Planners, architects and managers seek innovative ways to make efﬁcient use of the resources invested in planning campuses, designing, building and renovating facilities, as well as running universities. New ways to plan, design and manage infrastructure must serve the educational process and improve the quality of the learning environment. Campus space should be ﬂexible and allow for changes in our understanding about how people learn. The planning process needs to honour the institution’s history and culture and include input from all the people who will use that space: not only must the needs of students, teachers and staff be fulﬁlled, but members of the communities in which the space is situated must also be included in the projects as potential users. Sustainability is another growing concern for those involved in planning and managing infrastructure; an increased interest in facilities that respect the environment has already led to the promotion of speciﬁc design practices and methods for assessing building performance and meeting sustainability goals.
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In sum, this paper analyzes the relation between one of the most respectable institutions of capitalism, competition, and feelings of happiness, and studies if this relation varies across ethnic groups using data from the 2005 wave of the World Value Surveys (WVS). Using the WVS improves over the Brandts et.al (2005) study in that the WVS build on representative samples and avoids the problem of self-selection typical of experimental studies. It also improves over the Fischer (2008) study in that my paper considers a subjective opinion about whether an individual thinks market competition is good or harmful (see below) which, as argued above, constitutes an individual measure and it may also be considered an ex-ante opinion, independent of the actual competitive environment derived from any aggregated approximation to competition, such as the KOF globalization index.
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It may not seem such a big deal for a cultural institution to make its photographic collections available in a photo-sharing site and to allow users to add tags or comments and to share content. Nonetheless, many cultural institutions still face difficul- ties in allowing users to interact with their collections and share their experiences with others. Sharism has emerged as a new phenomenon that responds to the new opportunities offered by the networked environment. Social networking combined with mobile technologies has had a major impact on how information is exchanged and how knowledge is constructed. Cultural content needs to be part of this process if it is to adapt to the reality de- scribed by Foresta (cited above): “Culture is a memory, collective memory, dependent on communication for its creation, extension, evolution and preservation”. The culture sector needs to transfer content to where people are online —whether in social networking sites, photo- and video-sharing sites, etc— and to seize the op- portunities arising in the context of digital networks. This does not imply abandoning the institutional website, but extending reach by using networks and recognizing that the impact potential of an online network is greater than the impact of any single node in a network (Barabási, 2003). Cultural institutions should not wait for users to visit institutional websites but should attract the user’s attention in the sites they already visit.
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A third theme deals with the ways in which this wider variety of devel- opment goals can be achieved.Various development economists (Stiglitz 1999; Dasgupta 1999) have taken up the idea that only a balance between di ﬀ erent institutional forms will allow societies to develop: state bureau- cracies, markets, and civil society can only ﬂourish together. It is often added that deliberative forums can forge the appropriate linkages between di ﬀ erent institutional forms (Stiglitz 2003; Sen 1999).This view appears in the World Bank’s Proposal for a Comprehensive Development Framework (Wolfensohn 1999). In cultural theory, civil society is the institution cher- ished by egalitarianism, free markets are extolled by individualism, and bureaucracies constitute the favored allocation mechanism of hierarchy. Open, deliberative forums should bring about institutions and policies in which these organizational forms are creatively combined. Cultural theory adds that democracy and human rights, though necessary for the proper functioning of polities and economies, may not always be su ﬃ cient. Gyawali’s study (2001) illustrates this. In predemocratic Nepal, the politi- cal and bureaucratic elites, hand in hand with aid donors, viewed the opportunities and problems of hydropower through the lens of only one culture: hierarchy. This unrepresentative manner of policy making led to high energy prices, corruption, and stagnation. The advent of democracy allowed alternative perspectives on Nepali electricity supply to be heard more in public debates. But democracy has thus far not turned this par- ticular issue-area into a constructive interplay of opposing solidarities. After the huge Arun-3 project was halted, Nepali bureaucrats (as mono- cultural as before) proposed an even bigger dam, the Pancheswar High Dam, as the only possible remedy for Nepal’s plight. So formal democracy may not always be su ﬃ cient to bring about the necessary, never-ending, creative struggle between alternative cultures that can further develop- ment. One of cultural theory’s aims is to let some light into the black box of democracy and deliberation.
