Each discipline is determined by its subject matter, and so it happens with Literary Animal Studies (LAS). LAS is the result of the intersection between animal studies and literary studies. Surely animals have traditionally occupied a prominent role in literature. In fact, it could even be argued that the text is as natural a habitat for the animal as are prairies, forests, and jungles. However, only recently has the text become a space where the animal is as valid an interlocutor as the human. This shift, known as the “animal turn” (DeKoven 367-8; Weil “A Report” 10), is part of the ripple effect derived from consideration of oppressed groups like women and peoples of color. The cultural and social changes of the late 1960s launched a disciplinary transformation that made literary studies open up to new perspectives. This meant that minority groups that had been obliterated for a long time became the focus of attention of scholars who tried to see the world through their eyes. Obviously, the most helpful way of tracing what their life experience was really like came from writers who belonged to these oppressed sectors. But what happened with the animals? They faced a paradox of great ironic proportions. They already inhabited literature in great numbers, but had no voice of their own and would never have it. They were only heard through the voices lent to them by literary authors and this involved the risk of losing veracity. However, today critics look at animal representations in literature and ask themselves questions about the role animals play in a certain narrative, or what they tell us about who we are as humans. Critics even try to see the world through the animal’s eyes.
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If Hildegard undertook these economic confrontations with her superiors, Josefina Molina in En el umbral de la hoguera shows a similar and assertive characterisation of Teresa of Ávila. The Spanish nun from the Inquisitorial time set out burdensome expeditions across gorges and ridges in search for the most appropriate location for new convents that most of the times were founded in an illegal way at night. Molina’s work is centred on the foundations of convents. Prosecuted by their superiors who saw how this rebellious woman managed to do her will, the novel explores this side of her life. Ohanneson and Molina write about the real enterprises these nuns handled and is well known and accepted that Hildegard bound herself to those commitments and that Teresa looked forward to founding houses where the nuns of her congregation could live plentiful lives. Both writers offer a mimetic representation of what the existences of these women must have been; in this sense their works are realistic, but with their contemporary commitment and authorship, they show that these nuns could be considered early feminists since the speaking characters appear as disobedient, assertive and strong willed when facing the hierarchical authority and that the negotiation of the space is one of their mainstays in the convent life.
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One of the best examples of the Iliad‘s impressive impact on later literature is the novel here analysed, Madeline Miller‘s The song of Achilles. She is very well acquainted with ancient Greek mythology and literature and that is seen in her novel. Furthermore, as we have explained, she reelaborates and makes up not only the events of the Iliad but also what happens before Achilles and Agamemnon‘s confrontation and the episodes after Hector‘s death –the beginning and ending of the Iliad respectively. To describe these episodes she uses her knowledge in the tradition of ancient Greek mythography (the representation of myths in art and literature) in general and of the Trojan legends in particular. One example of this is Achilles‘ education with the centaur Chiron. Madeline Miller probably used ancient sources like the Argonautica, by Valerius Flaccus. Also, it is clear she has studied plenty of other myths apart from the myth of Troy since she mentions other heroes, e.g. when in chapter 5 Patroclus describes Achilles‘ divine heritage: ―Divine blood flows differently in each god-born child. Orpheus‘ voice made the trees weep, Heracles could kill a man by clapping him on the back. Achilles‘ miracle was his speed.‖ [Miller 2012: 42]
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With the global capitalist system in disarray and rolling financial crises mak- ing daily headlines during the past several years, it is perhaps a good time to revisit an alternative view of economics to be found in ecofeminist analysis: the subsistence perspective. I find this particular type of ecofeminism par- ticularly relevant for challenging violent and far reaching global economic and ecological manipulations, which aligns it with the global environmental justice movement, and to consider literary works that reflect both the transna- tional onslaught and responses to it. These contemporary novels come from a variety of national literatures, with distinct styles and settings. Yet, when we consider their themes the in light of environmental justice demands and a subsistence perspective we discover significant commonalities among them.
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The Penelopiad is a gripping version of the Odyssey which is not afraid of dealing with the more controversial aspects of that ancient epic poem, such us the relationship between masters and servants, husbands and wives, parents and children, boyfriends and girlfriends. Despite the fact that Penelope is the narrator, she always tries to take into account other characters‟ views. In addition to this, her maids interrupt her narration in lyric as well as dramatic ways as a chorus who also have a say in the story. Important subjects such as violence, sex, and afterlife are also put on the front ground. Personally, I enjoyed the experience of reading it and studying it in depth. It will be, for sure, one of my recommendations to be read and it is an example of the power that the ancient Greek literature has in order to inspire and illuminate enriching new versions.
