(e.g., Protestant work ethic) and how these factors have affected them. In turn, this allowed clients to recog- nize their own negative beliefs about self and others who share these experiences leading to homelessness” (p. 127). The authors argue that this process increases critical consciousness (Freire, 1970; Martín-Baró, 1994), and creates a context for healing in light of re- covering the historical etiology of the situation at hand. Liberation psychology has also had an influence the field of counselingand development directly through the work of Ignacio Martín-Baró. These include the creation of an academic journal inspired, in part, by the work of Ignacio Martín-Baró (Sloan & Toporek, 2007), interventions for Latina victims of domestic violence (Perilla, Serrata, Weinberg & Lippy, 2012), career counseling for victims of intimate partner violence (Chronister & Davidson, 2010; Chronister & McWhirter, 2006), peace and reconciliation group work in Southeast Asia (Norsworthy & Buranajaroekij, 2011; Norsworthy & Khuankaew, 2004), as well as guidelines for culturally relevant counseling interventions in general (Duran, Firehammer & Gonzalez, 2008). As an example, Martín-Baró’s (1994) direct influence on counseling can be seen in Chronister and Davidson’s (2010) approach to group career counseling with sur- vivors of intimate partner violence. These authors hold out critical consciousness as a primary goal for both group members and the group leaders, and state that “[w]e believe, as have activists and scholars before us, that the development of critical consciousness is an act of liberation” (p. 122). This career group was designed to develop critical consciousness with clients by engag- ing them in a critical, collaborative dialogue. Specifi- cally, clients were asked to have open dialogue, connect with the common experiences of others, analyze the sociopolitical context that surrounded their abuse and career/job concerns, and to take action for themselves and others in similar oppressive circumstances. This example illustrates a goal to liberate clients to change themselves and their oppressive contexts, rather than simply “fixing” their presenting concerns.
This paper makes reference to the importance lying, at present, on the professional education of counselors. It goes through the history of the different pre-scientific and scientific stages of counseling, and it points out the main representatives in Latin America. It also shows the current state of the specialization, taking as an antecedent some in-depth, widely encompassing research carried out in the European Union in this area. Coincidences and differences are exposed here in terms of professional profiles, university degrees, institutional dependence, up- dating processes and modes of intervention. The current state of postgraduate studies at university is also touched upon, and the different proposals for further education in Latin America are analyzed as well as their dependence upon an undergraduate degree in Psychology, Educational Sciences or Psycho-pedagogy. Finally, this paper places counseling within the complexity and the need to provide all-encompassing and integrative answers which require a wide and deep enough education so as to answer all these issues and problems. Key Words: education; postgraduate; counseling; complexity.
The academic and professional events that have been related could be enlarged based on primary sources, but such historiographic task is beyond the purposes of this work. The complex relationships among the educational psychologist's roll -and, frequently, the industrial one- and vocational guidance can be approached from the first focus of interest -the pychologist's roll - or from the second -the V. G. in itself -, given that the correspondences between them are not isomorphic. lt should be taken into account that V. G. was born, in its country of origin, as a professional activity bonded to several disciplines at the same time: education, psychology, sociology, psychiatry, counseling as a smaller but autonomous career. Helping practices place's inside psychology careers in United States during the first half of the century has obtained special attention in A. Blanco, C. Di Doménico and G. Pineda (1993) writings, dedicated to summarize the American congresses on academic training. The review of these congresses' reports allows to notice the successive direction changes in the North American professional psychologyand to infer the vocational guidance destination -as an specialty- on each stage. However, a historical screening according to our interests will center in the Latin American world and, inside it, in our own academic and union traditions.
ln order to become a member of the Association it is necessary to have finished the university studies of the second cycle (18 years of study) with specialization in guidance andcounseling. Instruction focuses mainly on psychologyand particular guidance methods and it comprises both theoretical and practical knowledge about individual dynamics, human labor and the relationships between the individual and labor. The Corporation demands the following specific credits (each credit corresponds to a 15-hour course): 9 credits in individual counseling; 3 credits in group counseling; 6 credits in individual testing (theory and practice); 3 credits in group testing (theory and practice); 3 credits in measurement and statistics; 3 credits in research theory; 3 credits in vocational development theory; 3 credits in personal psychology; 6 credits in school and professional information; 3 credits in psychopathology ; 9 credits of supervised practical stage of at least 400 hours.
