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Reconceptualising inquiry in science education

Reconceptualising inquiry in science education

Alongside the growth of inquiry has been the development of active teaching and learning approaches, constructivism and the idea that students should have more control over, and take more responsibility for, their own learning. These are often conflated into a single view of science education that could be described as student-centred, progressive or inquiry-led. The term Inquiry-Based Science Education (IBSE) is now used extensively to describe curricula which include at least some inquiry activities designed to reflect this approach. This conflation of a range of ideas into a single identity has created some of the problems we have encountered when thinking about inquiry because many different science education professionals have a highly personal, and distinctive, view of what they mean by inquiry ranging from simple practical work to completely unsupported, student-led learning programmes (Barrow, 2006).
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Inquiry-Based Science Education: A Pedagogical Framework from Philosophy of Science

Inquiry-Based Science Education: A Pedagogical Framework from Philosophy of Science

This article attempts to elucidate the claim that philosophy of science provides framework for science educators by presenting fundamental insights from philosophers of science relevant in making sure that science subjects in line with the newly implemented K-12 Program will be taught in the most effective ways possible. The K-12 Program of the Department of Education prescribed four pedagogical approaches namely constructivists, inquiry-based approach, reflective, collaborative and integrative that must be used in science classrooms as well as in any other subjects required by the new curriculum. However, teaching science gives premium on inquiry-based with an objective of bringing students awareness on what scientists do. Meanwhile, the nature of scientific inquiry is a significant foundation of the entire inquiry learning and teaching. With this in mind, this paper looks into the history of philosophy of science and brings out ideas of influential philosophers that discussed the nature of scientific inquiry and their informative categorical distinctions of what is scientific from the unscientific namely; Carnap’s inductivist empiricism, Popperian hypothetical-deductive approach and Kuhnian research puzzles. These philosophical thoughts are concrete guideposts on how to start the entire inquiry learning inside science classrooms. Science teachers and students can ask similar questions used by philosophers of science to scrutinize the veracity of scientific theories in store for the students to learn in science classes.
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Effective assessment practices in an inquiry-based science and technology education course in an Australian teacher education program

Effective assessment practices in an inquiry-based science and technology education course in an Australian teacher education program

This is a 2 nd year 2 credit point course that is the first of the integrated pedagogy and curriculum courses in the BPMU. It integrates the key learning areas of science and technology and infuses inquiry-based approaches that are utilised in a 10-day professional experience component. The course design involved engaging students by blending together both content and pedagogy using constructivist principles. However, it was made clear that inquiry is not the exclusive domain of the science and technology curriculum areas alone. PRT2201 is taught over 13 weeks and the content of the course is delivered in a variety of modes and approaches including WebCT Vista discussion groups, online chats, f2f lectures, workshops, laboratory sessions and guest lectures. The flexibility of content delivery is largely due to the increasing recognition at USQ that university students have many commitments whilst attending university such as part-time jobs and family commitments with an ever-growing mature age student cohort. USQ is also world-renown for its distance and online education programs and this expertise has been utilised in this course.
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The Influence of Hands-On Experimentation and Inquiry-Based Learning in Elementary Science and Technology (S&T) Education

The Influence of Hands-On Experimentation and Inquiry-Based Learning in Elementary Science and Technology (S&T) Education

A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect data from pre-service teachers enrolled in an accredited Ontario elementary S&T teacher education methods course at Brock University. Survey questions were adapted from those used by Jesky-Smith (2002) and Sen & Sari (2017). Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Informed consent was obtained through e-mail upon survey commencement. The survey, launched in the Winter of 2018, consisted of 20 questions which collected information regarding participants’ elementary S&T education experiences, S&T literacy, attitudes towards S&T, and confidence to teach S&T. Fourteen questions used a 4- point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree; 2=disagree; 3=agree; 4=strongly agree). Three questions used categorical responses based on the number of S&T teacher education courses participants completed, the grade and the frequency in which participants were first taught S&T. Three questions collected textual responses regarding 1) elementary S&T education program goals, 2) participants’ most memorable elementary S&T education experiences, and 3) the influence those experiences had on their attitudes toward S&T education. Anonymous responses were received over five weeks. Categorical responses were compared for significance using univariate
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iScience: A Computer-Supported Collaborative Inquiry Learning Project for Science Students in Secondary and Tertiary Science Education