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Recent ecocritical research has stated that our “historical place” is defined by the fact that “environmental catastrophe does not lie before us, but we are standing in the midst of it” (Böhme, Die Natur 261; Rigby 98) and we need to find “a way of dwelling actively within [...] crisis” (Buell, From Apocalypse 206). Because there is no evidence of a significant decline in apocalyptic narratives in contemporary literature, Ursula Heise has suggested that literary critics differentiate between apocalyptic and risk scenarios as “different mode[s] of projecting the future” (Heise 141). While in apocalyptic narratives “utter destruction lies ahead but can be averted and replaced by an alternative future society”, in the risk perspective environmental crises are “already underway all around” and can only be mitigated, but “a future without their impact has become impossible to envision” (Heise 142). In other words, risks are omnipresent and can be ignored only at our peril. The challenge is therefore how institutions and practices can be developed to avoid the most dangerous risks and a broader societal crisis. So the risk discourse – which is theoretically grounded in Ulrich Beck’s concept of the ‘risk society’ – is mainly pitched at a pragmatic level, often linked to managerialist, reformist and incrementalist perspectives (Feindt and Oels). On the other hand, the apocalyptic discourse emphasises “the fate of the world as a whole” (Heise 141), draws on holistic or global imaginaries, is often based on moral or religious considerations, and aims at a fundamental transformation of societies, consciousness and ways of life.
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It is common for some literary genres, such as the historical novel, to purposely roam an ethereal figurative frontier, a line that fades away in the hands of readers who agree –consciously– to enter into an interplay of correspondences blurred, to a greater or lesser extent, between reality and fiction. Up to a certain point, therefore, it does not seem necessary to remind ourselves of that which seems obvious when we read works such as The Name of the Rose or Perfume: the distinction between history and literature. However, when we confront geographically distant works of literature, the obviousness is no longer so, and the reminder becomes, perhaps, pertinent and necessary. It is also common that, in this new context, we forget –unconsciously– about the fictionality of the literary work and we read any text coming from, for example China, Japan or Korea, whether it be realist or modernist, traditional or avant-garde, romantic or science fiction, almost as an essay that reflects in a frank, transparent and non- problematic way the “society”, “history” or “culture” of a given country.
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To create her deep map Nickerson forces connections between herself, history and place by tracing coincidences. For instance, she remembers a friend, Wilkie Collins, who shared the name with the author of The Moonstone. Nickerson was left a moonstone necklace by her great-aunt, and she starts identifying with the protagonist of Collin’s novel (192). These “translucent bands of names and connections” allow her to narrate her personal story as well as history (192). Those references attest to a wide general knowledge but they also assume that the reader is able to keep track at the same time. To back up her personal deep map, Nickerson includes a bibliography, definitions of terminology, long indented quotes and references to other literature that result in a well-researched text that is almost academic in its appearance but remains dominated by her poetic choice of words. The deep-map approach allows her to reflect on the Alaskan landscape without claiming to objectively define it. She describes her relationship with nature as fearful, admitting “[she] live[s] in fear of the cold” (14). Nickerson recognises nature mostly as threat; she tells of wildlife attacks and never mentions her admiration for nature. Instead she describes Alaska by employing adjectives that are commonly used to express pain; for instance, “tortured land” or the “assaulted terrain” (32; 40). This personification of landscape allows the author to communicate her anxiety about the powerful natural world and at the same time those phrases have a second meaning that implies environmental and cultural violations by outsiders. Consequently Nickerson makes it clear that the quest to find oneself in Alaska is fruitless as those voyages search “for what exists only in imagination” (175). Visitors search for a construct they created themselves:
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Miraculous stories of Baal Shem T ov and others ha ve been translated from the Yiddish into Ladino. Books on ethics and re ligious tendencies such as the Meam Loez, Kab-Ha-Yashar", Pele Yoetz, Kiryat Hana (commentaries on Ecclesiastes) etc., were also translated. There were many adaptations and translations from profane literature such as ccThe Bread carrien>, ccThe Orphan)), and man� comedies by Moliere, Sardou, Alexandre Dumas fils, and other famous French writers. All of this, says Rabbi Djaen, constituted the spiritual treasures of the Sephardic home.
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It has been a constant throughout decades in Europe the concern for the status of the profession of HR director in organizations and the fight for a place in the structure of making corporate decision. If we look at the literature on professionalism, the subject on status has been widely explored by means of observation of the characteristics which department heads posses. Missing, however, find evidence of a link between the main feature of professional qualifications of HR managers and a higher perception of service they provide. The professionalization should be seen in this area, as an efficient service provider, discovering customer needs and mainly contributing to the achievement of the objectives of the organization. These factors or may not be the result of the individual qualities of the managers involved in the HR department but what is certain is that they involve much more than the mere combination of simple professional attributes (Farndale, 2005).
