El encuadramiento con menor cobertura informativa de la crisis se vincula a la prescripción moral, la cual se sustenta por el 4% de los artículos revisados. Los medios de comunicación aprovecharon la situación para poner en duda la credibilidad del sistema de producción alemán: “Hecho en Alemania” ya no es sinónimo de disciplina y transparencia (Le Figaro, 22 de septiembre de 2015), La cultura Volkswagen –Los técnicos instalaron un software falsificador para evitar explicarles a los superiores que el logro de objetivos era inalcanzable (Le Figaro, 30 de noviembre de 2015). Por otro lado, no se observa una clara exposición de un mensaje moral en los comunicados oficiales, simplemente consideran que las manipulaciones son un desastre moral y político que no concuerdan con la naturaleza de la empresa (Newsroom, 25 de septiembre de 2015).
How to shape the appropriate strategies in response to a crisis is critical for any given organization and public relations practitioners working in the field of crisiscommunication. Given that the goals of cri- sis communication, defined as the “ongoing dialogue between the or- ganization and its publics” prior to, during, and after the crisis (Fearn- Banks, 2002: 2) are to restore organizational normalcy, influence pubic perception, and regain and repair image and reputation, strategies used should be “designed to minimize damage to the image of the organiza- tion”. Strategies, argued Massey (2001: 155), are “message repertoires that are designed to repair the organization’s image by influencing stakeholder perceptions”. Ray (1999: 19) argued that strategies establish and enact “control (at least in its appearance) in the face of high uncer- tainty”. Lukaszweski (1997: 8) argued that the strategic management of message response in crisiscommunication is a “fundamental communi- cation principle”. Designing sound strategic communications and tactics to communicate crisis so as to minimize damage to the image of the or- ganization has been described as “management at its zenith” (Stocker, 1997: 203).
The results of the survey on education intervention in the psychological crisis of employees by the human resources of the enterprise were shown in Figure 4. It can be seen that human resources intervened psychological crisis for employees mainly through conversation, accounting for 46.5%. In the process of communicationand conversation between human resources and the employees, the psychological crisis of the employees can be understood and their psychological crisis can be eased through one-to-one education. However, this method was not combined with the environment closely enough and had certain drawbacks. The proportion of psychological training reached 32.8%. Psychological training currently lacked relevant assessments, and the application scope of this method was not wide. Through interviews, it was learnt that the employees were willing to receive professional psychological training, understand relevant knowledge, and enhance the psychological quality to face the crisis.
There are three main methods of psychological guidance and intervention, including communication, support and intervention techniques. Communication is the premise of crisismanagement. It can help to understand the true feelings of the person involved, guide them by learning their inner experience, eliminate the inner fear, distress, and rediscover the light of life; support technique is mainly the use of social resources such as relatives, friends, and the people from all walks of life to care for them, actively guide and encourages them, and implement specific intervention measures; intervention technique is mainly to help the parties establish a good implementation path and enhance his confidence in life through analysing the problem and giving good suggestions. In the process of psychological intervention and guidance, attention should be paid to the proper use of the methods, avoiding secondary harm to the those involved.
Abstract: The use of social networks encourages individuals to access political information directly, either through the personal profiles of political leaders, their parties or organizations. All this without limiting the information in the media themselves, but already, with a limited time. Politicians, problems of this situa- tion, take advantage of the direct contact of social networks to seek participation among their followers, which can lead to the press in a time of crisis. This work aims to analyze the use made by Twitter of the main political parties in the General Elections of April 28, 2019, in order to find out the content strategy followed and to what extent it could influence press consumption. The results will reach the way politicians will use social media content as the strategy to achieve their commu- nication goals, and how it could influence press consumption. Keywords: Press; Social Networks; Crisis; Political Communication; Electoral Campaign.
As teachers, we have most probably experienced a wide range of different feelings when interacting with our students, from enthusiastic excitement to depressing gloom. In recent years, we have noticed an increase in students’ challenging attitudes at higher education level, which could be partly derived from the fact that attendance is compulsory for continuous assessment. When attendance was optional, those students with a negative predisposition regularly avoided contact with the teacher and the typical imposing situations involved in teaching. Their negative attitude has consequences in our mood but also in the interaction patterns established and hence, in their learning process. There is an extensive literature on the relationship between teachers-learners interaction and L2 learning (Boulima 1999, Chaudron 1988, Gass & Varonis 1991, Hatch 1978, Tsui 1995), which stresses the importance of negotiated interaction in learners’ formulation of hypotheses about the target language as an essential step for acquiring it. Unfortunately, when students bring a negative predisposition to the classroom, they limit interaction and learning opportunities at the same time. Such negativity may be brought to our first class session or even emailed before meeting and thus, it may have nothing to do with our particular behavior or personality but be related to their challenging attitude towards the teacher’s role and identity. Some of the discourse acts we are expected to perform in our role may be considered face threatening by students, as they can threaten students’ “face wants”, using Brown and Levinson’s (1987: 13) term to refer to humans’ two basic needs “to be unimpeded in one’s actions” (negative face) and “to be approved of (positive face)”.
