Meanwhile, one of the most critical aspects that were looking forward to the teacher’s teaching nowadays was technology integration as the school looked as frontiers of any changes in technology trend (Danganan & Gamboa, 2019). Therefore, it’s pivotal for teachers to dominate knowledge of technology besides pedagogy and contents. The powerful predictor of teacher’s potential technology use in a classroom was their capability to use technology (Bilici, Yamak, Kavak, & Guzey, 2013). Hence, when teachers want to integrate technology in their classroom, they also need knowledge in technology and should expert in all knowledge necessary. The interaction of this primary knowledge for technology integration was called Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge or TPACK (Koehler, Mishra, & Cain, 2013). The same situation happened for any subject teachers, including mathematics teachers. Therefore, it was essential to find out mathematics teachers’ knowledge when integrating technology in teaching and learning via this TPACK scale.
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This study can be referred by disparate parties, especially policy practitioners, informing the implementation of vocational education for special needs students and the teachers. The elements of technological pedagogical and content knowledge, teaching style, self-efficacy and competence need to be highlighted in outlining a guide that will serve as reference material for teachers. Also, the findings present powerful implications for teachers who teach special needs students so that a quality education system can be provided to them. Implementation of quality vocational education needs to be practiced in daily teaching so that skillful and knowledgeable special needs students can be produced. The findings also highlight how the teaching profession can be enhanced in a better way. Teachers need to be more responsible towards their duties as an ideal teacher so that their services are optimized by everyone, including special needs students, parents, schools, community and the country.
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A systematic review is conducted using three databases (ERIC, WoS, PsycInfo) (Petticrew & Roberts, 2006). The selected databases include the most high-quality and relevant educa- tional research. The databases were browsed with two combinations of search terms, that is, “pedagogical content knowledge AND second language” and “pedagogical content knowledge AND foreign language”, resulting in a total of 346 search hits. Overlapping search results were excluded. The dataset was further reduced using three criteria: (1) All selected articles reported at least one empirical study. (2) The articles focused on PCK. Studies on related but different concepts, for example, “technological pedagogical content knowledge” (Mishra & Koehler, 2006), and articles only studying PK or CK separately were excluded. (3) All articles focused on FL/L2 teaching. One rater checked whether the abstracts (and if necessary the full texts) met the criteria. In case of doubt, papers were discussed with two other raters until consensus was reached. After applying the criteria only ten articles remained in the sample. Given the small number of articles, the “snowball approach” was used to retrieve additional publications. Reference lists of all potentially relevant articles were inspected on additional relevant articles meeting the inclusion criteria (Doust, Pietrzak, Sanders, & Glasziou, 2005). As a result, seven articles were added to the dataset, resulting in a total of 17 articles.
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The objectives of this study were to a) verify the validity and reliability of a scale to assess skill levels to learn content knowledge (SLACK) and b) develop percentile norms to assess the SLACK of adolescent students. The study included 2270 students (1134 males and 1136 females) rang- ing in age from 10.0 to 18.9 years old. A scale was used to measure the SLACK. The results showed high values of validity (saturation between .32 and .54) and with internal consistency from .83 and .84. The LMS method made it possible to create percentiles p10, p50, and p90 in order to classify the (SLACK) based on category, age, and sex. The results suggested the use and application of the scale with the school education system by using the percentiles to diagnosis, classify, and monitor the skills for learning knowledge validly and reliably.
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En la Figura 1 se observa que el TPCK (o TPACK) es la integración de tres tipos de conocimiento: conocimiento de contenido (Content Knowledge, KC), conocimiento pedagógico (Pedagogical Knowledge, PK) y conocimiento tecnológico (Technological Knowledge, TK). El CK, se refiere al conocimiento del contenido específico a enseñar. El PK es el conocimiento sobre los procesos y métodos de enseñanza y aprendizaje, implica comprender cómo los estudiantes aprenden, habilidades sobre técnicas utilizadas en el aula, planeación y evaluación. El TK es el conocimiento sobre tecnologías estándar y nuevas tecnologías, dado que éstas cambian rápidamente en el tiempo, éste tipo de conocimiento debe ser también cambiante (Mishra & Koehler, 2006).