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An ECMO circuit consists of a pump, membrane oxygenator, controller, cannulas for venous drainage and arterial outflow, a heat exchanger and tubing. Most contemporary ECMO pumps are centrifugal-flow devices that can generate up to 8 Liters/minute of blood flow by adjustment of the controller. Oxygenation and ventilation can be adjusted by changing the fraction of inspired oxygen and by modifying the sweep rate, respectively. The figure depicts veno-arterial (VA) ECMO that is placed centrally, as is often the case when used for post-cardiotomy shock. However, the most common cannulation strategy for VA ECMO is via peripheral vessels (typically the femoral vein and femoral artery). Cannulation can be performed in the operating room, a catheterization laboratory, or even at the patient’s bedside. Implantation does require a drainage (i.e. venous) cannula that is between 21-25 Fr in diameter with lengths up to 60 cm. This can be introduced via either a single- or multi-stage process. The outflow cannula inserted into the arterial system is
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is one of the contemporary figures of the rhacker I say exist nowadays. Alec even signs his texts with the nickname “The Destroyer”. But relatively to the digital hardcore, in the E.P. entitled “Squeeze the Trigger” (1997) Alec says the following: “Ain’t nobody the king of the street. . . It’s all about surviving. . . It’s all about getting yours. . . Slaughter them and kill everything. . . All this stuff was hard to get. . . The ignorance of the trend-chasing dance scene made it impossible. There is no doubt – these tracks are DJ tracks! I heard it a few times on London Pirate Radio. Our Small «german» underground always wanted the english to move in this directions. [because we needed more stuff to play] But they never did. . . And that attitude didn’t stop us. We went even further. It could be seen as the beginning of digital hardcore. Now these ep’s are seen as «obscure» and «the bastard child of drum’n’bass». But who cares what it is? I never do. . . As long as its violent; full of flicked up soul drums and noise. This sequence goes back in time. I think the development of the riot heats style becomes clearer. It’s a story about a very small german underground that doesn’t exist like that anymore. In the early days everyone was involved in the terror bass sounds system. . . Later on it was a small group of DJs who couldn’t accept sucking dick of the british drum’n’bass industry, DJs who wanted their own identity, their own special sound. . . A raw, wild sound and not the trancey, clean «elevator» jungle that fits every shampoo Advert on TV. . . Young people who didn’t want to conform to what the music Few dictated. I remember that in 1993 we once had this discussion about “tether we should call ourselves the underground resistance because we felt that the
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utilization usually means the establishment of a mu- seum in former city palaces or manor-houses. In the- se cases the institution utilizes the frequented, easily accessible site and the existing infrastructure (roads, separated main and service entrance). Th e represen- tative façade arisen from the high social status of the original client serves well the cultural purpose and the public use, and the historic value attributes the new institution with additional meaning. Th e enfi lade of rooms usually meets the demand of exhibition spaces for linear space arrangement, as well as the separated representative and service spaces resulted from the contemporary lifestyle can be easily adapted for the dual (visitor and background) activities of a museum. Th e second most common function among conver- sions (18% of all rehabilitations) is industrial: the cul- tural utilization of these buildings is especially frequent (63%), besides them only offi ces (8%) and housing (7%) is relevant. Th e appreciation of industrial buil- dings is not entirely integrated yet in the mentality of our society; therefore these modernizations usually do not appear in publications. However, their cultu- ral reuse is widely published, in addition to museums there are more and more auditoriums, libraries and multifunctional communal spaces – functions that can utilize the high headroom premises typical for industrial buildings. Th e fl exible subdivision of these halls serves the mixed use, and the intervention is only profi table in cases of well-attended community usage because of the maintenance costs (Fig. 08). Besides the fl exible space arrangement an important aspect is the location since a cultural public building functions
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Crossing the boundaries of imagery could be said to create a blur of chaos, but the artist skilfully manipulates the resultant artwork to create an overwhelming image of harmony within apparent discord. Mehretu´s series of Landscape allegories of which figure 13 is an example, have clear links to the Landscape tradition, where layers of geographical information can be perceived, such as a mountain not dissimilar to the picture of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in figure 7 by Joseph Wright discussed in the first chapter. Liminal zones such as costal cities cutting diagonally from top left to bottom right can be detected, followed by agricultural images in the bottom left hand corner. Explosions, rays of light and ropes seem to be detonated from the centre, and are surrounded in cloud formations and swirling weather patterns reminiscent of Leonardo´s catastrophic depictions of the deluge. Mehretu´s dramatically swooping vectors and mark making resembling graphs and statistical analysis have a baroque complexity imagining the digital dynamics of the contemporary age. Recognisable marks of buildings, maps and coastlines playfully drift in and out of sight like ghosts in a haunted house, as if teasing the viewer. Whilst capturing a the moment of a global crisis, an explosion fills the frame and the moment of recognition is questioned amongst the debris and confusion.