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why “ecology blends environmental sciences with human culture” (Babe 1997: 1-2). as such, culture, although created by human beings, necessarily includes dimensions of the material or objective and symbolic or subjective. the material dimension of culture consists of a set of goods, utensils, practices and institutions created to face natural or objective physical circumstances. anthropology defines it describing “culture is a set of tried and proven ans- wers which have been balanced against environmental incitements. it is the functional equivalent to instinct” (lamo de espinosa et al. 1987). this material dimension of culture is made up of information technology, the market and political organization, that is, those institutions that allow human beings to satisfy their needs and find fulfillment. the symbolic dimension encompasses both the spiritual and the symbolic parts. it consists of the norms that rule each social group, that is, ideas, interpretations, beliefs, traditions and even aspirations. Both material and symbolic aspects allow us to understand that heritage is not only a set of monuments or natural reserves. heritage also re- fers to spiritual legacy, beliefs and traditions.
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the site was that anyone in the United States could make a list of the country’s issues and give their opinion on what its main priorities should be. Gilliam’s aim was to constitute a form of e-governance to offer President Obama a valuable public consultation tool. The web site was launched but was not incorporated into the president’s programme of communications strategies. The initiative continues today, providing a forum where some ten thousand US citizens discuss what the priorities of their current government should be. I mention the example of White House 2 because it is an example of a form of politics driven by the internet. Two of its features make it especially representative of the current political context: 1) White House 2 is an individual, non-party-aligned project collectivised through online interaction and debate; 2) its primary goal is to create open, transparent information that contributes to public involvement without directly interacting with the power structures of conventional representative democracy.
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tems, we lived with and in the systems. Our energy was invested in systems establishments, optimisations, and improvements. We perceived the world through the notion of system. System was one of the major paradigms of the last century. The end of the 20th century, however, promoted a new conceptual paradigm, which is network. Now, at the beginning of the 21st century, it seems that network is driving out system. We have a new king (le roi est mort, vive le roi!). We have a new point of reference and intellectual tool at our disposal for describing and analysing the world. One may claim that network has been around for quite a long time and that considering it as a novelty is by no means justified. To some extent this opinion is valid; yet, the network that we see to- day is significantly different from the one of the past. Now, the network moves thanks to a mobile technology. One may still argue that mobile networks existed already in the 19th century, and that the most spectacular example is a railway system with moving trains. This is a true statement, indeed. However, the trains could not communicate each other, whereas the components of present mobile networks can dialog without limits. So, the major difference between the pre- sent and the past lays in the fact that information can be exchanged and proc- essed on the move. Consequences of this difference are enormous and hardly predictable and will certainly affect not only technology itself but also other spheres of human activities.
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Bajo la racionalidad de estos cuatro grandes ejes se organizan los contenidos de la obra. Esta cuenta con tres partes diferenciadas. En la primera parte, bajo el epígra- fe «Challenges in Institutional Research» se incluyen los trabajos de los profesores Henry Farrell, Diego Coraiola, Roy Suddaby, William M. Foster y Rainer Diaz-Bone. Estos parten del repaso y la crítica a las corrientes dominantes en la teoría institucio- nal, para identificar a continuación los principales retos en la investigación actual. La segunda parte, dedicada a «Institutional Dynamics Between Continuity and Change», cuenta con las contribuciones de los profesores Andreas Hess, Johannes Glückler, Regina Lenz, Jerker Moodysson, Lionel Sack, Tiina Ritvala y Tammar B. Zilber, quienes discuten acerca de los mecanismos y procesos de cambio y reproducción de las instituciones a partir de ejemplos seleccionados en diferentes contextos sectoria- les y territoriales. Finalmente, en la tercera parte, titulada «The Impact of Institutions on Regional Learning and Development», se compilan los trabajos de los profesores Michael Storper, Andrés Rodríguez-Pose, Riccardo Crescenzi, Marco Di Cataldo, Harald Bathelt, Nicolas Conserva, Pamela S. Tolbert y Ryan Coles. Los estudios de caso, centrados en los procesos de innovación en Los Ángeles-San Francisco, el papel de la infraestructuras en Europa, los distritos industriales en Italia o el empren- dimiento entendido como una institución, dan pie a preguntarse acerca de las claves institucionales que estarían detrás del desarrollo espacialmente desigual; por la path- dependence regional en los procesos de cambio institucional, así como por la capa- cidad de adaptación de los territorios y el papel de los actores locales en la mejora de las condiciones para el desempeño económico, «ya sea mediante la adopción de políticas adecuadas o mediante la participación en el emprendimiento».