The learning system in this course consists of lectures and scheduled presentations/discussions. Lectures elaborate the appropriate theoretical content in the textbook and readings. Classes provide a more detailed and refined analysis of both concepts and applied materials. Classes are strongly oriented towards interactive discussion of the text and cases. In order to gain the most from the lectures and class activities, the assigned text/reading should be read before the lecture to participate in the discussions.
Results: Postpartum depression was detected in a 27, 6 %. The association between depressions with social support perception was statistically significant, as family functioning and the relationship with their partners and mothers. Biosocial and obstetric variables were not significant for the presence of depression. Conclusions: Perceived social support, family functioning and relational aspects with their partners and mothers are protective factors for maternal depression, compared with other variables.
The purpose of this publication is to present theoretical considerations, interventions and strategies in our population under study: young people of the last year of middle schools who are highly psycho- socially vulnerable from La Plata city, Berisso and Ensenada. The above-mentioned investigations have led us to questions that we try to address through transfer interventions, so we can link different theoretical approaches to praxis in Guidance.
degree, reciprocity and so on. Their findings were that some blogs are overrepresented and central in the network, although other blogs are more densely interconnected. Majority of blogs link sparsely or not at all to other blogs in the sample, suggesting that the blogosphere is partially interconnected and sporadically conversational. Adamic & Glance (2005) analyzed a list of 40 political blogs (conservative or liberal) for a 2 month period and a sample of 1000 political blogs for a day in the period of USA presidential election in 2004. They tried to investigate the relations between the two groups of blogs and to discover the structure subtended by the two groups and possible differences between them. They used some measures of SNA like in-degree and out-degree and they found that liberals and conservatives link primarily within their separate communities, with far fewer cross-links exchanged with the other party. Conservative bloggers more likely link to other blogs: primarily other conservative blogs, but also some liberal ones. The conservative blogosphere is more densely linked. Starting from these results, Ackland (2005) proposes an interesting distinction between 2 types of blogs: authorities are highly-referenced pages on a particular topic, while hubs are pages that point to the authorities (and thus confer authority). There is a mutually reinforcing relationship between authorities and hubs: a good hub points to many good authorities, and a good authority is pointed to by many good hubs.
The hippie movement that originated on the West Coast of the United States in the 1960's and then spread throughout the Western world came out of many young people's rejection of social archetypes, of roles, of pre established patterns of behavior as well as egoically based social and economic structures. They refused to play the roles their parents and society wanted to impose on them. Significantly, it coincided with the horrors of the Vietnam War, in which more than 57,000 young Americans and 3 million Vietnamese died and through which the insanity of the system and the underlying mindset was exposed for all to see. Whereas in the 1950s, most Americans were still extremely conformist in thought and behavior, in the 1960s, millions of people began to withdraw their identification with a collective conceptual identity because the insanity of the collective was so obvious. The hippie movement represented a loosening of the hitherto rigid egoic structures in the psyche of humanity. The movement itself degenerated and came to an end, but it left behind an opening, and not just in those who were part of the movement. This made it possible for ancient Eastern wisdom and spirituality to move west and play an essential part in the awakening of global consciousness.
