The translation and cross-culturaladaptation of the POS-S Renal into Spanish using recognised international guidelines was achieved satisfactorily. To our knowledge, this study is the first cross-culturaladaptation and psycho- metric analysis of the POS-S Renal. The study sample included dialysis and conservatively managed patients. Although the POS-S Renal is an instrument to measure symptoms in conservatively managed ACKD patients, in our experience it has been a useful clinical assessment tool for the dialysis population. We tested responses from patients in these two categories, and the results indicated that there were no significant differences between the two groups, although a trend towards a significant difference
All professionals involved in the process were requested to suggest changes and corrections in the version under analysis. The cross-culturaladaptation and the content assessment of the scale were carried out using the evaluation of two experts and the administration of a pre-test with the target populations that would benefit from this assessment in the future. The content assessment necessarily involved an examination to check whether the items of the scale were representative of what was intended to be measured (Cronbach & Meehl, 1955).
This is a quantitative methodological development study on the cross-culturaladaptation of the “Family Needs Questionnaire” (FNQ), which is a structured instrument developed in the United States to measure the perceived needs of family members after the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) of a relative. This instrument aims to identify important needs presented by family members, whether met or not. The FNQ translation and adaptation followed a particular method, which permitted to achieve semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual equivalence of the instrument version labeled in Portuguese as “Questionário de Necessidades da Família”. The results of the questionnaire application to 161 family members showed that the instrument content is valid to measure the needs of families of patients with TBI in the Brazilian context.
Researchers and clinicians now have at their disposal a bladder cancer-specific HRQL instrument for use in Spanish patients that is applicable across the wide spectrum of this disease. Our results suggest the multi- dimensionality of the Spanish BCI version, and provide considerable evidence about its appropriate metric properties, including responsiveness to health changes over time even in patients treated with non-invasive techniques. Comparison with the original U.S. version shows that it is similar in reliability and validity, suggesting that the cross-culturaladaptation method followed has yielded an equivalent Spanish version. Moreover, proofs supporting the BCI as a valuable tool for assessing HRQL in patients within the whole blad- der cancer spectrum are strengthened by the demon- stration of its appropriateness in a different language and culture  and reinforces its usefulness for inter- national studies.
The Work Disability Diagnosis Interview (WoDDI) is a structured interview guide developed by the University of Sherbrooke, Canada to help clinicians detect the most important work- related disability predictors and to identify one or more causes of prolonged absenteeism. This methodological study aims for the cross-culturaladaptation of the WoDDI for the Brazilian context. The method followed international guidelines for studies of this kind, including the following steps: initial translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, evaluation by an expert committee and testing of the penultimate version. These steps allowed obtaining conceptual, semantic, idiomatic, experiential and operational equivalences, in addition to content validity. The results showed that the translated WoDDI is adapted to the Brazilian context and can be used after training.
Even though this is not a recurrent practice in processes of cross-culturaladaptation and there is no indication of it in the literature, we believe, based on this experience, that opting for this procedure is very relevant in the case of instruments with open questions. When this phase cannot be performed in the country of origin, we recommend a meeting with the instrument’s developers immediately after back translation to clarify potential doubts and/or uncertainties in order to facilitate and enrich analysis with the Experts Committee. The discussion in the focus groups with the committee were enriching in this phase of the process. Even though this technique is not largely applied in cross-culturaladaptation studies, the achievement of consensus through a collective process of reflection on a given item’s content showed it might be a new method to evaluate qualitative research instruments.
Cross cultural adaptation and validation of the Foot Function Index to Spanish Facultade de Enfermar?a e Podolox?a TRABALLO DE FIN DE GRAO EN PODOLOX?A Curso acad?mico 2016 / 17 ?S?NDROME DEL T?NEL TA[.]