iScience: A Computer-Supported Collaborative Inquiry Learning Project for Science Students in Secondary and Tertiary Science Education

designed by the pre-service teachers. The activities revolved around one of the following specific areas; water, global warming, materials, energy, health or transport The students were then asked to choose one area that interested them the most. In Stage 2 of the framework the students were asked to identify their prior knowledge about the topic and develop a model of their understanding. This model may have been in written prose or in the form of a concept or mind map. From this model the pre-service teachers guided the students in the development of a researchable question (Stage 3). Stages 4, 5, 6 and 7 of the inquiry framework include the planning and carrying out of and investigation and the analysis of data collected during the experiment. The final activity within the framework required the students to review their prior knowledge and ideas in light of the results of the experiment and design a new idea or invention based on these new ideas (Stage 8).
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Action Research: First-Year Primary School Science Teachers’ Conceptions on and Enactment of Science Inquiry in Singapore

Action Research: First-Year Primary School Science Teachers’ Conceptions on and Enactment of Science Inquiry in Singapore

Beginning teachers in Singapore are likely to encounter similar challenges in addition to some unique to their milieu. They have to understand the multiple reforms and ini- tiatives that spewed across the Singapore education landscape since the two big agenda, Thinking Schools, Learning Nation (Ministry of Education (MOE), Singapore, 1997) and Teach Less, Learn More (Ministry of Education (MOE), Singapore 2004b), were intro- duced because each one of those represents an area for teachers to be accountable in. The increase of education reform initiatives has resulted in work intensification, as can be seen from the multiplication, diversification, and specialization of teachers’ tasks and responsibilities, and the heightened controls on teachers’ performance (Hargreaves, 1994) which usurp teachers ’ autonomy (Apple & Beane, 1995). The study conducted by Tan et al. (2014) reveals an atypical set of concerns faced by Singapore teachers in terms of implementing inquiry-based lessons that differs significantly from constraints faced by their international counterparts. Significant concerns that stop implementing inquiry-based instruction are: assessment conflicts between inquiry instruction and as- sessment demands and heavy content in the curriculum.
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In-service science teachers’ self efficacy in teaching scientific inquiry:  a case in sri lanka

In-service science teachers’ self efficacy in teaching scientific inquiry: a case in sri lanka

As a part of larger study aimed at investigating predictors of science teacher self-efficacy for teaching scientific inquiry in the classroom, this study has three objectives (a) describe teachers’ extant practices of constructive alignment in teaching scientific inquiry ;(b) investigate the teachers’ perceived self-efficacy in teaching scientific inquiry and (c) examine the impact of teachers’ perceived self-efficacy on practices of constructive alignment in teaching scientific inquiry. A questionnaire was used for data collection from 193 science teachers at state schools in a larger urban school district in Sri Lanka. A General Linear Model (GLM) Univariate analysis using SPSS 21.00 programme was used for data analysis. Fact findings revealed that the enactment of scientific inquiry was satisfactory among the respondents, however, it looks more towards “scripted approach to inquiry in terms of learning outcomes, teaching learning activities and assessment tasks of scientific inquiry. The teachers’ perceived self- efficacy in student engagement was lower than that of classroom management and instructional strategies associated with inquiry-based teaching. It also reported only area of certification for teaching science, teacher self-efficacy in student engagement and self-efficacy in instructional strategies were significant predictors of perceived use of scientific inquiry. No statistically significant differences in use rates of scientific inquiry were found either by gender or education level. The implications and suggestions for future research are also included.
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INQUIRY-BASED PHYSICS EDUCATION BY USING SCIENCE  LEARNING SYSTEM  XPLORER GLX

