Conservation and restoration

Top PDF Conservation and restoration:

Restoration as an element of national planning for wetland conservation and wise use

Restoration as an element of national planning for wetland conservation and wise use

9. REALIZING that through a number of Resolutions, this Conference has adopted guidance for the Contracting Parties on wetland policy formulation (Resolution VII.6), reviewing laws and institutions (Resolution VII.7), involving local communities and indigenous people in wetland management (Resolution VII.8), promoting communication, education and awareness related to wetlands and waterways (Resolution VII.9), integrating wetland conservation and wise use into river basin management (Resolution VII.18), and priorities for wetland inventory (Resolution VII.20), all of which assist with the promotion of wetland restoration in appropriate ways;
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Do Museums Innovate in the Conservation and Restoration of Artwork? Differences between Countries

Do Museums Innovate in the Conservation and Restoration of Artwork? Differences between Countries

The results make it possible to answer to some ques- tions about the restoration and conser vation of ar t- work: the areas in which museums innovate, their hu- man capital, and how this human capital influences innovation. The innovations carried out by the mu- seums responding to the sur vey were mainly in the methods and instruments used to examine and analyse ar t objects, the techniques and procedures used in restoration, the tools or instruments used in restoration, and the display of works in exhibition halls. In addition, the innovation performance of these museums was higher if they had more specialists in the fields of analytical, synthetic and symbolic knowl- edge. The coexistence of the three knowledge bases is an impor tant feature of museums, although the symbolic base predominates. Until now, there had been no study analysing the impor tance of the three knowledge bases for the improvement of innovation performance in this sector. This is one of the main contributions of this paper to academic debate. On the other hand, having human capital allows mu- seums not to depend on other institutions to restore their ar tworks. Never theless, when they need to out- source a restoration, they usually turn to specialist companies.The findings about the impact that human resources have on the innovation performance of
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Restoration of ecosystem services and biodiversity: conflicts and opportunities

Restoration of ecosystem services and biodiversity: conflicts and opportunities

4 The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment [12] and many subsequent publications [14] suggest that biodiversity and provision of ecosystem services are positively related, with the implication that management to enhance one should increase the other. However, analysis of empirical evidence shows that this relationship is complex and not always positive [15,16]. Species richness has been linked positively to a number of ecosystem processes, leading to enhanced provision of ecosystem services [17,18]. On this basis, actions that increase species richness should also benefit services. However, this cannot be considered as a general rule. Most studies of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function consider a limited number of ecological processes that relate almost exclusively to resource utilization [19]. Furthermore, the increase in ecosystem processes often reaches a plateau at moderate species numbers [20]. Species identity effects add an extra level of complexity, especially as the rare species frequently targeted by conservation efforts often have minor effects on ecosystem processes, whilst commoner species can have a dominant role [20,21]. Ecosystem diversity effects on services are even less clear. Work is only beginning to examine how the variation of ecosystems across landscapes affects service delivery [22]. Variation among ecosystems in processes and service provision is not
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Background materials concerning restoration and rehabilitation

Background materials concerning restoration and rehabilitation

objectives should recognize that wetlands perform multiple functions: “Multiple purposes such as conservation of biodiversity, provision of reliable food resources, fresh water supply, purification, flood control and recreation may often increase the sustainability and total benefits of a restoration project.” If a project hopes to promote a return to pre- disturbance conditions, this should be stated as part of the project goals, with more detailed information on exactly what this means incorporated into project objectives. However, it should be noted that not all restoration projects will hope to promote a return to pre-disturbance conditions and that a return to pre-disturbance conditions is not implied by the word “restoration” as used in these Principles and guidelines for wetland restoration.
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The Application of Markov Models in Recovery and Restoration