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final product or “artifact” in mind (i.e., the ground station), the production of which requires specific content knowledge or skills and typically raises one or more problems (i.e., design of antenna, selection of hardware, site location, etc.) which students must solve . PBL methodology is close to the ideas of European Space for Higher Education, an initiative to create a common framework for higher education in Europe with the goals of enhancing the employability and mobility of citizens and to increase the international competitiveness of European higher education .
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The limited research on the integration of learning and technology, the weaknesses in content knowledge, teachers’ teaching skills in high school math concepts, the lack of a model for incorporating technology into the math curriculum, the benefits of student-centered learning, the benefits of using computers in education, the interest and belief of teachers in using computers in the curriculum, and the teaching of computer use in the curriculum for teachers in the field of mathematics are among the various reasons that made it necessary and essential to conduct this research. This research aimed at developing the teachers’ knowledge and beliefs in teaching high school mathematical concepts through integration of learning with math software. Mathematics teachers have different beliefs about the nature of mathematics as a scientific discipline and a school subject. Knowing that at least some teachers have different beliefs about school mathematics and mathematics as a scientific discipline can explain the apparent inconsistencies between teacher’s beliefs about mathematics and its teaching-learning process and, consequently, their impact on teaching.
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Truth is that we still have unparalleled cultural resources in old media format. Billions of books and magazines for example are still readable, even if, in some cases, they are a few centuries old. But their access is most of the time more complicated. In fact, unless you’re close to a copy of these books and magazines, or, even better, in the same physical place (that obviously can instead be on the other side of the world) you can’t read them, you can’t flip them, you can’t search through them. If they are listed by some bibliographical catalogue, you can learn where the closest copy is, although, again, it can be very far away. On the other end, we have global networks, which are constantly indexed, hosting an astounding amount of knowledge and culture that can be searched anytime through private search engines. But as said above, they are mainly fond of the last two decades, and only a small fraction of what’s physically available has been digitized and indexed online. Google has raised the status of the most visited search engine, and so, implicitly, one of the most prominent digital archives of human knowledge produced digitally and publicly available. That’s probably why Google’s founders claimed that the culture preserved in print that is missing online is a problem for humankind. So Nikesh Arora, president of Google’s Global Sales Operations and Business Development, confessed that Google founders’ dream is “the creation of a universal library.” 1 That
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of Budget on Local Government’s Accelerated Financial Performance showed that (Andvig, Jens, Fjeldstad, Amundsen, Sissener & Søreide. 2001). the quality of human resources positively influences local government financial performance; (Bappenas. 2012). regional Management Information System (SIMDA) has a positive effect and significant influence in moderating the impact of human resource quality on the financial performance of local government. Moreover, Yuliani (2014) showed that knowledge of financial management system and procedure had positive and significant impact on local government budget performance. Many researches have investigated only on local government budget performance, thus, this study will focus on the unit of Finance Ministry, especially for goods and capital expenditures, which are categorized as specific commitments (contractual which has many complexities).
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The simplest way to set up multiple content feeds is via file transfer protocol (FTP). A given content provider can have many different FTP feeds, each of which includes a different subset of the company’s content; the ultimate example of this would be a news wire service, which has many different service levels for its subscribers. In this case, information about distribution partners can be linked with rights metadata from product catalog-type systems, which describe different levels of content offerings, to automate the process of putting the appropriate content in various FTP directories for distribution partners to pick up. The ICE protocol 10 provides ways of automating this process and describing rights and licensing terms, though without providing a persistent protection mechanism.
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Globalisation and international mobility in the 21st century has led to the internationalisation of the English language (Crystal, 2003). Research regarding linguistic gains at university levels is however extremely scarce. This study aims to address this gap of knowledge and provide some answers as to how much linguistic gain can be expected after one year of English medium instruction. Two groups of undergraduate students enrolled in different levels of English medium instruction (EMI) were given a pre and post-test over a 1 year period. Results were analysed statistically; significant gains were found only in the semi- immersion group in the grammatical domain; although, there was a trend for improvement as well as higher scores for full immersion students. It might be interpreted that in order for linguistic gains to be seen in adults there needs to be some focus on form and language guidance (Muñoz, 2007; Pérez-Vidal, 2007). Thus, an integrated content and language (ICLHE) approach is more effective than a solely content based EMI model for university level content courses, if linguistic gains are the desired outcomes of the programme.