INQUIRY-BASED PHYSICS EDUCATION BY USING SCIENCE LEARNING SYSTEM XPLORER GLX

Since Physics is an experimental science, the role of practical activities in physics edu- cation has been often paid attention by research studies (Bernhard, 2003; Harms, 2000; Sassi, 2001). Experimental students’ activities are one of the keys Science teaching/learning methods. These methods can be attributed to all of constructivism based learning technologies, which are called differently in the scientific literature: Discovery learning (Anthony, 1973, Bruner, 1961); Problem-based learning (Barrows, Tamblyn, 1980; Schmidt, l983); Inquiry based learning (Pa- pert, 1980, Rutherford, 1964); Experiential learning (Kolb, Fry, 1975; Boud, Keogh, Walker, 1985) or just Constructivist learning (Steffe, Gale Hillsdale,1995; Jonassen, 1991).
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The indicators of pupil opinion and teacher interactivity for inquiry-based science teaching

The indicators of pupil opinion and teacher interactivity for inquiry-based science teaching

The curriculum and assessment background to promoting advanced methods in science education in Scotland comprises the Curriculum for Excellence (CfE) initiative (Scottish Government 2008). While still in its infancy, CfE is generally supportive and encouraging of investigative science lessons, the range of possible activities that could count as investigative, and in the diversity of the ways in which scientists work. There is however some concern about the relationship between the CfE and Scotland‟s portfolio of upper-secondary school examinations, as yet unspecified in policy, and thus leaving open to question the degree to which the new curriculum will continue to support investigations as it currently is. Over emphasis on summative assessment through grading and examinations tends to work against the spirit of investigative activity in the science classroom, a practice that depends on a more sophisticated formative approach.
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Exploring the negotiation of the meaning of laboratory work in a continuous professional development program for lower secondary teachers

Exploring the negotiation of the meaning of laboratory work in a continuous professional development program for lower secondary teachers

As mentioned above, the long tradition of laboratory work in science education may influence teachers’ responses to and interpretations of externally recommended laboratory teaching practices based on existing curricula. The Swedish curricula introduced during the reforms of 2000 and 2011 presented inquiry-based science activities as means of developing students’ critical thinking abilities, and national tests that incorporated investigative tasks were introduced in 2009. However, analyses of recent Swedish studies and the current state of the art in school laboratory work clearly show that there is a growing gap between the teaching tradition and IBST as described in the new curricula. Laboratory work in traditional Swedish school science lessons was dominated by cookbook style verification-based activities with an emphasis on conceptual learning (Andrée, 2007; Gunnarsson, 2008; Gyllenpalm, Wickman & Holmgren 2010a, Högström, Ottander& Benckert, 2006). In addition, Högström et al., (2006) demonstrated that science teachers did not regard the understanding of scientific methods and the nature of science as an important learning outcome. Despite this, Gyllenpalm et al. (2010a) identified several activities that resembled inquiry as conceptualized in the science education literature in some respects but which lacked some of its essential elements. For example, the concept of a research question was not used to structure the activities; “hypothesis” was primarily used as a synonym of “prediction” in the sense of “a guess about an outcome”; an explicit focus on teaching about the characteristics of scientific inquiry was uncommon; and finally, “inquiry”, “hypothesis and “experiment” were primarily used as pedagogical tools. All of the above-mentioned studies also showed that there is a tendency to conflate inquiry’s roles as a learning
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Development and Evaluation of an Inquiry Based Elementary Science Teacher Education Program Reflecting Current Reform Movements

Development and Evaluation of an Inquiry Based Elementary Science Teacher Education Program Reflecting Current Reform Movements

Both required science courses were survey courses taught to a wide va- riety of academic majors. The courses had been initially developed to address campuswide graduation requirements for science, not to provide science con- tent for education majors alone. One course emphasized basic life processes, the fundamentals of chemistry and physics, and human systems and genet- ics. The other course focused on ecology, evolution, energy, energy technol- ogy, geology, and astronomy. The instructor, a science faculty member, deter- mined course content. The course material was presented to more than 100 stu- dents per section in a traditional manner of 3 hour lecture and 3 hour labora- tory per week. The laboratory experience generally followed the lecture and con- firmed the concepts presented in the lecture. Neither the required science courses nor the science elective had any explicit connection to state or national science standards.
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Determinants of Use of Inquiry Based Instruction by Early Childhood Teachers’ in Teaching Science in Meru South Sub-County, Kenya