The Application of Markov Models in Recovery and Restoration

Modelling tools can aid in dealing with the uncertainty inherent in ecological recovery and restoration and in evaluating the success of the efforts (Anand and Desrochers 2004, Kentula 2000). Often, the restoration effort will begin with the removal of some limiting factor (for example, toxic heavy metals, acidic conditions, noxious species) and the initialization of a recovery process on the site with a trajectory headed toward a system of reference (SER 2002). This might occur by liming (Winterhalder 2000), seeding and/or planting (Winterhalder 2000, McLachlan and Bazely 2003), harvesting and thinning (Asefa et al. 2003) or substrate deposition (Weinstein and Weishar 2002). Often these measures will introduce species that are representative of the target system composition. Recovery, however, is a kind of succession process (McIntosh 1980), and thus can be modelled in much the same way. Models of succession, then, are natural candidates for use as predictive tools in recovery and restoration efforts. One such model that has been used in ecology is the Markov model, and this paper focuses on its potential to shed light on the restoration process. Since their introduction by Waggoner and Stephens (1970), Markov models have been widely applied in plant ecology (Horn 1975, Hulst 1979, Binkley 1980, Legg 1980, Culver 1981, Usher 1981, Lippe et al. 1985, McAuliffe 1988, Kenkel 1993, Orlóci et al. 1993, Li 1995, Valverde and Silvertown 1997,
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Design solutions to coastal human wildlife conflicts

Design solutions to coastal human wildlife conflicts

Valdivia is located in the Chilean Winter Rainfall Valdivian Forest Hotspot (Conservation International, www. biodiversityhotspots.org accessed 2010). Valdivia’s port is at the meeting of the rivers Calle-Calle, Valdivia- Cau-Cau and Cruces, about 15 km upriver from the Pacific Ocean. The fish market is located on the river bisecting Valdivia and recently became home to a population of the South American Sea Lion, Otaria flavescens (Osman et al. 2009), which is a ‘ least concern ’ species, but protected in Chile (Red List, www.iucnredlist.org, accessed 2010). The sea lion population in Valdivia is a small non-reproductive population, composed mainly of adult males and juveniles which live on fish refuse from the fishing industry and fish caught in the river as well as in the ocean (Osman et al. 2009). Sea lions can also be found resting in public spaces along the banks of the river. Complaints and fears that the sea lions are potentially dangerous have resulted in some attempts to keep them out of the fish market, where they can be found begging for fish in close proximity to the fishermen (Obreque 2006). The current proposal (Osman et al. 2009) is to augment the number of floating wooden rafts provided for the sea lions in the river. These alternative resting areas, as well as fences intended to keep the sea lions out of the fish market, were designed in collaboration with a construction company (Soco- vesa) and an architect, respectively, considering the substra- tum they prefer and the movement capabilities of sea lions in the case of fences (see Fig. 1; Osman et al. 2009). The goal of both designs was to avoid conflicts with the human popula- tion. Numerous photographs can be found on the internet showing sea lions at the market on both sides of the fences, and at least one guide offers tourists the chance to kiss a sea lion (Lavados 2007). The fish market fences successfully prevent sea lions from climbing them, but their design did not take into account human behavior: fishermen leave open gates in the fences in order to increase the tourist activity and their own business (Osman pers. obs.). Consequently, we characterize the current situation as one of effectively free interaction of sea lions and humans inhabiting the same area. Workshops on conservation design for Chilean industrial design students (Root-Bernstein 2008) suggested that a wide
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Restoration of monuments in Spain. Theory and practice

Restoration of monuments in Spain. Theory and practice

However, it would be in relation to the restoration of San Vicente of Ávila, and the proposal of Vicente Miranda to eliminate south portico, when a debate about the definition of artistic merit and historical value would arise, led by Marín Baldo and Juan Bautista Lázaro. While Marín Baldo was in favour of the unity of style, Juan Bautista Lázaro declared that “the judgment of every restaurateur should be set at the specific point regarding what deserves to be respected, and that everything, absolutely everything is monumental, be it in good or bad taste, provided it is linked with the history and vicissitudes of the building to which it belongs” [8]. That is to say, respect of the concept of documentary value had already begun to take shape.
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Forest carbon sequestration:the impact of forest management

