What Guyot and Vandewattyne were say- ing is that both individual factors (micro, re- ferring to the actor) and contextual factors (macro, the action situation) are influential in the action of necessity-driven entrepreneur- ship. Within the sociological tradition, each of these aspects have given rise to different currents: whereas some authors are interest- ed in explaining the action, prioritising the influence of the system (or the macro), others hold that the individual (or the micro) factors prevail. However, there are also some schol- ars who consider it necessary to take into account the influence of both aspects (Ritzer, 1993). Based on this idea of combining micro and macro, understanding the people who became entrepreneurs out of necessity in Europe involves taking into account both their individual and contextual circumstanc- es. This double vision was also reproduced in entrepreneurship studies, with some scholars who prioritise the system and oth- ers who give more importance to the actor. In order to study necessity-driven entrepre- neurship, it is essential to analyse both indi- vidual aspects (which some authors call the socioeconomic and attitudinal characteris- tics of individuals), together with the con- text-related, structural aspects (Gutiérrez and Rodríguez, 2016). None of them can be ignored, as they are all influencing factors.
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levels of self-confidence for managing this role. Green et al. (2003) claim that women differ from men in their choice of entrepreneurship option. Like- wise, Sánchez-Escobedo et al. (2011) analyze the different socioeconomic and psychosocial factors that differentiate men and women throughout the entrepreneurial process. There is research to show that women perceive their environment as more difficult and less appropriate to carry out such entrepre- neurial activity, and this perception leads them to reduce their ambition when they run a new firm (Zhao et al., 2005; Carter et al., 2001). Following this ap- proach, women identify entrepreneurial opportunities from another way (De- Tiene and Chandler, 2007), and have a different entrepreneurial self-image than men (Verheul et al., 2004). This mix of factors helps us to explain why the rate of entrepreneurship of women is lower that men’s in most countries. In addition to previous studies, Green (2000) refers to the differences in the stock of human capital and social capital between individuals of both sexes, an approach that is confirmed in other studies such as Martinez Mateo et al. (2012). In this sense, the study of Alvarez et al. (2012), based on GEM data, states that informal factors (perceived ability to run a new business, social networks and family role) have a significant effect on the probability of be- ing a woman entrepreneur, while other formal factors as financing, support- ive policies (non-economic) and training do not have a differential effect on entrepreneurship in terms of gender.
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However, generally speaking, most authors differentiate between internal and external barriers (Moncayo Orjuela & Zuluaga, 2015; Hawley, Torres & Rasheed, 1998; Swanson & Witke, 1997; Ramos et al., 2003; de Anca & Aragón, 2007; Agut Nieto & Martín, 2007). To start with, external barriers are understood as all those barriers with a sociodemographic and contextual component that establish the organizational culture and the generic differences in leadership style and gender stereotypes. De Anca and Aragón (2007), in turn, explain external factors as social barriers based on stereotypes, as organizational barriers based on the organizational culture and identity. Secondly, internal barriers are understood as all those cultural barriers that play a crucial role in the interiorization of a series of roles and cultural preferences. In order words, they are “the influence of socialization on the development of differential characteristics between men and women” (Ramos et al., 2003, p. 270). It refers to the identity of the feminine gender. Tomás and Guillamon (2009) identify them as socially desirable behaviors in women, related to the sense of duty, willingness to serve and lack of competitiveness or ambition to have power. Ramos et al. (2003) add a third classification to the factors or internal and external barriers related to the reproductive and family role. This is the reconciliation of work and personal/family life. De Anca and Aragón (2007) identify the internal factors as personal factors that permit a woman to evaluate the options and decisions that are going to mark her professional career.
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The arrival, in the scientific field of foreign language learning, of the results of reports and macrostudies carried out on a European level, which are more focused on what good language learners do outside school rather than on what they study and know, has led the researchers in this field to direct their expectations towards the environmental settings of the use of foreign language beyond the classroom setting. Evidence from the European Survey on Language Competences (hereafter ESLC), the subject of this article, also allow us to verify whether the best achievements of competences in oral comprehension of foreign languages of European students are directly related to activities of exposure and oral use that the students carry out ‘outside’ the classrooms: in extracurricular activities, through ICT, at home, through access to audiovisual products in original-version, in communicative interactions with speakers other than classmates, visits to other countries, etc. Factors which are drawn from some of the questions from the contextual survey filled out by students from the sample group and which, in part, are labeled in the ESLC under the index of «Language- Friendly Living Environment».