- El modelo de competencia cultural de Purnell, formado por doce dominios que se pueden aplicar en el hospital, hogar del paciente, en la comunidad, etc. Promueve la comprensión cultural en períodos de enfermedad, mantenimiento y promoción de la salud, enfocando aspectos emic y etic mediante las opiniones del paciente, famil- ia y comunidad y la forma de valorar las influencias y la identificación con su grupo cultural, su diagrama es un círculo. Por otro lado, la forma compleja de es- tructurar el entorno de la persona sana/en- ferma se encuadra en la teoría del pensami- ento complejo de Edgar Morin (Morin, 2012) donde para responder de manera eficiente y sostenible ante las dinámicas socio-culturales, económicas, tecnológicas y políticas que for- man parte del mundo globalizado son nece- sarias unas aptitudes de comprensión, integra- doras y coordinadas para que constituyan un todo. Aboga por reformas fundamentales, la educativa, la toma de conciencia ecológica y la política de la civilización proponiendo una ac- ción de conjunto. Enfermería debe adoptar el papel de liberar la fuerza de las buenas volun- tades y de acción solidaria, teniendo en cuenta la multidiversidad del mundo real.
A second insight of the tempo of culturaladaptation focuses on psychological biases that occur at the short time scales, like a generation, but have consequences at multigeneration time scales. As befits a basically adaptive evolutionary system, unsystematic microdecisions might result in long-term highly adaptive practices (Smith and Winterhalder 1992) or prevent optimal long-term adaptation. For example, prestige bias related to consumerism, temporal discounting biases, where people prefer small, immediate payoffs to larger, delayed payoffs, or the planning fallacy, where people unrealistically focus on positive outcomes of their actions, can all result in maladaptive evolution (Mesoudi 2008, Smith and Winterhalder 1992) precisely because there is a misfit between the results of the individual short-term adaptive process and the group long-term adaptive process. The idea that rather myopic short–time scale adaptive processes may not generate long-term adaptation is well exemplified by the dynamical models of historical cultural change presented by Turchin (2003). Turchin modeled the rise and fall of agrarian empires as a consequence of changing levels of within-group cooperation and between-group conflict. In young, relatively small-scale empires, skilled elite classes may be beneficial to the society because of their leadership or expertise. As empires grow,
Intertextuality as a theory, argues that a text does not and cannot exist as a self- sufficient whole and cannot be regarded as a closed system. It argues further that the work of a writer, and for the purpose of the present study, a playwright is a product of influenced experiences because the artist is not an island of his own. (Intertextuality: Theory and Practice, 1990:1) Culture-contact had long been established between Nigeria and the West through the trans-Atlantic slave trade, palm-oil trade, colonialism, activities of missionaries, including the introduction of western education, etc. Western influences on contemporary Nigerian dramatic culture and tradition are of two types: (a) any, or a combination, of acceptance, rejection, (b) “nativization” or domestication through appropriation, or adaptation of western plays. Examples under (a) above include:
Usually refers to positive or negative evaluations of people, objects, or situations that often predispose people to feel and behave positively or negatively toward them. According to Greif (1994) cultural beliefs are the ideas and thoughts common to several individuals that govern interaction—between these people, and between them, their gods, and other groups—and differ from knowledge in that they are not empirically discovered or analytically proved. In general, cultural beliefs become identical and commonly known through the socialization process by which culture is unified, maintained, and communicated. Cultural beliefs serve not only to guide, but also to insti- gate action, that is, they possess emotional content. During childhood, people acquire beliefs and values from others by teaching, imitation, and other forms of social learning. This process is known as “cultural transmission.” Many kinds of cultural transmission are possible.
