In conclusion, teachers need to supplement EFL textbooks with extra material that is compati- ble with the particular situations found in language classrooms. The truth is that English teachers of- ten continue to teach their classes with textbooks, because the teacher’s guide provides all the meth- odological procedure, class activities, answer keys, and even the evaluations for each unit. So, it is not complicated for teachers to follow the suggested course of action. However, it is important to be clear about one aspect; namely, if the textbooks teachers implement for their instruction are highly commu- nicative, there is a powerful reason to use them as the basis for teaching. Otherwise, it is important to take into account the results shown in this study. It is the teacher’s responsibility to make cautious decisions when selecting textbooks for the class- room. Teachers also must be conscious of the types of practice (mechanical, meaningful, and commu- nicative) textbooks frequently offer to learners, and must do what is needed to balance out mean- ing negotiation with supplementary materials that feature real-life situations, problem-solving tasks, authentic language use, and further com- municative interaction.
This paper summarizes the misrepresentations related to Gibbs energy in general chemistry textbooks. These misrepresentations arise from a problem in the terminology textbooks use. Thus, after reviewing the proper definition of each of the terms analyzed, we present two problems to exemplify the correct treatment of the quantities involved, which may help in the discussion and clarification of the misleading conventions and assumptions reported in this study.
principle of modeling. One of the key things in the modeling process is that certain characteristics of the phenomenon must be neglected to simplify it to such an extent that it is easier to focus on the most important features of the phenomenon. They introduce a model of a body (for example a particle), a model of an interaction (for example the air resistance is neglected), the system model, which is a combination of previous two models and a model of a process that describes the changes in the physical system. Portides  also believes that idealizations and simplifications of the physical system are very important facts that affect the process of building the model. In high school physics we mainly deal with simplified and idealized models, which play an important role in learning physics concepts and their application in everyday situations. Therefore, it is important for students to develop physical intuition about which idealizations should be done to make the theoretical treatment possible and, at the same time, not destroy the main features of physical process or situation. Since textbooks are one of the main factors that affects teaching, it is important that to accurately and clearly present assumptions, simplifications and idealizations of physical systems and the validity of the models that are based on these assumptions.
El libro Here and There, Young People in Chile and the USA, Figura 2, es el resultado de un proyecto de innovación docente donde los estudiantes de la Universidad Arturo Prat aprendieron los fundamentos teóricos y técnicos para producir un libro de texto y vídeo que presentan aspectos significativos de las culturas chilena y estadounidense; especialmente la de los jóvenes que estudian en el colegio o la universidad. Es importante destacar que los estudiantes involucrados en el proyecto viajaron a Estados Unidos, filmaron y entrevistaron a jóvenes de ese país y realizaron similar actividad en Chile. Esto agrega un componente innovador y significativo respecto a su formación profesional y a la creación de material educativo que incluye su perspectiva también. Tuvieron la oportunidad de estar inmersos en un país de habla inglesa compartiendo con jóvenes de su edad, profesores y gente en supermercados, tren subterráneo, universidad y diferentes lugares. Por otro lado,
Using convenience and snowball sampling a cross-section of 33 academic staff with teaching responsibilities at four research-intensive universities (referenced as RIU 1-4 in quotations below) were identified and invited to participate in the study. The participant sample included sixteen academics with research andteaching responsibilities and seventeen with teaching-only responsibilities, working in the following disciplines: Law; Medicine and Education. Their length of service varied, with some being relatively early career, and others more experienced. Semi-structured interviews, which were audio-recorded, were conducted between June and August 2014. The discussion in the interviews focussed on experiences of teaching, working with students, institutional support and recognition, the teaching culture and opportunities for professional development. A modified form of grounded theory was used to analyse the interviews. (Dey, 2008; Egan, 2002; Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Lodico, Spaulding, Voegtle, 2006) Open, axial, and selective coding of the verbatim interview transcripts was used to generate meaning from the data. The interviews uncovered individual academic’s views and experiences of a range of interrelated issues. These included: the different roles and responsibilities for academics; teaching; relationships with students; the demands of academic work; the relationship between research andteaching; pressures around resource and funding; qualifications for teaching; professional and career development opportunities; and institutional drivers related to teaching. The empirical research was fully informed by an appropriate ethical framework and informed consent from participants.
