and foot preferences, sex and age on motor co- ordination (MC) in children. We evaluated the hand preference (HP) through the Card-reaching task (Carlier et al., 2006, adapted from Bishop et al., 1996) and the Dutch Handedness Questionnaire (Van Strien, 2002). Foot preference (FP) was evaluated inviting the subjects to kicking a ball (Hart & Gabbard, 1996). We applied the Movement Assessment Battery for Children MC test (Henderson & Sugden, 1992) to 319 children (7.96 ± 2.38 y). The results show that right handers have better per- formance on manual dexterity (MD) and ball skills (BS) with their preferred hand (PH). Left-handers perform better with their non-preferred hand (NPH) in MD and have a better static balance (SB) with your non-preferred foot (NPF). Girls had better MD with NPH and better SB with NPF. We observed a better MD performance with PH and NPH, BS with NPH and SB with the PF and NPF in the younger children. PH×Age and Mp×Age×Sex interactions were also verified. It can be concluded that the lat- erality, sex and age have significant effects on children MC.
Geographically targeted advertising and searches can allow businesses to reach their local customers and only pay for relevant clicks on their ads. Google and Yahoo use geolocation to allow advertisers to target ads to specific locations and languages. Advertisers can select the countries or regions and the language(s) for their advertising campaign, so that the ads appear only to users located in those areas with a specific language preference.