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civilizations are different growths, pursue different goals, embody different ways of living, are dominated by different attitudes to life; so that to understand them one must perform an imaginative act of ‘empathy’ [Einfühlung] into their essence, understand them ‘from within’ as far as possible, and see the world through their eyes» (Berlin: 210). What Herder called «Einfühlung» Vico called «fantasia» (ibid: xix): the mental exercise of imaginative recrea- tion with the intention of penetrating other cultures from within. Both Vico and Herder share with Nietzsche and Foucault «the cardinal truth that all valid explanation is necessarily and essentially genetic» (ibid: 34). A Deweyan analysis of the shapes and meanings of experi- ence would be the appropriate parallel, and a Peircean combinatory analysis of «habit» and «tradition» would illuminate the contours of an interpretative tradition (such as Christian exegetics or neo-Romantic poetry) better than a simple historiological analysis of cultures and languages. But whatever the method used, the context remains the same: never to give up the singularity of the experience in favour of some retroactively justifed or ideologically coloured story about how things ought to have been as opposed to how things actually were, or seemed, in all their richness, through the prism and prison of the world view and culture we want to understand, deeply.
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On this view, then, language limits and controls thinking, which then controls and constrains social action. The current example of this vision is typically referred to as political correctness, a standpoint which argues that by controlling what people say their thought patterns can be controlled, and with thought under control action cannot but follow. As Friedrich Nietzsche famously observed, “We have to cease to think if we refuse to do it in the prison house of language.” Ludwig Wittgenstein concurred, stating “The limits of my language are the limits of my world.” The idea that language was the stuff of thought came to underlie literary and critical theory in the last third of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first, and has yet to be invalidated in the field of literary studies.
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Consequently, the territory is reshaped, damming the only river in the desert. Eleven years after the start of the dam El Cercado, the Attorney General's Office in a report entitled La Guajira: Wayuu People hungry for dignity, thirst for justice and other unmet needs indicates as antecedent the Cerrejón project, which would include a mining area of more than 69,000 hectares, corresponding to the sum of the titles granted to Cerrejón “which would imply a future potential of direct affectation” and establish that the water of the Ranchería river would be destined to this project. The Ranchería river water is a public good, to which the Wayuu community has no access since it is administered and controlled by the Centro Administrativo del Río Ranchería (Procuraduría 2016, p. 27). One year before this report of the Attorney General’s Office, on December 11, 2015, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (2015) informed the Colombian State of the decision to “request precautionary measures in favor of children and adolescents from the communities of Uribia, Manaure, Riohacha and Maicao of Wayuu village, in the department of La Guajira” (Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 2015). The reason for this decision was the lack of drinking water and the high levels of malnutrition, which caused the death of 4,770 children
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Abstract: This essay studies a commercial video game in order to identify questions that could also be asked of educational materials and games. For this purpose, we have chosen a specific video game: World of Goo (WoG) because, on one hand, it illustrates distinctive characteristics of video games as a "new media" object (Manovich, 2006), and on the other hand constitutes a particularly interesting case with regards to the way in which the puzzles to the solved by the player are linked to the game's didactic content. The essay's analysis of the game concentrates on three main categories: (i) As a media object. In which sense is WoG a "new media" object? Who makes it? How is it distributed? What are the characteristics of the community around it? (ii) From the point of view of the game's language. Which aesthetic decision were made by the authors? What are the salient features of the user interface? Which representations predominate? (iii) From the point of view of the knowledge that is essential to playing the game. What is the game's objective? Which puzzles are presented to the player? Which knowledge is needed to solve them? How is the player involved in the game? Which are the hints provided to the player? Which are the winning strategies? How can they be discovered? These categories provide powerful questions for the study of educational materials in general, as well as clues about how video games can be used in school not just as teaching tools but also as didactic content to be studied in itself. The analysis of WoG allow us to distinguish what we call needed knowledge to the game of those who appear as accessories and present only in the scenarios. We propose this distinction as central to the design of educational materials.