Forest carbon sequestration:the impact of forest management

Human activities and land use have historically affected carbon storage, emissions, and sequestration. For example, U.S. forests were carbon sources from 1700 to 1945. Since then, fire suppression and forest renewal in abandoned farmland have reversed the trend and forests have become carbon sinks (Houghton et al., 1999). Woodbury et al. (2007) found that total U.S. carbon stocks had increased since 1990 and were expected to continue increasing through 2010. In contrast, Pacala et al. (2001) reported a stable carbon sink in the continental U.S. (excluding Alaska), with similar values for 1980-1989 and 1990-1994. China offers another example of how national forest management can alter carbon storage trends. After the social revolution in 1949, the carbon content in living biomass decreased due to human pressure on forest resources. From 1970 to 1998, afforestation and reforestation programs were implemented to increase forest land and, subsequently, stored carbon (Fang et al., 2001). This effort continues and its impact on forest carbon stocks will be relevant in future decades (Zhou et al., 2014). Bellassen and Luyssaert (2014) pointed out how assessments of forests as carbon sinks or sources rely on specific hypotheses about processes, including the carbon-neutral role of mature forests and the life-cycle of wood products. Clarifying the underlying processes involved in forest carbon stocks and cycles will reduce uncertainty and generate more reliable predictions, possibly confirming the persistence of forests as carbon sinks.
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Restoration of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services on Agricultural Land

Restoration of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services on Agricultural Land

Table 1. Statistics, for 20 selected countries that are representative of different economies in the world, on: ecological footprint, percentage of cropland and grassland footprint on ecological footprint, percentage of area of agricultural land, total forest and forest plantations, and their changes, in the last few decades, and Gross Per Capita Domestic Product. Sources: Footprint Network (http://www.footprintnetwork.org/) for ecological footprint data; FAOSTAT 2011 (http://faostat.fao.org) for percentage of area of agricultural land and its change, updated to year 2008; FAO (2011) for percentage of area of total forest and forest plantations in 2010 and their changes as well as for GDP.
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Un primer análisis del estado actual de los estudios de restauración ecológica en México

Un primer análisis del estado actual de los estudios de restauración ecológica en México

33. Benavides Meza, Héctor Mario, Maira Oriana Gazca Guzmán, Stpehanie Fabiola López López, Francisco Camacho Morfín, Diana Young Fernández Grandizo, María del Pilar de la Garza López de Lara, and Felipe Nepamuceno Martínez. 2011. “Growth Variability in Seedlings of Eight Provenances of Abies religiosa (H.B.K.) Schlecht. et Cham., in Nursery Conditions.” Madera y Bosques 17 (3): 83-102. 34. Benítez, G, Miguel Equihua y Ma. Teresa Pulido Salas. 2002. “Diagnóstico de La situación de los

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Page THEMATIC WORK AREA 1: REGIONAL NETWORKING 5 TWA 1: HIGH PRIORITY TASKS

Page THEMATIC WORK AREA 1: REGIONAL NETWORKING 5 TWA 1: HIGH PRIORITY TASKS

1. STRP are working to the principle of trying to simplify the guidance associated with the site selection Criteria, ‘repackaging’ the various existing agreed guidances which have developed separately over time and accordingly have a degree of unnecessary overlap. A further principle being adopted is to ensure that guidances and proposals reflect the very variable extent of data and information on sites available in different countries. The scientific ‘ideal’ may simply be impracticable in some developing countries owing to resource and other constraints. STRP are accordingly exploring hierarchical approach to some aspects of guidance that recognises that some countries are less ‘data-rich’ than others.
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Chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement in QCD at finite temperature

Chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement in QCD at finite temperature

all results in the sequel. An inspection of Eq. (12) shows that disregarding the a 1 ð1260Þ contribution, s 0 ðTÞ would vanish at a lower critical temperature than f ð T Þ (or h qq i ð T Þ ). In fact, making the very rough approximation of neglecting the thermal factor n F ð p ffiffiffi s = 2 T Þ in the second term on the right-hand side of Eq. (12) leads to s 0 ð T Þ ’ 8 2 f 2 ð T Þ ð4 = 3Þ 2 T 2 . This feature remains valid even after including the a 1 ð1260Þ in the FESR, as shown in Fig. 4, corresponding to the solution for s 0 ð T Þ using all three FESR. In any case, this 10% difference is well within the accuracy of the method. The behavior of the width is shown in Fig. 5, and that of the coupling in Fig. 6. The rise FIG. 2. The quark condensate h qqiðTÞ=h qqið0Þ ¼ f 2 ðTÞ=f 2 ð0Þ
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The Policy for the Social Participation in Conservation: Case Study