Determinants of Use of Inquiry Based Instruction by Early Childhood Teachers’ in Teaching Science in Meru South Sub-County, Kenya

Members of the society require science skills to cope with technologically-changing world. Despite this realization, the perfomance in science subjects is still below the required standards wordwide. The impetus to conduct this study stemmed from the fact that science education plays a significant role in the a child‟s development as it can bridge the gap in education achievement in science performance at higher levels of learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the determinants of early childhood teachers‟ use of inquiry based instructional approaches in science activities. The main objectives of this study were to: establish the extent to which teachers used inquiry based instructional approaches in teaching science in early childhood development education, investigate the extent to which teachers‟ level of training influences use of inquiry based instructional approaches in teaching science in early childhood development education, determine the extent to which the type of training institution influences use of inquiry based instructional approaches in teaching science in early childhood development education and examine the extent to which teaching experience influences use of inquiry based instructional approaches in teaching science in early childhood development education. The target population for this study was 270 teachers. Eighteen teachers were purposively selected to take part in the study. The instruments for data collection were phenomenological interview and science lesson observation schedules. Interview questions were pretested on two teachers from Maara Sub County. Credibility of the study instruments was established through member check, prolonged engagement, persistent observation, peer debriefing, triangulation, multiple data sources and by comparing pretest results from
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The Effect of Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiments on Science Education Students' Chemistry Laboratory Attitudes, Anxiety and Achievement

The Effect of Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiments on Science Education Students' Chemistry Laboratory Attitudes, Anxiety and Achievement

students have problems associated with time limitation and group members' not participating equally in group work. Some of the students state that more time should be given. The responses of the students revealed that it takes time to get accustomed to this method. In some studies, it is stated that educators are faced with many difficulties while doing inquiry activities (Buck, Bretz, and Towns, 2008). Donnelly, McGarr and O'Reilly (2014) stated that it is difficult to adopt inquiry based learning for teachers since it is very different from traditional classroom culture. Although the curriculum has been revised in the light of the constructivist approach, the traditional lecture method is widely used in both theoretical and practical courses. The learning environments in which students sit passively and the teachers transfer information in packages cannot foster the development of students' thinking and inquiry skills. In the inquiry-based learning environment, students are required to think, ask questions and participate actively in the learning process. Thinking and searching processes are difficult for the students who are used to getting packaged information. Because the development of these skills is a matter of process and unfortunately developing them in a short period of time is impossible. Therefore, students have difficulties in the inquiry based activities related to time limitation and they cannot properly conduct research processes.
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Development of Interest in Science and Interest in Teaching Elementary Science: Influence of Informal, School,  and Inquiry Methods Course Experiences

Development of Interest in Science and Interest in Teaching Elementary Science: Influence of Informal, School, and Inquiry Methods Course Experiences

teachers. To break this cycle, teacher preparation programs must confront preservice teachers’ negative attitudes toward science and lack of personal interest in teaching science (Weiss 1997). Teachers’ interest in science and enjoyment of science may be important factors for achieving science education reform. The NSES stressed that only the teachers who “exhibit enthusiasm and interest and who speak to the power and beauty of scientific understanding can instill inquiry skills as well as curiosity, openness to new ideas, and skepticism that characterizes science” (NRC, 1996, p.37). According to Dewey (1933/1986), there is a connection between interest and effort, i.e., the more a person becomes interested in a subject the more effort he will put in it. Researchers suggest that: (a) interest is a motivational construct that emerges from an individual’s interaction with his/her environment (Krapp, 2004) (b) interest is dispositional and enduring (or habitual) (Krapp, 2004), and (c) interest motivates behavior (Deci, 1992). From these connections, it can be concluded that once an interest in science is developed, teachers may make the effort to seek out additional scientific information and science related experiences, thus further deepening science interest. Based on these connections, psychologists hypothesize that interest in a subject, such as science, can be developed over a period of time through interaction with objects valuable to the individual (Krapp, 2004; Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000).
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Year: 2017 Volume: 5 Number: 3