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themselves. I agree with Kenyan novelist and scholar Wa Thiong’o (who writes in Kikuyu) that is important for Africans to write in African languages. And I also agree with the late Nigerian novelist Chinua Achebe that English, French, Portuguese and Spanish are now African languages –especially as they are used by African people and authors who do not always use the standard version of a language, inflecting it with indigenous African languages and pidgins. And even when the words are in the standard European language, the syntax, the way we put them together, can differ from how it is used on other continents. My point is that at least some of the literature that people read should be in the same language that they use, a language that mirrors their own. There is a particular depth that comes from reading literature that was written in one’s own tongue. 3. Literature can reveal culture, like a window
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This paper describes the long-term relation between human development and eco- nomic growth, in the light of a Schumpeterian theory of economic growth in an open, global economy with technology transfer, trade and human development. The theory implies that the political economy of countries with a human devel- opment deficit is characterized by a conflict of interests between its two classes of skilled and unskilled workers. Skilled workers favor promoting technological inno- vation (including technological adoption), while unskilled workers support human capital accumulation (also resulting in poverty alleviation). The institutional and organizational requirements of these two diﬀerent development policies coincide in that both benefit from promoting the autonomous functioning of the markets and the eﬃciency of government expenditure (through public goods such as the rule of law, transparency and accountability). However, they diﬀer in that they address diﬀerent market failures requiring diﬀerent financial and institutional solutions. When technological innovation is pursued, the human capital trap can persist and limit its success. When human capital investment is pursued, a change of tack to technological innovation will eventually be required.
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In different ways, both the Keynesian and the neo-classical models of growth owe something to Ricardo. The Ricardian idea of inter-class distribution between profi t and rent, recast in a more contemporary context as the problem of distribution between wage and profi t, features as an important variable infl uencing the saving rate in post-Keynesian growth theory. Thus, the link between functional or class distribution of income affecting saving and growth, which Ricardo had emphasized reappears prominently in many post-Keynesian growth models (e.g. Kahn, 1959; Kaldor, 1957; Pasinetti, 1962; Robinson, 1956, 1962). And yet, these models are not at all in the Ricardian tradition, insofar as they deal with the problem of aggregate demand by distinguishing investment from saving. On the other hand, the defi ning characteristics of neo-classical growth models are almost precisely the opposite. They ignore altogether the problem of aggregate demand, and usually prefer not to deal with the problem of class distribution. Instead, they focus exclusively on the supply side characterized by diminishing returns to the factors of production, and rising marginal costs. However, from the Ricardian perspective this neo-classical construction is misleadingly over- simplistic. It ignores all the complications of value theory that Ricardo had to face, and oversimplifi es misleadingly the concept of ‘capital’ as a factor of production. Based on this logically indefensible concept of capital, it distorts the Ricardian theory of rent into a generalized marginal productivity theory of distribution. This requires assuming diminishing returns to all factors of production operating on the intensive margin through factor substitution, rather than extensive margin through fi xed proportion with varying land quality.
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I also knew something about the way in which Bantu languages organize words into sentences and sentences into texts, so I arranged to meet the translator, who had learned Yipounou as the son of missionaries living in West Africa. Actually he had been asked to make the translation of the New Testament into Yipounou, but he was told to make his translation as close as possible to the standard French text. This was a typical kind of mistake, and the young man fully recognized the absurdity of such an approach to communicating. Accordingly, he was glad to be able to redo his translation and in this way produce a text that would be more accurate, understandable, and acceptable, because the revision could be so much better understood by the local people.