The Policy for the Social Participation in Conservation: Case Study

The Alto Fragua-Indiwasi National Park has received financial support from international sources, including the “GEF - Biomacizo” project, the Dutch Governments´ Institutional Strengthening Program of the Unit of National Parks and the World Food Program of FAO 121 . Financial resources of the Park for the year 2003 were around US $300.000, a sum significantly superior to that of other Parks. Recently US $ 83.000 were approved by the Fund for Environmental Action 122 to finance a project that will be conducted by the “Association of Indian Reservations Tandachiridu Inganocuna”. The project seeks the promotion of the sustainable use of the natural resources of the area 123 . According to Mr. Marco Antonio Jacanamejoy, Coordinator of their Plan de Vida “…this project is about using the territory to satisfy our needs (medicine, food, etc.) and at the same time conserving its natural resources”. 124
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Conservation incentives and collective choices in cooperative fisheries

Conservation incentives and collective choices in cooperative fisheries

The finding that the sample contains a greater proportion of developed and democratic nations than the world as a whole indicates that it may not accurately represent the population of all the world’s fishery cooperatives. Bias toward cooperatives in developed nations may arise from the greater availability of data and ease of fieldwork in these countries. Works such as Johannes [14] refer to a huge number of cooperatively managed fisheries throughout Oceania, but relatively few sources give empirical data on structure or performance. This suggests that greater representation of developed nations is due to data availability. One factor that may mitigate selection bias is the diversity of research questions that studies of cooperation have sought to address. Relatively few of the studies surveyed in this analysis were created as explicit case study descriptions of cooperatives. Most used cooperatives to study a specific research question, such as the effect of a cooperative on species composition [11] or a fishery’s socioeconomic conditions [33]. Since the studies that populated the database addressed unique research questions, the probability that all were selected due to, for example, common economic or ecological characteristics is reduced. Nevertheless, the sample clearly is not representative of the entire population. It is, however, drawn from a broad range of geographic locations and data sources, and may therefore reasonably represent the diversity of cooperative fisheries.
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Multipurpose use and restoration of wetlands in semiarid Mediterranean catchments degraded by intensive agricultural use = Utilización multipropósito y restauración de humedales en cuencas mediterráneas semiáridas degradadas por el uso agrícola intensivo

Multipurpose use and restoration of wetlands in semiarid Mediterranean catchments degraded by intensive agricultural use = Utilización multipropósito y restauración de humedales en cuencas mediterráneas semiáridas degradadas por el uso agrícola intensivo

Isolation of wetlands (distance to wetlands >1 ha) resulted in a lower number of species and abundance of birds, which agrees with other studies of similar wetlands (Foppen et al., 2000; Paracuellos and Telleria, 2004; Paracuellos, 2006). Isolation is a consequence of the patchy distribution of wetlands and generates source-sink dynamics in most of the species of the bird communities (Pulliam and Danielson, 1991; Verboom et al., 2001). Small patches with unstable populations, located far from large wetlands and dependent on them, were less likely to be colonized by dispersal birds. Even so, more empty patches may occur simply because no species has been able to colonize them yet as a consequence of long distances (Foppen et al., 2000; Verboom et al., 2001). Larger wetlands showed lower bird abundance, which disagrees with the results reported by Paracuellos (2006) in similar wetlands in Spain. This can be explained in two different ways: first, observers did not increase their efforts sufficiently in large wetlands and underestimated bird abundance, and second, large wetlands hosted more different habitats, and some of these habitats are unsuitable for some of the species, causing a decrease in total abundance (Nee and Cotgreave, 2002). According to this statement plant heterogeneity should have influence on bird abundance which has not been detected by the MLR (Table 2). This could be due to the reduced number of wetlands with large numbers of different habitats (only Albalatillo and Moncalver) that hinder the potential effect of high plant diversity.
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Climate Change and Restoration of Degraded Land

