Cultural Heritage and Tourism

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Valorización sostenible del patrimonio cultural via tour guías: caso turco de efeso ciudad antigua

Valorización sostenible del patrimonio cultural via tour guías: caso turco de efeso ciudad antigua

The Ephesus area is considered to be one of the most important values of cultural tourism. It is one of the richest ancient cities in history formed by Greek and Roman cultures. Furthermore, it is one of the best examples of the ancient age, recognized by archaeologists and historians. The largest ancient theatre of Turkey and houses on the slopes with well -protected mosaics and frescoes, symbolizing the past, can be found in this area. In addition to this, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, “The Temple of Artemis” was built in Ephesus. Taking all these facts into consideration, the Ephesus area has been accepted as a symbol of history and culture (Eser, Dalgin and Ceken, 2013). One of the main ideas of sustainable tourism is based on the stance that tourism industry is responsible for the state of degradation of natural and cultural environments. Users of local resources are obliged to pay attention on conservation issues. In that respect, the potential of tour guides for minimizing negative impacts of tourism traffic is rarely perceived and used (Rabotic, 2010). Furthermore, even though tour guides are one of the most visible players in tourism industry but, to date little scholarly attention was given to tour guides and guiding profession, not to speak of the links that tour guides may have with sustainability of tourism (Hu, 2007). Tour guides are - particularly in the eyes of tourists - representatives and “ambassadors” of tourism destinations but they are also their “protectors”. Hence, they should be treated as one of the destination stakeholders and due to their direct and often intense contact with tourists, actively involved in the implementation of sustainable tourism (Rabotic, 2010). In this context, this study addresses the gap by promoting an understanding of how tour guides can assist to moving tourism in a sustainable direction. Additionally, this study aims to question valorization process of Ephesus Ancient City as one of the cultural heritage sites of Turkey in relation with tour guiding practices. In doing so, several specific objectives are to be achieved: to understand sustainable tourism and the relation between sustainable tourism and tourism; to explore the roles and responsibilities of tour guides and their implications for the promotion of tourism sustainability and valorization process of cultural heritage sites such as Ephesus Ancient City; to examine to what extend tour guides exert their functions to support tourism development. By fulfilling these research objectives, it is expected to enhance the comprehension of the linkage between tour guides and sustainability, which is beneficial to both practical tour guide management and cultural site managers. In addition, this study will contribute to the literature on sustainable tourism development and cultural heritage site valorization process.
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Psychedelic tourism in Mexico, a thriving trend.

Psychedelic tourism in Mexico, a thriving trend.

In Mexico there is a wide range of associations, organizations and travel agencies currently offering psychedelic experiences to national and international visitors, this offer generates a significant influx of individuals outside their usual environment, a social phenomenon known as tourism (WTO, 1995). Shamanic practices like psychedelic plant ingestion in indigenous religious contexts are part of an intangible cultural heritage spawning tourist flow in Mexico and South America since the nineteen sixties. Even though shamanic religious practices were once an essential element of social life in many Mexican prehispanic communities (Hofmann, 1977; De La Garza; Ruiz, 2012) today, most universities, government authorities, and media outlets in the country are completely unfamiliar with such practices. This widespread unawareness currently merges with an expanding trend of psychedelic ‑tourism activities, which should be done properly; otherwise two main problems could be generated:
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Events 2.0 in the transmedia branding strategy of World Cultural Heritage Sites

Events 2.0 in the transmedia branding strategy of World Cultural Heritage Sites

In the same way as it happened in other economic sectors, the communication models in the tourism sector have evol- ved towards transmedia branding to adapt to the features of the new tourist 2.0. This model is the result of a saturated market in which destinations need to build their own identity, brand image and personality, beyond the traditional destination information and promotion goals (Jiménez-Morales; De-San-Eugenio-Vela, 2009; Galmés-Cerezo, 2010). The transmedia branding model makes it easier for brands to connect emotionally with consumers and generates com- munities of users around the lived and shared experience (Fernández-Castrillo, 2014). It consists of integrating tangible and intangible values and meanings associated with the brand’s personality into a multichannel narrative that provides an integrated brand experience. The active participation of users generates engagement and builds loyalty (Tenderich, 2014; Martínez-Sala; Monserrat-Gauchi; Campillo-Alhama, 2017). The participation of users in the very development of the narrative is central to the building of the brand identity.
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El impacto del turismo en los Sitios Patrimonio de la Humanidad. Una revisión de las publicaciones científicas de la base de datos Scopus