Until you practice surrender, the spiritual dimension is something you read about, talk about, get excited about, write books about, think about, believe in - or don't, as the case may be. It makes no difference. Not until you surrender does it become a living reality in your life. When you do, the energy that you emanate and which then runs your life is of a much higher vibrational frequency than the mind energy that still runs our world - the energy that created the existing social, political, and economic structures of our civilization, and which also continuously perpetuates itself through our educational systems and the media. Through surrender, spiritual energy comes into this world. It creates no suffering for yourself, for other humans, or any other life form on the planet. Unlike mind energy, it does not pollute the earth, and it is not subject to the law of polarities, which dictates that nothing can exist without its opposite, that there can be no good without bad. Those who run on mind energy, which is still the vast majority of the Earth's population, remain unaware of the existence of spiritual energy. It belongs to a different order of reality and will create a different world when a sufficient number of humans enter the surrendered state and so become totally free of negativity. If the Earth is to survive, this will be the energy of those who inhabit it.
been reported that the divorce rate among parents who have lost children is as high as 90%. Because of the projection of blame, a severe loss is then compounded by another severe loss —that of a marital partner. An example of this type of reaction is the case of a forty-year-old woman. She had an excellent marriage for twenty years with an attentive, dutiful husband. Her youngest son developed leukemia. When he died, she went into grief and mourning and, more importantly, developed a rage reaction. It took the form of hatred. She hated the doctors; she hated the hospital; she hated God; she hated her husband and the existing children. Her rage became so uncontrollable that she became physically violent and threatening. Several times the police had to be called to control her violent behavior. Finally the other children left home out of fear of the chaos, physical abuse, and menacing emotional states. Her husband left no stone unturned in trying to help her with the rage, but she vented her fury upon him as well, violently attacking him on several occasions. Finally, in desperation and despair, he was driven from the home. The chaotic situation ultimately ended in a divorce in which the woman lost her home. It was almost five years before the rage subsided, at which time the woman had destroyed her whole life and now had to start over from scratch, rebuilding a new life.
Review of Syllabus and course requirements. Overview of statistics: definition and importance of Statistics in Education andPsychology. Variables: ratio, Interval, ordinal and Nominal scale. Types of data: Primary data, Secondary data. Notion of a statistical population: finite population, infinite population, homogeneous and heterogeneous population. Methods of data collection, questionnaire design.
Abstract: This paper describes the initial study of a broader investigation that seeks to contribute to the state of the art on Ethnomathematics, mathematics education and cultural diversity. The investigation is being conducted within a course on Ethnomathematics the Masters in Mathematics Education at the University of Granada (Spain). The methodological tool for this study is the model MO.MU.ME. (Oliveras, 2008a, 2008b) has allowed us to reflect on the current trend of publications and thematic surrounding Ethnomathematics. The first finding of the research is the existence of numerous works on this line, which has led us to focus on the conference proceedings PME-NA (Psychology of Mathematics Education, - North America), for the initial study, we took fourteen papers that constitute the sub-sample whose analysis presented here. In this context we find that the number of published papers is already a fact that indicates the growing interest in cultural line in mathematics education. By type of research publications this subsample are classified as essays by 36%, or field, 64%, made in the cultural sphere or the teaching and learning of mathematics.
Psychologists’ attitudes play an important role when providing psychotherapeutic and other mental health services. Examining psychologists’ attitudes in a quantitative manner allows for mental health trainers to become aware of the areas where clinicians need further training in and the specific areas needing education as it relates to LG issues. Training programs must provide courses, clinical practicum experiences, and opportunities for their students to learn about the LG population, practice clinical skills, and assess their attitudes, readiness, and competence to provide services to the LG population. The influential role that psychologists’ religious backgrounds can have is also important to explore. Training programs and clinical supervisors can assist trainees in exploring how their personal religious and cultural backgrounds inform what they do or do not do when providing clinical services to LG clients. What is most apparent from the findings of this study is that continued dialogue and exploration about how to best prepare Mexican mental health workers to provide clinical services to the LG community is needed. An important step for psychologists andpsychology students-in-training is the need to engage in a more extensive exploration of their own views and
businesses should actively develop online and mobile applications. When developing online and mobile services, merchants should pay more attention to maintaining and managing consumers’ comments. The consumer's comment shows consumer's experience and opinions about the product. These comments are often referenced by some potential consumers. Many praises can directly explain the good quality of products and services, and can leave a good impression on potential customers; bad reviews are more important, and if merchants do not handle bad reviews in a timely and correct manner, they will leave a bad impression in the minds of potential consumers. Maintaining the review area, responding positively to consumers, and taking corresponding measures for consumers who have expressed dissatisfaction are also customer relationship management. And, through the review, merchants can clearly see where their problems are and intuitively understand consumers' impressions of their products and services.