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communication, a customized form of marketing, which is uncomplicated and follows a commonsense approach to business development. This is how market information is gathered. It derives from the ability to identify and respond to market signals (McGowan and Rocks, 1994). The signals can be in the form of customer requests, supplier suggestions, ideas from work colleagues or threats from competition. Hill iv and McGowan (2002) develop a three level framework of networking competencies in the smaller firm. Level 1 competencies are experience, knowledge, communication, judgment and intuition. Level 2
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Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers JETT, Vol. 10 (1); ISSN: 1989-9572 207 features and factorization . Cognitive models created by the test director were examined by three Mathematics educators who worked with student teachers. This foundation was essential in recognizing student learning and learning among content experts for the development of cognitive models because they identified little knowledge and skills needed to solve problems in mathematics, arranged these skills in each model, and these attributes described cognition in a way that is both structurally clear and meaningful for a large group of educational actors. To facilitate this survey, content specialists from Mathematics Program provided evidence of a study and a description of the Diagnostic Mathematics project . The initial created by the test director was evaluated and modified. The first key change was the introduction and development of the terms "knowledge" and "skill" by content specialists. These statements were later used by content specialists to create small cognitive skills, which ultimately included cognitive skills. Subsequently, the wording of the terms of knowledge and skills was revised, so the small scale remained constant in all areas of content and the terms were educationally relevant for teachers. Similarly, the cognitive model includes all diagnostic skills sorted in four areas of content at high school level. Cognitive Models for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment (CDA) have at least four descriptive characteristics.
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As it was described, KSM conceives the final application as a modular architecture made of a structured collection of building blocks. At the implementation level, each elementary block is a reusable software module programmed with an appropriate language and a particular technique (knowledge-based or conventional). Using KSM, a developer can duplicate, adapt and assemble the different software components following a high level knowledge model which offers a global view of the architecture. The direct advantages of the use of KSM are: (1) it is easier to design and to develop large and complex knowledge based systems with different symbolic representations, (2) the final application is open to be accessed by the end- user in a structured way, (3) the modular nature of the architecture allows the system to be more flexible to accept changes, and it is also useful for production planning (i.e. it is possible to define an implementation plan according to the structural constraints of the model), and for budgeting (the project is decomposed in understandable components where it is possible to make better prediction of time and costs). The KSM software environment provides the following facilities:
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But how can this language visibility be done in practice? To start with, language objectives in a lesson or didactic unit must be made visible and explicit by teachers as referring to both the language demands of the curriculum and those of the students (Gibbons, 2002) as was pointed out in the previous section. To do so, the teachers themselves need, on the one hand, to consider language as an essential step in the planning of the lesson, and raise awareness on the language that students will need by taking into account that language functions vary from one register to another. On the other hand, they should reflect on the level of illiteracy that students show in the foreign language and plan accordingly. The biggest challenge, however, is to make teachers aware of the importance of language and literacy in their subject (Morton, 2016) so that the curriculum is not as demanding for them to devote some time and effort to deal with language issues (Airey, 2013). It might also be the case that teachers find it difficult to identify language objectives (Llinares & Whittaker, 2006, p. 28) for a variety of reasons. First, maybe because content teachers often confuse language objectives with language activities and thus, need to work further on the first, and to consider how specific they wish them to be (Baecher, Funsworth & Ediger, 2014, p. 131). Introducing language objectives in the form of functions, grammatical structures, micro-skills, specific vocabulary and the associated learning strategies in the CLIL class results in a new form of language interaction or discourse. It presents distinguishing features compared to other forms of discourse in Second Language Acquisition, and, consequently, it requires several strategies by content teachers, such as the conversion of an ideational text into a didactic one to name just a few (Flowerdew & Peacock, 2001). Second, these language objectives might be blurred because there are few easily available frameworks for the integration of content and language (Morton, 2016). Finally, it might happen, as stressed above, that content teachers do not see themselves as language teachers and therefore, they do not consider they should be made responsible for language-related aspects and deal with students’ use of the language (Airey, 2012). In fact, some of them also point out that they feel they might not be prepared to deal with language in content lessons as they can make occasional mistakes themselves.