El impacto del turismo en los Sitios Patrimonio de la Humanidad. Una revisión de las publicaciones científicas de la base de datos Scopus

La excepcionalidad de los Sitios del Patrimonio Mundial (en adelante SPM) puede deberse a uno o más de los diez criterios determinados por la UNESCO, cuyo precepto es protegerlos, mantenerlos, entenderlos y, en consecuencia, ponerlos en valor cultural para el disfrute de propios y extraños. Los visitantes generan una serie de conflictos, tensiones y oportunidades, tan diversas como diversos y ejemplares son los destinos, siendo frecuentes en todas las tipologías de destinos (Ashwort et al., 2002). Estas tensiones y conflictos ya fueron advertidos desde los años ochenta del pasado siglo. Genérica- mente, el turismo se veía como una amenaza potencial para el patrimonio (Coburn, 1984; Davis y Weiler, 1992), incluso Batisse (1992) compara a la actividad turística, en estos frágiles destinos, con la guerra y la contaminación. En los años noventa, la preocupación se centró en contener los flujos turísticos, evitando altas concentraciones (Wallace, 1993; Popp, 2001), mientras que en los 2000, Shafer e Inglis (2000) mencionan como reto el aspecto de la capacidad de carga. Es a partir de entonces cuando se valora la necesidad de ordenar la actividad turística, mediante planes específicos (Parlett et al., 1995), superando la idea de que la inclusión en la lista es un mero reconocimiento turístico (Wager, 1995) o una forma de ordenar al mundo (Lazzarotti, 2000). Esta planificación debe ser compartida (Hawes, 1996), sostenible sobre todo implicando a la sociedad (Yuksel et al.,1999), con objeto de, juntos, erradicar las que Kirkpatrick (2001) menciona como perversas intenciones de los desarrolladores turísticos.
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Selling culture?  Between commoditisation and cultural control in Indigenous alternative tourism.

Selling culture? Between commoditisation and cultural control in Indigenous alternative tourism.

The fact that the pressures of the tourist and ethical and philanthropic markets also reproduce the postcolonialist representations might be interpreted as a counterforce to Indigenous cultural control. As such, how these projects engage with their clients and donors represents a key element of the evaluation of how culture and identity are constructed as tourist commodities under the control of the cultural producers engaged with multiple stakeholders (Amaya Loustaunau, 2007). As mentioned above, these stakeholders exercise pressures, whether directly or indirectly, based on their own interests and values. Consequently, it is expected that the capacity for achieving cultural control and for appropriating or rejecting the postcolonialist representations might differ depending on the network strategies of the organisations: who they ally themselves with. It is also important to consider the political histories through which these organisations have already attained (or failed to attain) some level of empowerment and experience in their engagement with various stakeholders. This contributes to their capacity to manage relationships with other stakeholders more independently (see Frooman, 1999 regarding multiple stakeholder influences).
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From Urbanism to Planning to Urban Project. The pursuit of ‘urbanity’ in Spanish plans and projects

From Urbanism to Planning to Urban Project. The pursuit of ‘urbanity’ in Spanish plans and projects

In the last decades substantial transformations are changing the features of the so-called mediterranean compact city model, among them the loss of urban quality in the new peripheries. Those processes have led to explore other ways of urbanism, sometimes looking to old traditions. If we want to understand the complex and often contradictory ways of recovering and updating an early Spanish urbanismo – the one that produced some of the most interesting and qualified urban tissues – more specific research is needed. We had referred especially to some carefully plans and projects characterized by their high levels of urbanity. Of course, this doesn’t mean that the forms and tools of the, in the words of Peter Hall,‘ lost art of urbanism’, have been be recovered directly. Rather, we mean that this philosophy of integrating architecture and planning has been seen an important principle of a true high quality urbanism.
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Realities and problems of a major cultural tourist destination in Spain, Toledo