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The results of the research show that Xicotepec's SMEs exist and survive despite the fact that the activities they develop are mostly empirical and it was possible to identify the factors that determine their competitiveness, even though the percentage in achieving them is low; However, important and significant strengths such as: entrepreneurial attitude, service vocation, experience in the business are also concluded and they are also the main generators of employment and self-employment in more than 95% for the municipality of Xicotepec, thus contributing to the economic growth from this region of the state of Puebla.
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Business growth and its determining factors are relevant for multiple reasons; for example, high-growth businesses promote a country’s economic growth because more high-growth businesses enhance GDP growth (Hoffmann & Junge, 2006). Such businesses also generate more employment than their competitors (Henrekson & Johansson, 2008), which is especially interesting during high unemployment. For example, Birch and Medoff (1994) estimate that high-growth businesses, which compose 4% of total businesses accounted for 60% of new jobs in the United States between 1988 and 1992. Notably, such businesses return high yields to investors (Acs, Parsons & Tracy, 2008).
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We study the determining factors of science-based cooperation in the case of small and micro firms. In this research, we propose an analyt- ical framework based on the resource-based view of the firm and we identify a set of organisational characteristics, which we classify as in- ternal, external and structural factors. Each factor can be linked to at least one reason, from the firm’s point of view, to cooperate with uni- versities and public research centres. Each reason can, in turn, be used as an indicator of a firm’s organisational needs or organisational capac- ities. In order to validate the theoretical model, we estimate a logistic regression that models the propensity to participate in science-based cooperation activities within a sample of 285 small and micro firms lo- cated in Barcelona. The results show the key role played by the absorp- tive capacity of new and small companies.
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The irst essential step for the treatment of perio - dontitis is related to the establishment of a diagnosis based on the type of disease, extent, location, and severity. Site level parameters very often include deep pockets, clinical attachment loss, speciic pe - riodontal lora, furcation involvement, suppuration, plaque, bleeding on probing, and other factors, such as root ridges, enamel projections, root fractures and deicient restorations that may help clinicians predict the outcome of periodontal therapy. It is also important to note that the progress of periodontal disease may differ from one site to another within the same individual and between individuals. These tooth site-level factors must be used in formulating the prognosis, along with individual-level factors such as smoking, genetic predisposition, age, gen- der, race, and particular medical conditions. The relative value of site-level factors becomes very important since indicators at this level have demons- trated strong associations with future periodontal attachment loss. 36 Similarly, smoking is an important
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Abstract: The formation of the mountain ranges of Costa Rica and western Panamá, as well as the cold climatic conditions that prevailed during the upper Pleistocene, played a crucial role in determining the bird species composition of the highlands in this region. Glacial conditions favored dispersal movements of bird species from the Andes, and from the Neartic region. Subsequent inter-glacial conditions reduced the connectivity between neotropical highlands (e.g., Talamanca-Andes), and between neotropical highlands and Neartic temper- ate region, isolating recently established populations from the ancestral populations, and promoting speciation. Within Costa Rica, the highland vegetation and the birds that occupied this vegetation possibly had a continuous distribution throughout all mountain ranges during glacial periods. This vegetation retreated to the summit of the mountains during inter-glacial periods, fragmenting the original continuous bird populations and forming “sky islands”, which decrease in size from Talamanca mountains towards the northwestern ranges. The sizes of such islands of available habitat determine the number of highland birds present in each mountain range. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1): 333-349. Epub 2009 November 30.
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Overall, this study suggests that social amplification of risks processes (Kasperson et al., 1988) might also be influenced by content characteristics (e.g., whether an article about risk issues is positive or awe-inspiring). Informal transmission of information can raise awareness of an issue and generate changes in the beliefs, attitudes and intentions of the behaviour of individuals (L. J. Frewer, Miles, & Marsh, 2002; L. Frewer et al., 2004). And, as our study shows, in line with previous research, informal transmission of infor- mation, at least in its written form, is partially determined by content characteristics of the information. Independently of the type of risk and the diverse set of external socio- political factors influencing social amplification of risk, this work suggests that certain characteristics of content, such as the emotion (and activation) that content evokes also help determine which risk issues gain attention in the public debate.
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A necessary condition to achieve satisfactory labor relations in a company is that its pay structure be fair. When the members of the staff perceive the pay structure as arbitrary, the deterioration of labour relations is unavoidable and ultimately productivity and competitiveness suffer from it (in Figart, 2000 it is pointed out that the introduction of job evaluation systems was supposed to discourage management discretion in determining wages and to lessen employee grievances). Particularly, a pay structure is unfair if it discriminates against women or against any other group. Of course, there are also ethical reasons to be against wage discrimination and one can consider them even more important than strictly economical consequences of an unfair pay structure.