Consider the case of the answer Musical, whose lineage is much smaller than Music and shown in Fig. 2a. 1 We can see immediately the causes of the suspicious answer. Although Tim Burton did direct one musical, “Sweeney Todd” (surprise!), there are two other directors with last name Burton (oops!) who directed several musicals. What we would like from a system is to list “Sweeney Todd”, David Burton, and Humphrey Burton as top causes for Musical: the first is a surprising finding, the last two point to a bug in the query. We don’t want a system to list a movie like “The Melody Lingers On” as a top explanation, because that doesn’t really explain directly the surprising answer Musical. Ranking by responsibility achieves precisely this behavior, as shown in Fig. 2b. The movie “Sweeney Todd” has a minimum contingency of size two, consisting of the directors David and Humphrey Burton, because by removing these two directors from the database, “Sweeney Todd” becomes counterfactual. In addition, each of the three directors with last name Burton also has a contingency of size two, consisting of the other two directors. Thus, these four tuples (the movie and the three directors) have the same responsibility, 1/3, and are listed as the top explanations for why Musical is returned by the query. On the other hand, the smallest contingency for the movie “Manon Lescaut” has size four, 2 hence its responsibility is 1/5. The answer Music has a much larger lineage consisting of 118 tuples; ranking them by responsibility proves to be a key technique in identifying interesting explanations. In this case Tim Burton and his movie “Corpse Bride” appear highest in the ranking, along with three more directors who share the same last name: Al, Tom, and Humphrey.
iii) The third category of actors/users consists of those who use the information and da- tabases for their own analyses and can be divided into two categories: a) the devel- opment of academic activities (undergrad- uate theses), and b) the use of information to support views either in policy documents (the case of the National Planning Depart- ment in Colombia, UNDP-Ministry of Plan- ning in Argentina or documents on the State of the Nation in Costa Rica), method- ology and analysis proposals (IDB Indica- tors project) or analysis papers by interna- tional organizations (IFRC, UNDP, ISDR). 6. In short, over 15 years, the Historical Disas- ter Inventory Project (DesInventar) has not only proven to be helpful and useful but has also ensured continuity in terms of coordination, conceptualization and development methodol- ogy. Additionally, it has involved many actors at different levels (international, national and even local) and of different natures (academia, governmental and non-governmental organi- zations, governments in some cases), which helps to ensure their development and use. Fi- nally, from a conceptual perspective regarding risk-related issues, the process has prompted new lines of research (small and large disas- ters, extensive and intensive risk, relation be- tween past disasters and ENSO, relation be- tween risk manifestations and socio-economic variables) that have contributed to broaden the analysis spectrum and the type of assumptions and results that can be obtained.
We propose, in this work, the study of vocabulary starting from the toponymy. As in compulsory education it is prescriptive to treat contents belonging to the community to which the student belongs, using the place-names to fix and increase the vocabulary of the students is fully justified, since, in the creation of their names, the toponymy is nourished not only of the words belonging to the common lexicon of Spanish, but also of those that are typical of the linguistic modality in which these place names have been formed.
MDT may have “Problem” and “Solution” as two parallel text fields, while in medical care domain “Symptom” and “Treatment” always appear as parallel fields. Comparative analyses on these text fields would discover very valuable knowledge, e.g. possible business solutions to a certain type of problems or possible treatments for a certain kind of symptoms. Usually, there are different numbers of “Problem Topics” and “Solution Methods” in the two text fields. Thus, how to mine these two sets of topics (or methods) as well as their correlations are pretty challenging. In addition, a model which could scale well and work for millions of records is very much desirable. To address this need, I proposed this PTM model which can simultaneously mine two sets of topics from two parallel text fields and also capture the mappings between them. Experimental results show that PTM can effectively discover meaningful topics and the discovered topic mappings can be used to improve text matching when there is a vocabulary gap, demonstrating the effectiveness of the PTM model. We also implemented PTM with MapReduce on a large Hadoop cluster and tested its scalability on millions of records. The evaluation results show that the parallel implementation of PTM can scale up to process 3 millions of records within minutes on 200 mappers and 5 reducers. The main contribution of this thesis is to systematically advance the state-of-the-art technology in analyzing multidimensional text databases, particularly in developing novel, general models and algorithms for supporting three types of information analysis functions, namely digestion, explo- ration, and analysis. All the algorithms are general and thus can be applied to any multidimensional text databases in any application domain.
