This study highlights that business games are seen as appropriate e-learning tools for fostering both generic and specific managerial skills in management training courses by the students. Previous research has stated that, despite the large quantity of studies examining the effectiveness of business games, further empirical research is required. We have reached conclusions similar to those of previous research (Fu et al., 2009; Zantow et al., 2005; Urquidi &Tamarit, 2017), which point out the benefits of business games in enhancing student learning, highlighting in particular some generic skills like decision-making, , critical thinking, teamwork, problem solving, or the ability to analyse information. In our case, the most valued generic skills fostered by the game from the students’ perspective were information processing and decision-making, and leadership. The least valued were the use of ICT and conflict management. These results have pointed out that students do not consider that business games add greatly to their previous experience in the use of ICT. It is also important to highlight that, when any kind of problem appeared within or among the students’ teams, the students immediately asked for the instructor’s help and intervention; as a result, although the game could expose students to situations of conflict, they did not consider it an especially appropriate tool for developing the skill of conflict management. Furthermore, this study wanted to go a step further, also considering the effectiveness of the game in boosting specific managerial skills, from the students’ point of view. The results point out the positive opinion of learners about the usefulness of the game in fostering these kinds of skills, as does the little previous research carried out that has also analysed them (Chang et al., 2003). The most valued ones were those related to management, such as managing a company, improving its competitive position, developing strategies, providing advice and reaching the goals of a firm.
Cross-cultural studies, even when employing different methods and strategies for investigation, have in common the fact that they are interested in the existing variability of behavior in different societies or cultural groups. They use it as a way to identify the dimensions of specific behaviors in each culture and those that can be generalised to other cultures as well. On the other hand, they try to explain the variability based on theories about cultural differences. Therefore, cross-cultural psychology is “the study of similarities and differences in individual psychological functioning in various cultural and ethnic groups, of the relationships between psychological variables and sociocultural, ecological and biological variables and of current changes in these variables” (Berry, Poortinga, Segall, & Dasen, 1992, p.2).
Junto a estas áreas de divergencia en la investigación so- bre apoyo social, se hace necesario incluir el énfasis puesto en distintos trabajos sobre cuáles son los mecanismos de ac- tuación a través de los cuales el apoyo social actúa sobre la salud. Diferentes factores pueden mediar en las consecuen- cias del apoyo social, entre los que destacan las características del propio individuo tales como la edad, el sexo o caracterís- ticas de personalidad. Algunas de estas variables personales han recibido especial atención, como es el caso de la autoes- tima, el afrontamiento, el locus de control, el sentido de coherencia o las expectativas de autoeficacia. Asimismo, se hace necesario contemplar también otras variables de carác- ter contextual, como las propiedades específicas de las rela- ciones interpersonales, los factores de tipo cultural, o aspec- tos coyunturales como el propio estado emocional del indi- viduo. (Aranda y Pando, 2013; Castellano, 2014; Riquelme, Martín, Carrillo y López, 2010).
Close to Duro Ladipo’s nativized Eda, an adaptation of John BunyaN’s Everyman is Wale Ogunyemi’s Eniyan. Other Nigerian plays in this category include, Ola Rotimi’s The Gods Are Not To Blame, which is an adaptation of Sophocle’s Oedipus Rex, Olanipekun Esan’s Esin Atiroja, an adaptation of the Trojan Horse; and Femi Osofisan’s Tegoni, an adaptation of Sophocle’s Antigone, while his Who is Afraid of Solarin? and One Legend Many Seasons, to mention a few, are adaptations of Nikolai Gogol’s The Government Inspector, and Charles Dickens’s novel, Christmas Carol, respectively. The observable intertextuality, no doubt, is a clear indication of inter-cultural influences. Besides, Femi Osofisan’s dramaturgy shares a common ideological boundary with the Brechtian epic theatre. Again, this is another proven case of instances of cross-cultural influences and correspondences.
Luria (1966, 1973) and Vygotsky (1934/1978) ana- lyzed the interaction between biological and cultural fac- tors in the development of human cognition. The main purpose of Luria’s expedition to Uzbekistan during the 1930s (Luria, 1931, 1933) was to investigate the influ- ence of culture, and particularly, its most important in- stitution, education, on the development of higher mental functions. According to Luria (1973), mental functions are “. . . social in origin and complex and hierarchical in their structure and they all are based on a complex system of methods and means . . . ” (p. 30). An intrinsic factor in systemic organization of higher mental functions is the engagement of external artifacts (objects, symbols, signs), which have an independent history of development within culture. It is this principle of construction of functional systems of the human brain that Vygotsky (1934/1978) called the principle of extracortical organization of com- plex mental functions, implying that all types of human cognitive processes are always formed with the support of cultural elements.