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The creative process of Yamamoto many times started by the fabric, the new ways of constructing shapes which subvert the traditional way of cutting and sewing. He doesn`t always follows the logic of the patterns which are front and back. His work posted in the website of Showstudio (http://www.showstudio.com/projects/ddl_yamamoto/download.html) is a real chalange for those who still think about original and copy bynomy. He creates a garment which exists only in digital form. Anyone can download the «pattern recipe» and make that piece in the fabrics he/she wishes and wear according to his/hers will. Then, the person sends a picture of the garment to the website and and we have a whole collection of one piece.
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Since preferences are not likely to be homothetic, income and wealth inequality creates heterogeneity of demand for public and private goods creating the need for nonprofit organizations, as explained above. Religious and ethnic fractionalization also implies diversity of preferences, given income levels. Tastes of Catholic, Jewish and Muslims adherents differ sometimes to a great extent, as tastes of people with different levels of education. The diversity of preferences implied by these differences makes the occurrence of public failures more likely, thus the necessity for nonprofit organizations.
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The need to memorize the entire tradition belongs to the oral culture. The knowledge or erudition culture demands traditional references and logical proof — you have to indicate sources, you have to make quotations. Now, there is only the communicational flux which isn’t interrupted by external proof need. Communication differs from knowledge on that: in the communicational process, which is based on analogical signs, the flux is continuous and self sufficient, without resorting to external proof. The meta-language of knowledge appeared starting with the Renaissance and became more effective with the Reform and Counter-Reform, in the same time with the erudition culture due to the encounter between the Christian and the Antique culture in the educational environment. Now, in the postmodern globalizing times, the encounter between occidental and extra-occidental cultures doesn’t need intellectual erudition because mass media utilizes analogical signs. Nowadays mass media doesn’t need knowledge erudition because it is analogical, self-instructive and functions at a high speed. It is truth, knowledge erudition culture belongs to the printed book and the mechanical industrial era and it hasn’t got a rapid consumption. But immediate consumption of nowadays real mass media leads to the irrational acceptance because they don’t allow for enough time for assimilation and conscious reflection.
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In Dusklands (1974), Coetzee exposes the process of ideological con- struction of historical narrative by showing that the nature of our knowledge is determined by the representation and interpretation of historical events. He juxtaposes fictional and documentary texts to emphasize the role of myth and mythmaking involved in the production of ideological beliefs that do not need any factual justification. The novel comprises two parts: «The Vietnam Pro- ject» and «The Narrative of Jacobus Coetzee». In both of them the author expo- ses colonial self-representation by incorporating in the first part what seem to be documents based on facts. The second part parodies the claim of historical narrative for truth by contrasting Jacobus Coetzee’s account of his journey with the appendix consisting of the «original» deposition of 1760 by Jacobus Coetzee. «The Narrative of Jacobus Coetzee» is edited, with an Afterword, by S. J. Coetzee and translated by J. M. Coetzee. Teresa Dovey (1987: 18) argues that «J. M. Coetzee’s stance as a translator of the three accounts of Jacobus Coetzee’s journey is a means of drawing attention to the work of reconstruction going on here [... ]». To support her argument she quotes Coetzee (in Dovey, 1987: 18), who claims that «just like the process of translation, the process of reading is a process of constructing a whole for oneself out of the datum of the printed text, of constructing one’s own version of the poem». The motif of the translator as a metaphor of the power of discourse in creating history is also present in Waiting for the Barbarians (1980) when the Magistrate translates for Colonel Joll the unfamiliar script written on the surface of wooden slips belong- ing to the people inhabiting the area «long before the western provinces were annexed and the fort was built» (Coetzee, 2004 a: 15). That moment reminds of Linda Hutcheon’s (1992: 24) idea that «the only ‘genuine historicity’ becomes that which would openly acknowledge its own discursive, contingent identity». Our reading determines the way we acquire knowledge about history. That is what the Magistrate means when he tells Colonel Joll that
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