These two kinds of reflexivity – dual and trinity – are at odds. In the first one, the “other” (the looking-glass image) is an object to identify with (sometimes: an object to repulse). In the trinity reflexivity, the other is the “you” with whom “I” begin a dialogue, by taking the position of “I” in this relation to “you”. These different “you” -internal or external others -permit this self-interpretation. Trinity reflexivity is a process of “personalizing”. According to Malrieu (2003) personalizing can be defined as an ongoing activity of self- synthesis, during which individuals give meaning to their life through a reinterpretation of their past experiences, and notably of those when they constituted themselves “as this one” in this particular relation to others, a relationship which was progressively internalized. It is a process of self-construction as a person in a society of other persons.
There should be enough air in the working area of the head. Nothing depresses a person so much as lack of oxygen. Air conditioning is now used to improve the quality of the air environment in office buildings and premises. With the help of air-conditioners they create and maintain a favorable microclimate in closed rooms, regulate air environment parameters by temperature, humidity, purity, composition, speed of movement and air pressure. Unfortunately, air conditioners of outdated constructions supply air with violated ionic and ozone composition, which negatively affects people’s health. Such conditioners accumulate air pollutants and colonies of harmful microorganisms capable of causing legionellosis, allergic nasal deposits, gastrointestinal disorders. Computers of the head and his assistants should be equipped with special screens, absorbing radiation.
Clinical pharmacists have been involved in treating people with HIV and AIDS since the epidemic began. Their roles have evolved from inpatient infectious diseases training clinical pharmacists offering treatment regimens for the serious opportunistic infections seen in the hospital, to clinical pharmacists who received specialized training in the treatment of people with HIV in the ambulatory care setting. Their roles and beneﬁts have been documented in the literature, but not to a large extent. Improvements in adherence and cost savings have been seen, but signiﬁcant improvements in clinical outcomes (changes in viral load and CD4 cell counts) are quite complex and often difﬁcult to identify in the small studies that have been published. This manuscript will review the published data on this topic, and provide examples of clinically trained pharmacists in the US who focus on the treatment of people with HIV infection. The pharmacists discussed here practice in a variety of settings (privately managed free-clinics and government managed clinics), take care of a variety of types of patients (children, adults, military veterans, lower socio-economic groups, etc.), and are employed by a variety of institutions (academic, pharmaceutical company, large healthcare systems and small healthcare systems). These pharmacists were chosen to be representative of the wide variety of individuals, positions and roles of clinical pharmacists involved in the treatment of HIV in the US.
of rapid societal change, a deepening “cultural and ideological void” (Schulman, 1999; p. 21, in Shnookal & Muniz, 1999), and psychic vulnerability that affects individual and community adjustment. This situation is exacerbated by the fact that psychologists, who are to foster development and well-being, also demonstrate limited psychicentrality and by virtue of their educa- tion and training, have a firm personal and professional grounding in the frame of reference of the “superior other”. As a result, this alternative model of psychol- ogy undergraduate education was designed to directly address this state-of-affairs by providing emancipatory psychology educational experiences to provide knowl- edge and skills, discard the shackles of oppression and promote world views, values and attitudes necessary to engage in culturally responsive psychological (personal and professional) activities to effect societal change.
Most career development theories emphasize the degree of control that subjects have over the decision-making process and over the psychological aspects that contribute to success and professional satisfaction. However, subjects who belong to minority groups face a number of structural, institutional and social barriers that hinder this degree of attainment and control of their career development. Such barriers are the result of discrimination against such minority groups or of the socio-economic disadvantages that go with them. Without going into the divergencies in career development for the different minority groups, it is of interest to present here a model for intervention in the career development of such groups from a cross-cultural approach. For such subjects, career development matters involve economic, cultural or personal problems amongst others so it is advisable to use a holistic approach and, moreover, the counselor should have been trained in the corresponding multicultural competencies.