Climate Change and Restoration of Degraded Land

Rainfall intensity is the most important factor governing soil erosion caused by rain (Zachar 1982). Dry land precipitation is inherently variable in amounts and intensities more humid regions due to the tendency of dry land soils to form impermeable crusts cover or litter. In these cases, soil transport may be an order of magnitude greater per unit momentum of falling raindrops than when the soil surface is well vegetated. The sparser the plant cover, the more vulnerable the topsoil is to dislodgement and crucial role in soil erosion leading to land degradation. An erratic start to the rainy season along with heavy rain will have a greater impact since the seasonal vegetation will not be available to intercept the rainfall or stabilize the soil with its root structure.
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Cultural ”nature” and biological conservation

Cultural ”nature” and biological conservation

agricultural industry has a way to go, there have been attempts to establish exemplar farms, particularly by the County Wildlife Trusts. The aims vary somewhat, but the general idea is to run a farm commercially while increasing the wildlife, partly be making use of all available agri-environ- ment payments, and partly through lateral thinking on behalf of wildlife. The urban equivalents are the many sustainability initiatives that also attend to ordinary people’s experience of the wild at the heart of the city. Often the foci are urban green spaces such as parks, churchyards and riverways. The aim is both to improve their environmental quality for wildlife and to improve access, both physically and psychologically (e.g., by reducing the fear of crime). Brownfield sites, i.e., areas that were once industrial but now abandoned, typically are the target for building regen- eration schemes. However, they can be particularly biodiverse, especially for insects and other invertebrates. They may also be the main places of encounter with nature for groups of children and young people who would otherwise, because of their social disaffection, be turned off by formal, greenspace schemes. This ruderal, irrepressible nature that is always finding niches between the paving slabs of modern life, also provides for the majority of people today the closest and most intimate encounter with nature as companion (nature as the one we ‘share bread with’). This nature in our midst needs to be affirmed alongside the special nature that can only survive in protected areas. Fortunately, urban ecology of this sort is not a totally neglected discipline.
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Ramsar COP9 DOC. 11 Regional overview of the implementation of the Convention and its Strategic Plan 2003-2005 in Europe

Ramsar COP9 DOC. 11 Regional overview of the implementation of the Convention and its Strategic Plan 2003-2005 in Europe

32. A substantial and continuing challenge is the timely update of the Ramsar Information Sheets (RIS) and the submission of maps, so as to provide up-to-date, publicly available, information on Ramsar sites. Only eight CPs (18%) have submitted all required updates to the Secretariat (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Monaco, United Kingdom [currently under review]). Further updated RISs and maps covering 382 sites (47%) are expected from the other 36 CPs (see the list below). The percentage of outdated information on European Ramsar Sites is much larger than in other regions. This often concerns Wetlands of International Importance designated some considerable time ago. Information on key indicators, in order to be a useful tool for management and monitoring, needs regular updating. The majority of the European CPs have an important task to catch up rapidly now. COP9 DR16 on “The status of sites in the Ramsar List” addresses these issues in detail.
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Ramsar National Report to COP13 Section 1: Institutional Information - COP13NR Pakistan e

Ramsar National Report to COP13 Section 1: Institutional Information - COP13NR Pakistan e

8.5 Has the condition* of wetlands in your country, overall, changed during the last triennium? {1.1.3} Please describe on the sources of the information on which your answer is based in the free- text box below. If there is a difference between inland and coastal wetland situations, please describe. If you are able to, please describe the principal driver(s) of the change(s).

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TRAINING OF EXPERTS FOR ENERGY RETROFIT AT THE FRAUNHOFER CENTRE FOR THE ENERGY SAVING RENOVATION OF OLD BUILDINGS AND THE PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS AT BENEDIKTBEUERN

TRAINING OF EXPERTS FOR ENERGY RETROFIT AT THE FRAUNHOFER CENTRE FOR THE ENERGY SAVING RENOVATION OF OLD BUILDINGS AND THE PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS AT BENEDIKTBEUERN

The general criteria for the “Energy Consultants for Historic Buildings” have already been established by VdL and WTA between 2010 and 2011. The first curriculum for a training course was available in 2011. At the moment there are 14 professional training institutions that are offering courses for energy consultants for historic and traditional buildings. Today more than 850 “Energy Consultants for Historic Buildings” are listed in Germany in an online list (http://www.energieberater-denkmal.de). The integration of these specialists for all relevant restoration works in historic buildings is strongly recommended by the State Heritage Authorities. This way, specialized counselling is now available for communities and heritage building owners. 4. REFERENCES
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