tube display. The results show consistent responses across cultures only for warm/cool, heavy/light, and active/pas- sive. The like/dislike scale, however, showed some differ- ences between the observer groups, in particular between the Argentinian responses and those obtained from the other observers. Factor analysis reveals that the Argenti- nian observers preferred passive colour pairs to active ones more than the other observers. In addition to the cultural difference in like/dislike, the experimental results show some effects of gender, professional background (design vs. nondesign), and age. Female observers were found to prefer colour pairs with high-lightness or low- chroma values more than their male counterparts. Observers with a design background liked low-chroma
Sigitas Geda (1943-2008) is considered to be the most prominent poet of all the Lithuanian poet-translators of the whole sonnet cycle. He was granted the Lithuanian National Prize – the highest award for achievements in culture and the arts in Lithuania. At least for a decade behind the scenes, he was considered to be a potential candidate for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Geda was a personality known for his independent thinking during the Soviet regime, also an active participant of the Socio-political Upheaval Movement in Lithuania (Sajudis), and he became an influential cultural activist after Lithuania regained its independence. But he was also notorious for his controversial opinions and conflicts with colleagues, and towards the end of his lifetime, he suffered from a serious illness and litigation in court over the bodily harm afflicted to his own daughter. A monograph impressively entitled Tragiškasis meilės laukas (The Tragic Love Field) by Viktorija Daujotytė is devoted to the study of personality and works of Geda. He started his career as a translator in 1972 and did translations from various languages (Latvian, Georgian, French, English, and Japanese), frequently using literal translations from the original. From the perspective of the history of Translation Studies, it should be considered as an anachronism, and, apparently, Geda took up those translations while totally relying on his own poetic talent. The abundance of his translations is proven by a variety of authors: Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud, Joseph Brodsky, the Book of Psalms, and the Quran. Shakespeare’s sonnets is his last huge translation, for which he started in a way preparing when translating Dante’s poetic autobiography The New Life (among the total of 30 poems there are 25 sonnets in it) and even still earlier on, when he was translating the poetry of François Villon.
El presente trabajo se centra en la publicidad como una herramienta de comunicación compleja y multimodal compuesta por diferentes elementos que, ligados entre sí, contribuyen no sólo a la expansión de una marca, sino también a lograr cierto impacto en los consumidores. Sin embargo la existencia de elementos culturales propios de cada país o comunidad hace necesario la implementación, en el caso de marcas globales, de cierta adaptación cultural que permita que la campaña publicitaria pueda desplegar los efectos deseados en las culturas meta. En muchos casos, este proceso implica de forma crucial y de un modo u otro la actividad traductora. El propósito de este Trabajo de Fin de Grado es, por un lado, ofrecer una visión general de las principales características del lenguaje publicitario que plantean retos de cara a su traducción; y, por otro, identificar y analizar las diversas estrategias utilizadas para implementar dicha adaptación cultural en las distintas campañas, muchas veces marcadas por un fuerte componente de globalización.
If students do not see the relevance, they can hardly have useful insights or build on these. As Student 3 observed on Activity 5.2.3, “As the one with the dogs I felt we passed it really quickly because there wasn’t much to it”. Thus, on the one hand, such dramatically different examples as MacDonald’s and River Spirit or such a familiar concept as the dog might help students grasp the importance of cultural knowledge and the differences between images and perceptions of “the same” phenomena depending on one’s cultural belonging, which is an argument in favour of such somewhat simplistic activities. Yet, on the other hand, unless these activities are linked closely to more challenging and less out-of-context translation samples and tasks, students might not link the insights to their self-concept as student translators. If no such link is made and students do not see where in “real translation” they might encounter similar difficulties and where they will need to shift perspectives or explain the obvious, etc., they will dismiss such activities as puerile and not serious enough. This way the possible “teachable moment” – the moment when students feel the need to develop a certain skill and feel motivated to undertake the efforts required (Gander, 2006) – will be lost. Therefore, activities of this type should be supported by immediately applying the new awareness to discussing text fragments to be translated or already translated once representing similar difficulties. This also means, for example, that the concepts discussed in 5.2.2 and situations evoked in 5.2.3 might be altered depending on the concepts and situations the follow-up fragments contain.
Most IEEE 802.11-based systems employ the DCF with Basic Access scheme at the MAC sublayer and adopt open-loop AMC policies such as ARF  or one of its vari- ants (e.g. collision-aware rate adaptation (CARA) , stochastic automata rate adap- tation (SARA) ). Owing to its simplicity, ARF is by far the most popular algorithm in use. Unfortunately, the DCF with Basic Access scheme does not differentiate be- tween collisions and transmission failures caused by poor channel conditions. Conse- quently, when the system experiences a high collision probability, ARF tends to use the lowest transmission rate even if the channel conditions would allow the use of higher transmission modes (see for example, [18, 96, 97, 98]). Many adaptive strategies have been proposed to solve this issue, but they may require either frame format changes , modifications to the medium access technique , or the use of channel qual- ity indicators (e.g. signal strength indicator) [97, 99] and, in fact, none of them has achieved widespread use in current WLAN systems .