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One of the main characteristics of politics is its close connection with power whose positive effect is to work for the common good. However, there is also the risk of political power being used in a less benevolent way. On the one hand, concrete acts are what makes power visible and tangible, yet on the other hand written and oral speech acts will achieve the same end. Then again, words which are spoken or noted down on paper are only one way to get a message across, since everything that remains unsaid also has considerable effects. Missing or fragmentary information hints at the tendency of public institutions to overlook or neglect certain population groups thus putting the members of those groups at a disadvantage, impeding their participation within society. The subsequent analysis of contemporary Mexican-American prose will examine the interactions and effects of political communication in the USA by studying literary characters and their lives as well as the legislative framework and the arguments of individuals in key positions of society. Examining the literary representation of these interrelated aspects in Ana Castillo’s novel So Far From God will expose the connections between political acts and statements as well as the effects of the corresponding communication or lack thereof on the people concerned.
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I will present two discourses of oppression that capture contemporary Chinese literature from a double flank. On the one hand, not being part of “Western” literature, Chinese literature remains unknown and marginalized outside China and the Chinese speaking communities. On the other hand, due to internal mechanisms of oppression—political, geographical and, as we will discuss, also chronological—there are parts of Chinese literature that remain equally marginalized from the inside of the field. More specifically, in the next sections I will examine some of the challenges that contemporary Chinese literature must face in order to move (at least in a Utopian way) beyond the “minority” label from which it is usually conceived—either implicitly or explicitly—from our Western perspective. Without leaving Utopia, these reflections would like to be translated, in more practical terms, into a non-restrictive inclusion of Chinese literature and culture within academic curricula in disciplines like Comparative Literature, History or Translation Studies, among other sorts of academic, social and institutional recognitions—especially, again, in the Catalan and Spanish context. But above all, these reflections would like to invite comparative scholars who do not specifically deal with “China” or the “East” to reflect on the possibilities they have and their ethical role in confronting or ignoring them.
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SMR: In She Was Foolish? Gift goes to therapy to try to overcome her traumatic past. However, the narrator does not seem very keen on psychological therapy, which is regarded as a typical Western practice. Gift finally finds solace in religion. Yet, you have actually used literature to transform your dramatic experience as an asylum seeker in Ireland into something positive, which might be regarded as a kind of therapy. Do you think that writing can be therapeutic? ID: Writing for some is therapeutic and for me it certainly helped, but writing alone is not enough, because as a Christian one must have deeper faith, trust and belief that the God
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his work aims to analyze recent Brazilian literature on innovation in the search for studies related to the United Nations’ ninth Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure: "build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation’. he theoretical framework on innovation is based on classic authors from the ield such as Freeman (1995); Lundvall (1985, 1996, 2009); Hippel (2007); Nelson and Winter (2002); Srivas and Sutz (2008). he paper is developed as a literature review with a comparative study to analyze data collected from a Brazilian journal on business and innovation: Revista de Administração e Inovação (RAI). Due to the topicality of the subject, the period between 2014 -2015 was chosen for the sample. During this time, 73 articles were published in ive numbers of RAI. Among them, 48 articles were selected according to the established criteria to determine the identiication with the theme of SDG9 Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure. hese 48 articles were stratiied and analyzed. he results indicate the need to stimulate research in the area of innovation in line with SDG9 approach.
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These questions were further illuminated in July 2009, when I taught a graduate seminar on Ecofeminist Literary Criticism at Tamkang University in Taiwan, and we discussed these features of language, literature, and translation. After studying some U.S. literary texts through the lens of foundational readings in ecocriticism and ecofeminism, students brought an ecofeminist literary perspective to bear in exploring intersections of gender, sexuality, class, and environment in their own literature and culture. These students’ final papers were electrifying—analyses ranged from stray dogs, betel nut girls and rural agriculture to popular filmic and literary narratives, cartoons, and Confucianism—but what stood out most powerfully was the analysis of activism. In a U.S. context, ecofeminist criticism has advocated a confrontational approach to injustice, along with an advocacy of individual rights and direct action that is less acceptable in Asian cultures. Emphasizing community over individualism, and tradition over novelty, these Taiwanese graduate students suggested strategies for ecofeminist critique that retrieved more liberatory features from their own highly respected traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. Taken together, their essays articulated foundations for an ecofeminist literary criticism more suited to Taiwanese culture.
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