Etapa I - Traducción Inicial: dos traducciones del FNQ de la lengua inglesa fueron realizadas para la lengua portuguesa por dos traductores independientes, bilingües, que tienen como lengua materna el portugués, para que fuesen comparadas e identificadas las discrepancias. Los dos traductores tenían perfiles o formaciones diferentes, siendo una profesora doctora en enfermería y el otro, graduado en el curso de traductor e intérprete. El primer traductor fue informado sobre los conceptos que serían examinados y traducidos, en el cuestionario, objetivando entregar una perspectiva más clínica; en cuanto el otro traductor, considerado “ingenuo”, no recibió información y no tenía preparación profesional sobre el tema en pauta, ofreciendo, de esa forma, una traducción que reflejase el lenguaje usado por la población. Etapa II - Síntesis de las traducciones: una síntesis fue producida de las dos traducciones que contó con la participación de los dos traductores (inicial) y de las dos investigadoras de este estudio que fueron las mediadoras en las discusiones de diferencias de las traducciones, resultando en una traducción consensual. Etapa III – Retrotraducción (backtranslation): la versión producida fue traducida de vuelta para la lengua inglesa. Dos retrotraducciones fueron realizadas por otros dos traductores bilingües, independientes, que tenían el inglés como lengua materna. Fue un proceso de prueba de validez de contenido para tener seguridad que la versión traducida reflejaba con precisión el contenido del original, realzando, de esa forma, las inconsistencias o errores conceptuales de la traducción. Etapa IV - Comités de especialistas o jueces: dos comités fueron formados a fin de buscar la equivalencia semántica, idiomática, cultural y conceptual entre el instrumento original y versión traducida. Para evaluar la equivalencia semántica e idiomática, todos los participantes en las traducciones y retrotraducciones participaron, además de la contribución de las investigadoras y de los autores del instrumento original. En cuanto a la evaluación de la equivalencia conceptual y cultural, fue formado otro comité de seis jueces, tres especialistas en trauma y tres en familia, siendo utilizado para, ese comité, un formulario de evaluación elaborado para ese fin. El porcentaje de concordancia de las evaluaciones culturales y conceptuales entre los jueces fue calculado para cada un de los 40 ítems de la versión traducida del FNQ, por medio de la proporción entre
With the internal validation process of PQRc, the latter is reduced from 49 to 21 items, showing the importance of this type of study. The results obtained and the conclusions reached reflect a more assertive form of applying the questionnaire. The fact the values presented weaknesses in the discriminant validity, implies that there may be problems when interpreting the results. However, it must be highlighted that no instrument was found that can evaluate risk perception in canyoning by those who practised it. For such a reason, this questionnaire can be regarded as the beginning of a means to be developed. It is also to be stressed that this questionnaire has only been developed for the Portuguese and Spanish population, with the knowledge that alterations may be possible in the dimensions in other countries. Additional research is required to provide the viability analysis of this evaluation and reproduce this instrument for other countries. Thus, for us, it makes sense to be able to strengthen this area of study, being a modality that is growing and that
The 1990s saw the rise of text-linguistic and pragmatic approaches to translation (Nord 1991; Hönig 1998; Venuti 1995, 1998). Venuti (1995: 1-5) argues that publishers, reviewers and readers judge the quality of a translation in terms of its ‘fluency’, which results from the choice between the two translation strategies of ‘domestication’ and ‘foreignisation’. He defines domestication as an “ethnocentric reduction of the foreign text to target-language cultural values” which minimises the foreignness of the ST and produces a fluent translation which reads as an original text, a feature regarded as a sign of quality of the translation (Venuti, 1995: 20).
The Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a rather frequent disorder linked to pathological fatigue that causes discomfort and alters an individual’s lifestyle quality. Since the CFS has a multi-etiological nature, it is not easy to make a timely diagnosis, since currently diagnosis is based on the exclusion of medical or psychiatric causes. Research has demonstrated that the CFS may be found in several countries with diverse socio-cultural conditions. Only a handful of studies have been conducted in Mexico that tackle the subject of the commonness of the CFS from a cross-cultural perspective. So this study shows both the differences and similarities found in the commonness of the CFS among students of the DePaul University and students of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
Another parameter relevant in photoionization studies and closely related with the photoionization cross sections is the asymmetry parameter. This parameter, which characterizes the photoelectron angular distribution, is not easy to determine from an experimental point of view. Thus, an additional goal of this work was to calculate the asymmetry parameter by means the MQDO method, which has proved, in earlier works [17,20], to be a useful tool for this kind of estimations. Although it contains a wealth of information about molecular electronic structure and dynamics [21,22], neither experimental nor theoretical asymmetry parameter data for ethanol have been reported to date.
domain, followed by mental health and general health. Furthermore, the lowest score was demonstrated in the domains of emotional role and physical role. Having a higher household socioeconomic level was significantly correlated with higher scores on physical role, general health, social functioning, emotional role, and mental health. Being married or cohabiting was significantly correlated with all the SF-12v2 domains, with the exception of bodily pain. In general, these findings must be considered in view of several limitations. As previously mentioned, this study was cross-sectional and, therefore, no cause-effect relationships can be inferred for some of the observed relationships. A further limitation is that most of our sample was affiliated to clinics with low economic levels and; hence, may not be entirely easy to generalize. Future studies across socioeconomic class and various geographical settings are needed to untangle the relative contribution of these factors to HRQoL during pregnancy 7 . While a compre-
The study of cross-reactivity in allergy is the key to understand the allergic response of many patients and to provide them with a rational treatment. In this work, the introduction of protein microarrays and the use of a co-sensitization graph in conjunction with an allergen microarray immunoassay have enabled us to include a wide number of proteins and a large number of patients, and to study sensitization profiles among members of the LTP family. Fourteen LTPs from the most frequent plant food inducing allergies in the area of study were printed onto a microarray specifically designed for this research. Likewise, 212 patients with fruit allergy and 117 food-tolerant pollen allergic subjects were recruited from seven regions in Spain with different pollen profiles, and their sera were tested with the allergen microarray. This approach has proven to be a good tool to studycross-reactivity between members of LTP family, and could become a fruitful strategy to analyze other families of allergens.
Por otra parte la Carta Mandálica también es un vehículo organizador en el campo de la competencia cultural. Entendida ésta como “la integración compleja de conocimiento, ac- titudes y habilidades que aumenta la comuni- cación entre culturas diferentes (cross-cultural comunication) y las interacciones apropiadas/ efectivas con los otros” (Ibarra et al, 2006), Además mantiene su vinculación con los ele- mentos configuradores de dicha competencia como: la conciencia cultural, el conocimiento cultural, la habilidad cultural, el deseo cultural y los encuentros culturales. Si se quiere llegar a ser culturalmente competente se debe tener en cuenta la motivación, propósito y objetivos de ambos actores, una autoevaluación continua, desarrollar las técnicas o habilidades y aproxi- marnos al conocimiento de los grupos cultura- les que tratemos (Kersey-Matusiak, 2012).
The collection of texts written in Spanish in the PAN-2014 corpus was collected semi-automatically from four different sources: social media, blogs, Twitter and hotel reviews (the last only provided in the English corpus). In the competition of the year 2014, the PAN-CLEF organization opted for modeling age in a more fine-grained way and considered the following ranges (classes): 18-24, 25-34, 35-49, 50-64 and 65+ years old. The full collection was also divided into training, early bird evaluation and final testing parts. It is worth noting that we could access only to the training set and we use that part in the experimental study because the test corpus is not available at the time of writing this article.
Based on the data obtained in the SDQ-20 validation study, Nijenhuis et al. developed a brief scale, which proved to be useful for screening dissociative disorders. By using regression analysis methods, they identifi ed fi ve SDQ-20 items (items 4, 8, 13, 15, and 18) that provided optimal discrimination between dissociative disorders and other mental disorders, constituting the SDQ-5. A cut-off score of 8 was recommended to distinguish dissociative from other patients (sum scores range from 5 to 25). In their study, this cut-off point yielded sensitivity of 94%, specifi city of 96- 98%, corrected positive predictive value of 72-84%, and corrected negative predictive level of 99% at an estimated prevalence rate of 10% (Nijenhuis et al., 1997; Nijenhuis, 2010).