Realities and problems of a major cultural tourist destination in Spain, Toledo

Regarding this second problem, it is more interesting to note the work that has been undertaken by another public body, the Consortium of the City of Toledo, which, since 2001, has been the management body of the Royal Board of the City of Toledo. In Spain, there are three royal boards that function as permanent professional bodies under the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports: Cuenca, Santiago de Compostela and Toledo. In the city of Toledo, the Royal Board was created in 1998 with the goal of strengthening and enhancing the city’s opportunities for cultural and touristic development (García, 2007). The Consortium, its managing body, has organized several tours and guided visits for unfrequented places located outside of the traditional routes of Toledo’s tourism. These routes, launched in 2004 under the common name of Unknown Heritage, include free and guided visits to various monuments, archaeological sites, and other sites of particular interest that have been combined and put to good use by the Consortium (http://www.consorciotoledo.com). Currently, 21 structures are included in this program, to varying degrees of exploitation. However, according to the Consortium figures, this initiative remains incipient, given that, in 2010, this unknown heritage was only discovered by 82,000 people.
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Transmitir y educar: sentidos, críticas y posibilidades

Transmitir y educar: sentidos, críticas y posibilidades

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers JETT, Vol. 5 (2); ISSN: 1989-9572 293 kantiano, “únicamente por medio de la educación, el hombre puede llegar a s er hombre” (p. 31). Así, la educación comprende el “cuidado” (las precauciones que los padres deben tener para con los hijos); y la “formación”, que involucra tanto la “disciplina” como la “instrucción”. La primera, es la acción por la que se borra al hombre de la animalidad sometiéndolo a las leyes de la humanidad, y la que hace sentir la coacción con el fin de someterse a los procesos de la razón; la segunda, es aquella que hace pertenecer al hombre a la cultura. Kant (1991) cree que “tras la educación está el gran secreto de la perfección de la naturaleza humana […] Encanta imaginarse que la naturaleza humana se desenvolverá cada vez mejor por la educación” (p. 32). La idea de educación es concebida por Kant como cuidado y perfección humana que contribuye justamente a propiciar el desarrollo de lo propio del hombre, esto es, su condición de ser racional y moral.
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Tourism and insularity

Tourism and insularity

• …Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily are destinations in the process of expansion. In a context in which the IMEDOC are generally losing ground, these islands show better tourism indicators than the two leaders and they are following the same trend as the Mediterranean’s remaining countries.

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TítuloInterpretive processes in cultural tourism

TítuloInterpretive processes in cultural tourism

Esta perspectiva (Padró, 2000: 138-139) “se basa en la adecuación del territorio, entendido este como yacimiento cultural (…). La idea de yacimiento se asocia siempre a un espacio, a un terreno que es descubierto y que, por tanto, debe ser investigado y explotado”. En un territorio se encuentran elementos patrimoniales, acumulados a lo largo de la historia, que narran acontecimientos, ideas, creencias, personajes, modelos de vida, biodiversidad, etcétera. Y todo esto puede ser comunicado y explicado. En definitiva, se entiende un yacimiento cultural como “la expresión de todo lo que ha creado y elaborado el género humano en un entorno determinado, y que estos elementos y testimonios actúan como símbolos evidentes de comunicación”. Esto implica un proceso de estructuración, que permite crear un sentido. Es en este punto donde aparece como metodología el concepto de interpretación, mediante el que se encuentra el “hilo conductor que da coherencia a todo el conjunto y, a partir del cual se desarrolla la presentación del patrimonio, a la vez que sirve de punto de referencia para todos los servicios y actividades que se organizan para la explotación de estos recursos”.
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The value of cultural assets. Maintenance Costs and economic sustainability at heritage

The value of cultural assets. Maintenance Costs and economic sustainability at heritage