The quality of the Candidature Files and the presentations made during the visits greatly assisted the Commission in assessing each city’s proposal and preparing this report. During the visits, the Commission was very pleased to meet with the IOC members in the respective countries and with many Olympians and Paralympians. The presence and support of representatives of the highest levels of government and the private sector demonstrate the importance of the Games on a regional and national level and underline that, even in the context of the current global economic climate, organising the Olympic and Paralympic Games represents a catalyst for change and an opportunity for social, economic and environmental development. The Commission’s task is to prepare a technical report to assist the IOC members in the important decision of electing the 2016 Host City by verifying the information provided in the Candidature File and determining whether the plans proposed are feasible.
The processes described above define a public sphere that is far more crowded with social actors, facts, opinions, and beliefs (Sorrentino, 2008), which makes it difficult to identify the best strategies to make oneself visible. Of course, this is also the case for institutions and political actors, who have to handle their per- sonal communicationand to elaborate strategies allowing them both determining a coherent identity that proves successful in such a rich communication flow, and circumscribing the defining discourses of their identity to those deemed ac- ceptable and envisaged. Thus, communicative skills become a negotiable resource through which one may define one’s relationship with their context. Every subject has to define their own visibility grounding it not just on what is said and on the immediate reaction to it, but rather, on the need to accumulate representations of the self aimed at defining a personal reputation that might give them credibility and reliability.
In addition, the concept of role-conflict enables to deal with cases where relationship itself is based on a conflict. This kind of conflict is not derived from communication - the other party and context have been correctly recognized, and there have been no obstacles in enter- ing the role for either party. Given kind of conflicting roles can be used to describe agonistic behaviour (Dewsbury 1978: 103-104). Whether the conflict occurs, depends on ecological status (for example, predation); personal adaption (for example, a cat and dog raised together may get along well, but the same dog may attack other cats); certain context (for example, a tired animal may choose not to fight for mating rights) and on environmental conditions (for example, great tits and chaffinches answer each-other songs in Scotland’s islands but not on main land, where there is more room (Halliday 1983: 76)). These conflicts do not fall under the category of role-conflict, but nevertheless enables to compare ecological (ascribed) statuses and corresponding roles (predation, parasitism) to social (achieved) statuses and corresponding roles, because both, ascribed and achieved statuses are manifested through role-behaviour.
correct techniques. This second aspect has to be with the Computer science in Education. It is not easy practice a teaching of the ICTs that solve all the problems presented, it is needed to develop system of teaching related with the computer sciences and the transmission of information, being at the same time the most adequate possible on the methodological way.
8 Truth, and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn. These were remarkable women and so were their stories. A good cure for depression is to read a chapter of Flynn's autobiography or reread the account of Mother Jones terrorizing scabs and participating in the 1919 steel strike at the age of 90. But it should not be forgotten that these were individual women, and that the bulk of the' organizing, struggling, as well as succeeding and failing, was done by ordinary women whom we will never know. These were women who, realized the tactical necessity of standing and working together lest they be destroyed individually, women who put to shame the ridiculous theories of "woman's place'," women who in the famous Lawrence textile strike carried picket signs reading "We want Bread and Roses, too", symbolizing their demands for not only a living wage but a decent and human life, and so inspired James Oppenheim’s song "Bread and Roses":
Threats to the habitats and ecological communities of wetlands in the Basin include increasing salinity, rising water tables, inadequate flooding regimes, drainage, vegetation clearance, invasive species, and barriers to movement of water and biota. Much wetland area has been lost and many have been degraded as a consequence of water being diverted for irrigation. The period up to the 1990s was marked by increasing water withdrawals for irrigation and continuing declines in the ecological health of the river system, including the collapse of river fisheries, threats to the survival of many species and increasing salinity. In 1991 a toxic blue- green algal bloom that extended for 1,000 kilometres along the Darling River was the clearest indicator that the health of the river system was reaching a crisis. In response a cap was paced on surface water extraction rights from the Murray-Darling at 1993/1994 levels, and programs commenced to ameliorate some of the problems, including interventions to reduce salinity levels, blue-green algae blooms, restore native fish populations and provide environmental flows. However, these interventions failed to substantially slow the decline.