• Si decimos que los alemanes son germánicos, los británicos son anglosajo- nes, los españoles son latinos, ¿qué son los franceses? La situación geográ- fica de Francia en el corazón de Europa ha hecho que, en el transcurso de la historia, haya sufrido múltiples invasiones. Estas invasiones han creado la riqueza cultural actual, en donde los del este son un poco germánicos, los del oeste algo anglosajones y los del sur un poco latinos. Si a esto se añade la importante población de origen africano, caribeño y magrebí, Francia es el prototipo de país multicultural.
The metaphorics of cross-cultural identity depends on the resuscitation of two aspects of metaphor which are often neglected in modern treatments of metaphor. These aspects are its associated psychosomatic condition of wonder and its affective appeal to the emotions. Ever since Aristotle, rhetoric has acknowledged the joint role of the emotional and the intellectual in the cognitive process. Both the start and the end of the cognitive process are attended by the psychosomatic condition of wonder, traditionally the origin of both aesthetics and science and the first step towards the attainment of new knowledge. The initial ripple of wonder through a subject’s consciousness, whether that subject is contemplating an artistic production, a natural phenomenon, or some intractable mathematical puzzle, is a sign of the cognitive system kicking in, starting to assimilate and provide a logical account of something new, foreign or strange to our conceptual system. As Descartes put it, “Whenever the first encounter with an object surprises us, and we judge it to be new or very different from what we knew before or even what we had supposed it to be, we are caused to wonder at it and are astonished at it” (qtd Fisher 1998: 45). Socrates was alluding to the cognitive function of wonder’s intellectual component when he enthroned wonder as the “beginning of philosophy” (Plato 1952: 55). In his recent treatise on wonder, Fisher (1998: 8) describes how wonder starts with our surprise or bewilderment at something new or different that does not make sense; that surprise or bewilderment is then superseded by the intellectual effort to make sense of that new or different thing: we pass from a state of “not getting- it” to finally being able to “get-it”, as the rainbow is first wondered at until, through knowledge, its mystery is unwoven. This is why wonder is the beginning of philosophy, since our perplexity before the new or unexpected incites us to embark on a voyage that, in rationalising the wonderful, leads us to an understanding of it. And even at that moment of intellectual success, the emotions are present for a sense of pleasure accompanies our cognitive triumph.
Cross-cultural counseling can therefore be defined as psychopedagogical intervention based on a metatheory which: a) recognizes that all counseling approaches and theories are developed in a specific inter-active context; b) refers to inter-action in which two or more participants come from different cultures; c) includes any combination of the techniques involved in a culture; d) is characterized by professional assistance with the knowledge, skills and attitudes that are culturally appropriate; e) recognizes the use of western and non-western approaches in assistance; f) the changes involve not only the introduction of cross-cultural counseling programs but also the inclusion of this approach in the curriculum and in all dimensions of the educational system such as teaching techniques, motivation, grouping, student assessment and teacher training.
The debate over cultural relativism versus universality of human rights is not new. It was much discussed at the time of signing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 and again at the 1993 UN World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna. In both cases, some nations (such as Saudi Arabia in 1948 and certain Asian nations in 1993) argued that the meaning of human rights should vary according to the context in which they were applied, whereas most other nations saw such cultural relativism as counter to the universality of human rights. 83 The Conference’s final Vienna Declaration stated that “while the significance of national and religious particularities and various historical, cultural, and religious backgrounds must be borne in mind, it is the duty of States, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems, to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms.” 84 This means that companies should permit sensible variation where human rights and fundamental freedoms are not really affected, but do their best to maintain high and consistent global standards when it comes to such rights and freedoms. This will require the company to exceed the requirements of local law when local law falls below international human rights standards.
Formal education and school have played a crucial role in the diffusion of science and technology and in the contemporary trend toward the relative cultural homogenization. In this regard, school can be considered as a subculture, the subculture of school (Ardila, Ostrosky & Mendoza, 2000). School not only provides some common knowledge but also trains some abilities and develops certain attitudes. Cognitive testing is obviously based on those assumptions as well as values of scientific and technologically- oriented societies. Schooled children usually share more scientific and technological values and attitudes than their lower educated parents, and schooled subjects significantly outperform illiterate individuals in cognitive testing (e.g., Ardila et al., 2010; Ostrosky, Ardila, Rosselli, López-Arango & Uriel-Mendoza, 1999; Reis, Guerreiro & Petersson, 2003; Rosselli, 1993).