Según indica Riera (1994), este tipo de técnicas ex–ante son muy importantes para priorizar racionalmente el gasto público. La fiabilidad de la valoración depende del correcto diseño de la encuesta donde se deberán plantear diferentes funciones de demanda y voluntades de pago. Para que dichas funciones de demanda no sean puntuales sino prologables en el tiempo, el patrimonio debe convertirse en una excusa para la creación cultural ex novo, ya que la variación de la oferta cultural resulta imprescindible para plantear estimaciones creibles de la función de demanda de objetos no comercializables. Los individuos no van a juzgar sus cambios de bienestar por modificaciones en los precios, sino por cambios reales o potenciales en la oferta de bienes disfrutables. Nos encontramos así con un patrimonio heredado o producto cultural en sí mismo, que debemos convertir en una oferta cultural flexible y variable.
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Interactions between geomorphological heritage and cultural landscape of Serra do Alvão: the perspective of cultural geomorphology

Interactions between geomorphological heritage and cultural landscape of Serra do Alvão: the perspective of cultural geomorphology

The trilogy of the ager, saltus and mons of traditional agro-forestry-pastoral areas of the Northwest of Portugal adapted to geomorphological and edaphic constraints of this Medieval Land. The ager, the domain of croplands, focuses mainly on the alluvial plain of Vila Pouca de Aguiar and small enclosed valleys, expanding on the most fertile soils, associated with alluvial areas and other types of deposits. Climbing the slopes of the Alvão, the saltus, forest plots, often private and fenced, appears alternating with farmland, whose presence decreases as we ascend in altitude. In the higher altitudes of the strands comes mons domain, consisting of a combination of shrub communities, forest, and forest areas of collective ownership, the common land. On the top of the plateau reappear agricultural fields and mountain rangelands, interspersed with granite outcrops. In the medieval period, in mountainous areas, the existence of poorer soils, steeper slopes and more adverse weather conditions, stimulated the development of communitarian systems and small private ownership, not controlled by the current tenure systems in most fertile lands, whose holding is made between families who had settled in small population centres (P edRoSa , 2013). Communitarian lands
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Community participation in heritage tourism planning: is it too much to ask?

Community participation in heritage tourism planning: is it too much to ask?

As a destination, Kastoria has a fairly established tourism sector of approximately 1,900-bed capacity, which is presently peripheral to its economy (Hellenic Chamber of Hotels, 2016). Following the prevailing model of (mass organised) tourism in Greece, Kastoria developed a tourism offer, which is mostly standardised and mainly consumed domestically. However, as recent years witnessed a decline of its local traditional industries (manufacturing) and a national on-going economic crisis, opportunities emerged for developing its tourism further. Considering Greece’s homogeneity and shortfall in special interest tourism (Tsartas et al., 2014), Kastoria could develop a local differentiated heritage tourism product to increase its attractiveness and competitiveness. Based on its rich heritage collection of prehistoric, classical, medieval and modern sites of interest, it could capitalise on heritage tourism to stimulate its rural economy and encourage investment in local heritage assets.
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COINE Project : Cultural Objects in Networked Environments

COINE Project : Cultural Objects in Networked Environments

Running from March 2002 - August 2004 COINE intends to provide the tools needed to create structured, World Wide Web-based environments which allow content to be shared locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. The Project's findings will assist the development of standards for structured deployment and retrieval of digital resources in distributed networked environments. Demonstrations will test the application in different cultural settings across Europe, including among schoolchildren and citizens' groups.

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A data model for Cultural Heritage within INSPIRE.

A data model for Cultural Heritage within INSPIRE.

phenomena and matter” (Crofts et al. 2010: 22). Geometry is not conceived as a property of things, but as one of the possible ways to des- cribe a Place, which in its turn is a spatial loca- tion where things or objects can be found. This is an extremely rich and powerful model that allows, for instance, to easily describe changes in the location of things through time, which is very coherent with the primary concern that CIDOC-CRM has with objects and with its event-based character (Janowicz 2009). Besi- des that, it allows simple management of rela- tive locations, which are considered to be “of- ten more relevant in the context of cultural do- cumentation and tend to be more precise” (Crofts et al. 2010: 22) than geospatial loca- tions. Albeit as rich, coherent and powerful as this is, it is a totally different approach with re- gards to INSPIRE, where location and geometry are inherent properties of things. Examples of the integration of GIS spatial data with the CIDOC-CRM model result, as would be expec- ted, in a data structure where things and spa- tial entities are two different classes of objects (e.g. Cripps et al. 2004; Hiebel, Hanke, and Hayek 2013).
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Cultural identity and heritage language maintenance In Embera Chamí university´s students