Year: 2017 Volume: 5 Number: 3

Effective professional learning involves understanding, modeling, practice, and feedback (Desimone, 2009; Hawley& Valli, 1999). Grossman and McDonald (2008) argued that pedagogies in teacher education need to approximate practice in such a way that prospective teachers should engage in „„intensive, focused opportunities to experiment with aspects of practice and then learn from that experience‟‟ (p. 189-190). In order to prepare future teachers to teach science through inquiry, teacher education programs need to provide teacher candidates with opportunities to learn and practice the inquiry approach and as well reflect upon their learning and practice. This study indicates that MLS within the context of methods courses is a promising way to develop teacher candidates‟ understanding and ability of teaching inquiry-based science. Through MLS, teacher candidates advanced their understanding of the inquiry approach to science teaching. Their inquiry-based teaching skills were horned. All participating teacher candidates viewed MLS as an effective tool for their professional learning. These findings are consistent with previous study reports about teacher candidates‟ positive learning experience with MLS in math methods courses (Fernandez, 2010; Fernandez & Robinson, 2007). The significance of MLS lies in the opportunities for practicing what they learned, collaborative reflection on their teaching, instant feedback, and learning from each other. MLS offers a tool to address prospective teachers‟ complain about the lack of intellectual substance and connection between theory and practice in methods courses reported in the literature (Grossman, 2005). It also provides a context for teacher candidates to exercise collaborative learning and reflective practice, the significance of which has been claim important in the literature (Korthagen, Loughran, & Russell, 2006; Schon, 1987).
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Examining the Efficacy of Inquiry-based Approaches to Education

Examining the Efficacy of Inquiry-based Approaches to Education

There are a number of shortcomings, however, in Hattie's (2009) meta-analysis. The majority of studies used in his work were conducted in the 1980s and early 1990s. This older body of research from science education did not involve the contemporary research literature engaged in this paper (e.g., Furtak et al., 2012; Sawyer, 2014). Further, the definition of inquiry, the aspects that are examined in the study, and the way in which inquiry is evaluated has important ramifications for determining its value. Notably, Hattie's (2009) definition of inquiry reflects a linear approach, in which students are rarely given an opportunity to learn from their errors due to time limitations and fears of getting the wrong answer (Hodson, 1998; Hofstein & Lunetta, 2003). In contrast, recent research related to iterative and recursive approaches to inquiry has shown that such processes produce a positive effect on student learning because students have a chance to revisit and learn from their mistakes (Furtak et al., 2012; Scott et al., 2014). A recent meta-analysis of guided inquiry-based approaches to science that examined more recent studies than that of Hattie (2009), for instance, found higher effect sizes for inquiry-based approaches that involved teacher-led activities (Furtak et al., 2012). As Furtak and colleagues noted, “engaging students in guided inquiry contexts does lead to learning gains when contrasted with comparison groups featuring traditional lessons or unstructured student- led activities” (p. 324).
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Pre-service teacher perceptions of and experiences with the implementation of inquiry based science teaching

Pre-service teacher perceptions of and experiences with the implementation of inquiry based science teaching

A key finding of this study is the relationship between pre-service teachers‟ experiences with their own education and the challenges and successes faced while implementing inquiry. Most of the teachers in this study were first exposed to inquiry at the faculty of education. They therefore first required some time to feel comfortable with the concept. When teachers are familiar with a method of teaching, they will have more confidence to try to implement it and have a greater chance of success. This exposure to inquiry can come from elementary, high school, teacher training or ideally all areas. If it has come from all areas, as was the case for two of the participants, pre-service teachers will have had plenty of inquiry based teaching modelled to them over time. It therefore would be more of a natural approach for them in their teaching experience in practicum. For this to be the case for most pre-service teachers, there needs to be a consistent move towards inquiry based teaching over a long period of time, so as to allow that exposure to filter down to elementary school for future teachers.
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Initial teacher education guideline for teacher educators in inquiry‐based science teaching