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individual practices as a means to enrich their teaching repertoire. Sharing these experiences and similar concerns fostered a desire to keep on inquiring about their day-to-day work. It also fostered an attitude of openness to learn from others in an atmosphere of trust and belonging. This finding has important implications. First, it shows the importance of creating academic spaces for teachers to interact and construct new understandings together. This goes along the precepts of social constructivism that promotes the idea that through social interaction individuals can learn and re-construct knowledge together (Ngcoza &Southwood, 2015; Adams, 2006; Vygotsky, 1978). Second, this finding also strengthens the idea that professional communities of teachers are alternatives for professional development. To this respect, Aldana and Cárdenas (2011) highlighted that belonging to a professional community is a key element to foster reflection and dialogue among peers to allow constant professional growth. If schools in Colombia aim at implementing EFL and CLIL methodologies, they need to provide the spaces for teachers to share and listen to colleagues and to find solutions together for their concerns. This also implies that schools’ administration must open possibilities for teachers to hold
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ABSTRACT The assessment of the level of tactical athlete's performance in competitions, during the training pro- cess, youth training or the sport performance allows the improvement of the teaching-learning process in team sports. Therefore this study reports the use of the content validity method with the aim of evaluating actions to compose a sporting orientation test. A panel of judges evaluated the actions re- garding the following criteria: clarity of language, practical relevance and item representativeness. The theoretical validation aimed to establish items to create tactical procedure knowledge test to assess children and youth decision-making level in team sports played with hands and/or feet. The results showed how sports actions can become validate as items. The procedure was effective to outline items occurrence as part of empirical validation test approving 16 items of 18 actions with coefficient higher than 0.82. Thus, the study shows that the technical-tactical actions validated by content validity meth- od assess procedural tactical knowledge, which as a test will allow the processes of teaching and learn- ing of tactical ability of sport performance.
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As the end of the year approaches, it is time for students to start reviewing their work and begin studying for examinations. Going through notes written in haste, is not always the most effective way of reviewing course content, but if all the lectures from the whole year is accessible, the student actually has the option of “attending” each and every class again. This not only renews the knowledge gained in class, but if there are still areas that the student finds unclear, he/she now has the option of reviewing the lecture a number of times, or even discussing the problem with the lecturer.
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With the 4C’s teaching framework defined in CLIL methodology, where the learner must use a different language to acquire knowledge, comes an adjustment of the traditional process of language teaching/learning. The so called “language of instruction” here must not only be considered a tool but an important element of the CLIL process; even though language may not be the designated subject in the classroom, there are language related goals apart from the ones linked to the content subject that must be taken into consideration. Therefore, applying such methodological approach marks a shift in emphasis from language learning based on linguistic form and grammatical progression to a more ‘language acquisition’ one which takes account language functions. In this article we will study the elements of the language of instruction, by focusing on the analysis of the communicative functions, and the lexical and the cultural items a CLIL textbook of the area of Maths in Secondary Education. Our aim is to present the CLIL teacher with the linguistic and didactic implications that he or she should take into consideration when implementing the bilingual syllabuses with their students. In order to do that, we will present our conclusions emphasizing the need for coordination in different content areas, linguistic and communicative contents, between the foreign language teacher and the CLIL subject one.
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The notion that ‘attention is given to both the language and the content’ sounds feasible and laudable, but no further reason for this practice is offered. Why would we want to give attention to ‘content’ (as we have seen, itself a contentious and multifaceted term), and why would we want to give attention to ‘language’? It is an interesting question, and one that lies at the heart of the CLIL paradigm. The dual focus does indeed exist in good CLIL practice, but what is the sum of its benefits? What is the aim behind this fusion, this synthesis of two elements which, as we have hitherto suggested, are both examples of content? The factual basis of a syllabus—its quantitative content—can be seen as the product to be learned, to warrant ‘attention’ as Coyle el al suggest. The same is true, presumably, of language. The CLIL teacher attends to it – probably in different ways according to whether he/she is a subject or a language teacher. But another view of conceptual curricular content, as with the language example, might be to see it as the vehicle for another type of learning, namely subject competences. Maybe it is better, and more useful given current societal demands, to see that both language and content are actually vehicles for the development of subject competences (geography, history, science, mathematics, etc.) and that language and content are never, as it were, aims in themselves.
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