Catalan participants had a more nuanced discourse on mobile communication-associated risks than their Romanian counterparts. We found three approaches in Catalonia during the whole period of observation: belief in adverse effects, skepticism, and belief in no “actual” negative consequences, all of which reflect “controversy”. Arguments and described behaviors mostly referred to the assumed personal risk. A participant in the initial research in Barcelona even had a “protector stick” on her mobile handset to reduce radiations. She explained she had kept the piece stuck on the three mobile handsets she had purchased since her first one 12 years before the interview (Woman, 63). Aside from this particular case, strategies more commonly mentioned were: not wearing the phone too close to the body and leaving it outside the bedroom at night. Second, skeptical seniors claimed “nothing has been proven” and described opposing attitudes towards mobile communication: either they felt that it was not worth worrying about risks, or they took precautionary measures just in case.
Similar to the earlier discussion of different metadata layers, we can think of provenance as consisting of descriptions at different levels of abstraction, essentially aimed at different audiences: to support scientific reproducibility, engineering reproducibility, or even deeper understanding of the process that created the derived data (we provide an example of the latter in the context of scientific workflows below). In terms of scientific reproducibility, where scientists want to share and verify their findings with colleagues inside or outside their collaboration, the user may need to know what data sets were used, and what type of analysis with what parameters were used. However, in cases where the results need to be reproduced bit- by-bit, more detailed information about the hardware architecture of the resource, environment variables used, library versions, etc. are needed. Finally, provenance can also be used to analyze the performance of the analyses , where the provenance records are mined to determine the number of tasks executed, their runtime distribution, where the execution took place, etc.
1. Verify patient is in cardiac arrest, with no pulse or respiration. Have someone provide CPR, if possible, while the defibrillator is obtained and placed next to the patient. 2. Turn on defibrillator; verify all cables are connected. 3. Turn “lead select” to “paddles” or “defibrillator.” 4. Select initial energy level for an adult to 200 J. 5. Paddles: Use conducting gel and place on apex (lower left
(5) [Without trade restrictions] the obvious and simple system of natural liberty establishes itself of its own accord. Every man... is left perfectly free to pursue his own interest in his own way.... The sovereign is completely discharged from a duty [for which] no human wisdom or knowledge could ever be sufficient; the duty of superintending the industry of private people, and of directing it towards the employments most suitable to the interest of the society.
The need to memorize the entire tradition belongs to the oral culture. The knowledge or erudition culture demands traditional references and logical proof — you have to indicate sources, you have to make quotations. Now, there is only the communicational flux which isn’t interrupted by external proof need. Communication differs from knowledge on that: in the communicational process, which is based on analogical signs, the flux is continuous and self sufficient, without resorting to external proof. The meta-language of knowledge appeared starting with the Renaissance and became more effective with the Reform and Counter-Reform, in the same time with the erudition culture due to the encounter between the Christian and the Antique culture in the educational environment. Now, in the postmodern globalizing times, the encounter between occidental and extra-occidental cultures doesn’t need intellectual erudition because mass media utilizes analogical signs. Nowadays mass media doesn’t need knowledge erudition because it is analogical, self-instructive and functions at a high speed. It is truth, knowledge erudition culture belongs to the printed book and the mechanical industrial era and it hasn’t got a rapid consumption. But immediate consumption of nowadays real mass media leads to the irrational acceptance because they don’t allow for enough time for assimilation and conscious reflection.
When there is no primary identification, but a more sophisticated and mediated form of reaching the comprehension of the appellative message, it is sure that deduction is at work. To understand this form or argumentation, it is necessary to start with the syllogism, the best-known form of deductive reasoning used as a method for scientific knowledge. Beyond the scientific realm, the use of deduction as a persuasive method appears in multiple fields, such as the argumentation in journalism, advertising, politics, pedagogy, justice, the parliamentary debate, the military harangue, the religious preaching, or simply the arguments to convince someone in daily life. This reasoning, called enthymeme, is based upon a logical form of syllogism, but is different in the aim pursued: it does not intend to validate the truth of certain statements, instead, it intends to persuade on the basis of the proposed arguments. The premises that nurture the enthymemes are statements that appear as irrefutable, even if they are only presumably true. Something that seems evident may change with time. Presumptions are beliefs that in some circumstances would admit the contrary case (they are not absolute truths), but they are not “lies”. Persuading would be an impossible task if a fertile field propitious to accept the arguments would not exist.