R’s classes were tape-recorded by the observer. The total time of recorded material for R’s classes amounts to two hours and thirty-four minutes, whereas R’s interview amounts to forty minutes. At the beginning of the first observation (13 of April), R introduced the observer to learners, who was presented as a PhD student doing classroom research. As agreed beforehand with R, the observer addressed learners at the end of this first observation in order to give to them details about the current research and also to answer any questions they may have. Other than this intervention, the observer always remained a non participant, unless addressed to by R – this happened only once or twice during the two observations and always for specific reasons (to open the window, to change places with a learner).
conditions for effective exercise of political power are learned. from its historical and political origin has been understood as the materialization and institutionalization of society through the state. and it can be say that its material wealth or natural resources sustain by the soil, make possible the social construction because it includes soil, subsoil, airspace, continental shelf and territorial sea, elements on which population establish their sovereignty and get recognition from other nations.
Smith and Dearborn (2016) express that it is a good idea to establish a bathroom procedure at the beginning of the day or as soon as the first student needs to go. However, in both institutions there was no evidence of determining a bathroom procedure at the beginning. If teachers use the first student as a model, they should make sure all students in the class know what they are doing. The authors also suggest some points educators have to consider before they review their bathroom procedure. These points are the number of students allowed to go to the bathroom, if they can go at the moment that educators are teaching, and the times students can go. It is also important to remember that younger students will need to use the restroom more often than older students and when they need to go they should go right away in order to avoid any kind of accident. All the points were clear for students of both institutions because they were used to it, as a habit, not exactly because their educator told them.
These results notwithstanding, the prejudicial views about the alleged interference of these ICT-mediated writing practices in the quality of the Portuguese language are shared not only by the educators and parents, but also by the students themselves. Komesu shows that university students in Brazil are very critical of the people who make use of these new forms of writing, arguing that they either do not know how to express themselves, are semi- illiterate or, worse still, suffer from mental disorders. On the other hand, the students believe that the ability to express oneself according to standard Portuguese—the legitimate bearer of national identity—is the only way to prove that one can actually master the complexity of thought (2006: 435).
De ahí la necesidad de establecer un marco de actuación desde el Aprendizaje y Servicio (Batlle, 2013), donde los futuros docentes diseñasen y desarrollasen ambientes de aprendizaje para niños y niñas de 3 a 6 años de escuelas cercanas, como oportunidad de ofrecer un contexto de aprendizaje desde un modelo respetuoso con la infancia. Los grupos de estudiantes diseñaron estos ambientes organizados en pequeños grupos a través de una metodología de investigación-acción cooperativa: la Lesson Study (Peña, Serván y Soto, 2016). Una combinación metodológica que perseguía que los estudiantes experimentaran las dimensiones claves de la función docente: diseño, desarrollo y evaluación de contextos en un doble ciclo, sin eludir las emociones y valores asociados al proceso (Soto et. Alt, 2019).
This study is complementary to a preceding work (Bueno, Fernández- Cano, Chaikhieva y Ayzemberg, 2006) and is exclusively concentrated in the multicultural problem at a Spanish level, with the end of examining the actual international production and being able to establish the appropriate comparisons from the discoveries obtained from the international databases. This work also comprises wider periods of studyand different databases, after the experiences from preceding works; we have used a bigger number of key descriptors for the investigation, which have not been taken into account in those studies.
Regarding the frequency of use of this option, literature shows discrep- ancies. Hence, Kelly (2014) reports that «In the vast majority of contexts I’ve worked and visited, schools import native speaker textbooks, usually British or from the US. While the quality can usually be guaranteed with these books, they are always going to be a challenge for CLIL learners on a number of levels.» On the contrary, other studies (Banegas, 2013, p. 4; Morton, 2013, p. 125) show most teachers do not use this type of material. The reason of this variance could be found in the countries investigated. Kelly refers to worldwide countries where teachers are being trained by the British Council, while the two other authors are talking about Latin America and Europe.