In the process of learning, foreign students build their own strategy of behavior differently. Some are more passive, they want more attention. In the process of adaptation, individual characteristics are inherent in the national character - patience, the ability to endure life’s difficulties, enterprise, striving for the goal. However, due to the peculiarities of division into “one’s own” and “others”, the value hierarchy of a sense of national pride, superiority complicates entry into the foreign culture environment. This predisposes rather to accommodation or pseudo-adaptation. Some are more independent, efficient, cautious, persevering; they are characterized by cognitive practicality, conscientiousness, punctuality, accuracy, diligence, technical mentality.
Although the results of research suggest that some general theories on cognitive development such as the Sternberg (1982) theory or those on career development such as that devised by Holland (1985) are valid for persons who belong to ethnic minorities (Fouad & Dancer, 1992; Swanson, 1992), there are several reasons suggesting why an cross-cultural approach is needed. The following are some of these. The first function of a cross-cultural counselor is to achieve academic development. Super and Harckness stated in 1980 that cognitive development takes place in a specific ‘cultural niche’ so should be evaluated in terms of the degree to which it adapts to the requirements of its context. In fact, changes usually take place because of inter- action between the subject and his or her context. In the same way, Bruner (1980) questions a single model for cognitive development for acquiring and using knowledge, and Sternberg (1980) distinguishes between competency and cognitive execution, giving priority to the cultural factor that affects production of an item of knowledge in a cultural environment. The same can be said for the career or personal and social development of minority groups.
But there is more than a relationship of analogy between allusion and cross-cultural subjects, for allusion, more particularly intercultural allusion (that is to say, A’s allusion while addressing B to elements proper to the conceptual framework of B’s culture), may be used by such subjects to construct for themselves identity narratives which have the pragmatic goal, among others, of brokering their acceptance by the culture they happen to find themselves in at any given time. Identity narratives are presentations in the sense indicated by Erving Goffman, for whom such presentations of identity were “dramaturgical” (1959: 240): the process of establishing identity in society is a “performance” or “dramatic realization”, conditioned by setting and audience, which an “actor” executes to achieve some particular goals at a given moment (1959: 17, 30); or, as Thomas Hobbes wrote as long ago as 1651, “a person, is the same that an actor is, both on stage and in common conversation” (1996:106). It is important to realise that no performed or presented identity is coterminous with, or identical to, a person’s most essential, irreducible, intimate and, so to speak, “real” identity, if such a thing exists at all (something which Goffman would have denied). As Jenny Diski puts it, “we are actors or con artists . . . who walk into discrete situational frames and become whatever will get us through” (2004: 10). Thus, we may deliberately present different identities at different times, in different contexts, and to different people by, for example, switching dialects, idiolects and allusive frames of reference, all of which are deictic of that sociocultural identity or persona we wish to display in the particular context. Acceptance is won by establishing social and/or cultural parity between ourselves and our current interlocutors, a parity which is grounded in our positing a cultural frame of reference which we assume our interlocutors share and to which our allusions, among other things, refer. To achieve this relationship of parity, we play down some aspects of our identity and play up others, and it is this pragmatic gauging of the identity we present to the context we are in which allows us to conceive of identity as a narrative constructed for the pragmatic purposes of social and cultural interaction and acceptance. And, as Goffman argued in Stigma, the pressure, the need to perform palatably, to produce acceptable identity narratives, to pass oneself off as “normal” is greater among those who are in some way or another marginalized by noticeable disparity (1963: 42- 44). Thus it is that allusion to elements in C2’s cultural framework may be deployed for pragmatic purposes by C1 subjects in the construction of their narrative identities.