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10 Funció directiva. Existeix una necessitat de professionalitzar la funció directiva entenent-la com a un element clau per a la revitalització pedagògica de les institucions escolars. (Batanaz, 2005). La investigació i l’observació empírica mostren que un dels principals factors de l’eficiència escolar és el director del centre. Un bon director, capaç d’organitzar un eficient treball en equip i respectat per la seva competència i obertura, aconsegueix introduir millores qualitatives importants al seu centre. És necessari velar perquè la direcció dels centres escolars sigui confiada a professionals qualificats que hagin rebut formació específica, sobretot en matèria de gestió. Aquesta qualificació aporta als directors un major poder de decisió i lideratge en les seves responsabilitats.
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Breastfeeding is the optimal form of infant feeding for the first months of an infant’s life, and the majority of healthy women initiate breastfeeding after the birth of their infant. However, women on medication may default to formula feeding or not taking their drug therapy for fear of exposing their infant to the medication through the breast milk. Although the majority of medications are considered to be compatible with breastfeeding, cases of significant infant toxicity exist, suggesting a case by case risk assessment to be made before the mother initiates breastfeeding or drug therapy. Unfortunately, current clinical risk assessment is often compromised by the paucity of data, as studies in breastfeeding women and their infants are ethically difficult to conduct. Circumventing the ethical constraints, approaches have been proposed to estimate drug excretion into milk from physicochemical characteristics of the drug, which diffuses through the mammary gland epithelia. However, as our understanding on drug transfer mechanisms increases, it has become abundantly clear that carrier-mediated processes are involved with excretion of a number of drugs into milk. This article provides an overview of the benefits of breastfeeding, the effect of medication use during breastfeeding on maternal decisions and infant health, and factors determining infant exposure to medication through the breast milk.
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multicollinearity, thus what we measure in practice with the coefficient of these variables is the influence of the sector with respect to the one omitted. The result reveals a limited influence of the sector in determining efficiency, although the explicative charge of the model is slightly increased, according to the information contributed by the pseudo R2. Before rejecting the relationship between the changes undertaken in the efficiency levels and the strategy variables already defined, the Spearman Rank Correlation Test allows us to contribute more information to try and establish whether there is a correlation, and in which sense among the different strategy variables and the changes in productivity and efficiency. In general, if we observe the Spearman correlation tests (table 7) we can conclude that the level of dependence of the changes occurred not only at the levels of scale efficiency, but also of technical and productive efficiency, and at the level of global productivity with respect to the variables included is relatively reduced. However, in many cases, the application of the test leads us to reject the null hypothesis that the indices are independent of the variables evaluated: Therefore, we can state that the change in technical efficiency is not independent of:
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Some studies have indicated the importance of measuring the impact of oral conditions on quality of life as a part of the assessment of oral health needs, since clinical indicators alone are insufficient for describing the satisfaction or symptoms of dental patients or their ability to carry out everyday activities (Reissmann et al., 2012). Research into the impact of OT on quality of life related with patient oral health, have indicated important improvement in the quality of life of these patients (Andiappan et al., 2015). However, during treatment patients encounter factors which diminish their ability to carry out EDAs and have a negative effect on their quality of life, such as pain associated with the use of the fixed apparatus, which is usually tiresome during the first 3 days after activation and may lead to early abandonment of the OT. Thus it is important to research how OT influences the patients' EDAs in order to support these individuals in the factors which cause the greatest limitations. The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of the placement of the first arches on the EDAs of patients undergoing OT.
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This study has explored the factors that somehow determine students’ low usage of MALL tools in learning vocabulary in English based on the results from a questionnaire and focus group discussions. The results showed that the majority of Romanian high school students have neutral attitudes towards using technology in their vocabulary learning. Additionally, several factors which are to determine students’ low usage of MALL tools have been identi- fied: pedagogical issues associated with mall tools, individual learning style, lack of teacher guidance, the lack of a MALL culture in mainstream schools, the level of motivation to use technology in language learning, the view of MALL tools as sources of entertaining rather than learning tools, a preference for apps that enable unconscious learning of vocabulary and the view of devices as belonging to students’ personal ‘space’, not to their ‘learning space’. However, the participants of the current study are teenagers who own a personal device and use it outside school for communicating, entertainment, sharing or creating information. They use their device outside regular instruction sessions because their devices are generally banned in schools and their use is being discouraged. In conclusion, technology does not impact on students’ learning or learning strategies unless educational authorities and teachers give value to these tools. The results also suggest that simply having access to technology enhanced tools does not necessarily mean that students will automatically use them for learning purposes or that it would have any impact on cognition or learning success.