Cultural identity and heritage language maintenance In Embera Chamí university´s students

In addition, Liu (2008) supports the findings of Phinney Et al. (2001) arguing that family plays a crucial role passing their attitudes and beliefs about heritage language to their children and that ethnic identity is a key factor in explaining heritage language maintenance or loss. This study was conducted with 28 children from a large southwestern border city in the USA. The children were learning Chinese in a Sunday Chinese school and most of them were born in the USA. The purpose of this study was to investigate what makes Chinese Americans maintain their Chinese culture, and what the major factors are for successful heritage language maintenance in an English-dominant society.Having in mind that these Chinese are immersed in the North American context, Chinese are considered a minority culture.
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World Heritage and Cultural Diversity in Oceania

World Heritage and Cultural Diversity in Oceania

Late in 2011, I was participating in the triennial General Assembly of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), the independent statutory Advisory Body to UNESCO on cultural World Heritage. I had been a member of Australia ICOMOS for some years and had undertaken a number of field assessments of World Heritage nominations in different parts of Oceania. I had also been Secretary General of an ICOMOS International Scientific Committee for a couple of years, so all-in-all I thought I had a reasonable idea of how things worked in ICOMOS. For the most part that was true, but then after a few days of symposia I attended the General Assembly meeting itself. I was surprised to discover that there was considerable agitation amongst delegates regarding a move by a group of European ICOMOS National Committees (Austria, Bosnia Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Germany, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and Switzerland) to condemn what one high- profile individual in that group decried as “the Australian approach” to cultural heritage.
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Redefiniendo el concepto de Turismo Industrial. Comparativa de la terminología en la literatura castellana, francesa y anglosajona

Redefiniendo el concepto de Turismo Industrial. Comparativa de la terminología en la literatura castellana, francesa y anglosajona

A partir de ese momento, surgieron movimientos y asociaciones en todo el mundo a favor de la conservación de elementos industriales considerados significativos; las más relevantes fueron Society for Industrial Archaeology (SIA) creada en 1971 en Michigan, Estados Unidos y, sobre todo, The International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage (TICCIH), fundada en 1978 en Suecia. Gracias a ellas, entre otras, muchos edificios siguen en pie hoy en día y comenzó a elaborarse el inventariado de bienes relacionados con la industria local, paso fundamental para la protección de los mismos.
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Bibliography on multicultural issues

Bibliography on multicultural issues

by authors in the United States (US). Second, despite this abundance of research materials many of these articles did not come up while searching the available databases, which means that somehow local researchers may be under cited and others working on similar areas may be unaware of these projects. This underrepresentation is problematic as the means to obtain databases and to be cited in them, important material tools to support a research tradition and to advance in an academic environment. Finally, this bibliography needed to be accompanied by a reflection of what are multicultural competencies.
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TítuloPeople with disabilities and Cultural Tourism: an unfinished reality

TítuloPeople with disabilities and Cultural Tourism: an unfinished reality

En resumen, el modelo de estado de bienestar en el que la sociedad del siglo XXI se encuentra se basa en una sociedad libre, justa y solidaria fundamentada en el principio de igualdad para todas las personas y en el respeto a un conjunto de derechos universales. Así puede afirmarse el derecho de la persona con discapacidad a la inclusión y el correlativo deber de la sociedad de asegurarla. Además se constata que el Ocio es un elemento cada vez más presente en toda la normativa. Sin embargo, ocurre que aún puede afirmarse que es un Derecho Conculcado para el colectivo objeto de este artículo, pues aunque es un Derecho reconocido no se garantiza ni se hace efectivo como debiera. No quiere esto decir que las personas con discapacidad no disfruten del ocio, ni de experiencias placenteras de tipo lúdico, cultural o turístico, sino que los poderes públicos y la sociedad en general, ni lo facilitan como debieran, ni lo garantizan como establecen los principios fundamentales que rigen su acción.
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