Initial teacher education guideline for teacher educators in inquiry‐based science teaching

S‐TEAM Deliverable 5a: Training materials Part 1: Inquiry in Initial Teacher Education  susipažįstama  su  ekologinėmis  ozono  sluoksnio  nykimo  ir  šiltnamio  efekto  sukeliamomis pro[r]

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The Effect on Elementary Science Education Based on Student's Pre inquiry

The Effect on Elementary Science Education Based on Student's Pre inquiry

elementary school students who are still lacking in science knowledge, it is difficult for students to ask abstract, high-dimensional questions. Students were able to see simple facts and information, a lot of questions about what they knew and the surrounding environment. Second, the number of informative inquiries was the most significant inquiries, which was a meaningful pre-inquiries based on the curriculum of science experts and colleagues, followed by explanation, procedural, and non-task curiosity inquiries. Based on this, it was shown that the level of student inquiries was not related to the types of inquiries students had. In the case of the pre-inquiries, Non-task curiosity inquiries and procedural inquiries were few, but the quality of the questions was not low. It can be seen that this type of inquiries is possible for all types of inquiries, not just information inquiries and explanation inquiries. Finally, the students' science process skills and science- related affective domain were improved by using meaningful pre-inquiries. In this way, analyzing the students' meaningful pre-inquiries and conducting the science lessons using them can show a positive learning effect for the students. Based on these results, we suggested that; first, teachers should not only analyze teaching materials such as curriculum and textbooks before class, but also understand and analyze student's thoughts by using student's pre-inquiries. And considering the level and interests of students, teacher can reconstruct the class to suit the level and needs of the students. Second, based on the pre-inquiries collected through this study, it is expected that the teaching-learning method of elementary school can be diversified and the class using meaningful pre-inquiries can be applied in elementary school field. Finally, the curriculum and textbooks are made up of a lot of educational experts, but they do not know what students are interested in learning. Therefore, it is necessary to construct the curriculum and the textbook considering the students' understanding of the learners who are the demanders of the education when constructing the curriculum and the textbook. Although this study was conducted for elementary school students in South Korea, it is anticipated that it will be possible for the elementary school students in many countries of the world to use the pre-inquiries to make effective teaching-learning.
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IMPORTANCE OF INTEGRATION OF PEDAGOGY AND TECHNOLOGY IN  TEACHING SCIENCE

IMPORTANCE OF INTEGRATION OF PEDAGOGY AND TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING SCIENCE

This paper addresses the integration of pedagogy and technology in science teaching. Science teaching is such a complex, dynamic profession that it is difficult for a teacher to stay up-to-date. For a teacher to grow professionally and become better as a teacher of science, a special, continuous effort is required (Showalter, 1984, p. 21). To better prepare students for the science and technology of the 21st century, the current science education reforms ask science teachers to integrate technology and inquiry-based teaching into their instruction (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1993; National Research Council [NRC], 1996, 2000). Good teaching “begins with an act of reason, continues with a process of reasoning, culminates in performances of imparting, eliciting, involving, or enticing, and is then thought about some more until the process begins again” (Shulman, 1987, p. 13). Thus, to make effective pedagogical decisions about what to teach and how to teach it, teachers should develop both their PCK and pedagogical reasoning skills .In recent years, many researchers in the field of educational technology have been focused on the role of teacher knowledge on technology integration (Hughes, 2005; Koehler & Mishra, 2005, 2008; Mishra & Koehler, 2006; Niess, 2005). This paper discuss the role of science education in 21 st Century, the aim of science education ,purpose of science education ,changing trends in science education, meeting the changing needs in science education, role of ICT in transforming teaching and learning, the link between ICT and pedagogy .At the conclusion it states that though integration of technology and pedagogy is essential for better science teaching but a balance between pedagogy and technology is required to avail the greatest benefit.
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