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The internationalization phenomenon has been widely analyzed in a great many theoretical and empirical works, where the size of a business (Bonacorsi, 1992), the resources and capabilities (Knudsen & Madsen, 2002; Álvarez, 2004), and the characteristics of managers are the most marked variables in terms of conditioning factors (López, 2006). In an empirical study carried out in Germany on the situation and future perspectives of family industrial organizations, it is shown that although these types of businesses possess less products and clients due to their high degree of specialization and smaller size, they are able to export their products all over the globe (Kayser & Wallaw, 2002). As far as size, most empirical studies find a positive relationship between the size of the business and their export activity, which is supported by obvious theoretical arguments, since small businesses generally have fewer resources available for initiating such a process (Manolova et al., 2002); however, other studies argue that company size does not always determine its international activity (Majocchi & Zucchella, 2003).
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TNCs’ linkages – and their expansion - in host economies have become a particularly important issue, especially in South- East Asia after the Asian financial crisis, as the inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI) have decreased and recent inward FDI is increasingly sustained by the reinvested earnings of existing foreign affiliates in the region. Through local supply linkages, TNCs potentially generate considerable benefits for host economies, both from value-chain multipliers and technology transfers and spillovers. Studies have shown that the linkage potential of TNCs is higher than that of domestic firms in some developing countries (Potter et al., 2003; Alfaro and Rodríguez- Clare, 2004; Jensen, 2004). Given their importance, it is perhaps surprising that relatively few studies have examined the factors explaining the level of local sourcing by TNCs in host economies (McAleese and McDonald, 1978; Driffield and Noor, 1999; UNCTAD, 2001; Belderbos et al., 2001; Tavares and Young, 2002). Even fewer have focused specifically on technology transfer to local suppliers (Halbach, 1989; Wong, 1991; IDE, 1994; Rasiah, 1995; Supapol, 1995; Crone and Roper, 2001; UNCTAD, 2001; Giroud, 2003) or how TNCs enhance local suppliers through the introduction of focused assistance programmes (Dries and Swinnen, 2004). This article contributes to the literature by analysing the determinants of TNCs’ local supply linkages in two industries in South-East Asia: an analysis that is enhanced by comparing the issue in four countries that are geographically close and part of the same regional grouping, yet exhibiting vastly different levels of economic development (a situation partly resulting from varying degrees of maturity as FDI hosts). The implications of this regional development are further explored in the context of the development of the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) in section 2.
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In Portugal, the implementation of an explicit toll scheme in a road network initially operated as a shadow toll one, has attracted the attention of researchers in the last years. Santos et al. (2012) analysed variation in traffic demand in Portugal after the first year of introduction of real tolls in former SCUT roads. They concluded that traffic demand in Portugal was elastic to the introduction of tolls, with an average toll elasticity of -0.88. This high result is explained given that the network analysed is mainly located in the surroundings of metropolitan areas, provided with many alternatives to those drivers that want to avoid the tolled roads. A general picture of toll elasticities in Portugal can be also found in Barata (2012), exploring toll road demand evolution in different Portuguese NUTS. Again, an individual model was calibrated for each toll section, considering different socioeconomic explanatory variables such as employment per capita, GDP per capita or bank loan interest rates. A more particular view was provided by Bandeira et al. (2012), who analysed the impact that the implementation of tolls had on route choice for the A29 motorway near Oporto, and evaluated its consequences in terms of emissions and energy use. Also near Oporto, Ferreira et al. (2015) explored the toll implementation in the A28 motorway, also with a toll elasticity (-0.57) in the upper range of values found in the literature. The authors pointed out that among the most relevant factors explaining the decrease in the A28 traffic are the collection of electronic tolls and the slowdown of economic activity in the country.
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Abstract: The diversity and abundance of littoral cladocerans and copepods were studied in nine lakes at Reserva Ecológica Cayambe-Coca (Páramo de Guamaní), Ecuador. Six samples were taken in the littoral zone of each lake using a 500 µm mesh plankton conic net. One species of cladocerans (Ephemeroporus acanthoides) is reported for the first time in Ecuador. The diversity (H’) and evenness (E) of the lakes were determined and cor- related with PCA axes based on their environmental variables. The principal parameters that distinguished these lakes were altitude and pH, an unexpected finding considering that the altitudinal range was very small. Lake size is of secondary importance for this group of lakes. None of the environmental axes correlated with H’ or E; nevertheless, a larger than expected species richness was found in a small oligotrophic lake with a high level of DO. Based on our results, we hypothesize that altitude and pH are important factors determining the zooplankton diversity (directly or indirectly) in highland lakes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(1): 131-137. Epub 2006 Mar 31. Key words: Andes, Ecuador, lakes, microcrustaceans, zooplankton.
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