The processesofreading and writing, are relevant in the education of a student. The aim of this article is to present information diagnosed identified in tests ofreading and writing with children in cycle II. Saludcoop College South of Bogota. This research was developed through the research methodology action with the fourth graders from an educational institution in Bogota. A diagnostic reading input test was applied and writing previously validated, were tabulated and analyzed the data to present an alternative proposal based on the various contributions of psychological and pedagogical theories. Results: there are difficulties in the processesofreading and writing; classroom emphasis on verbal teaching mode. There are difficulties in the dimensions: motor (writing) and cognitive (reading). Conclusion: to overcome the shortcomings detected in the diagnosis is required to propose methodologies that attractive and conducive to development at the early age of inherent to the processesofreading and writing capabilities and promote the change of roles of teachers and students based on the contributions of different theories.
Background: Various investigations have revealed that the promotion ofcognitive and metacognitive strategies can improve reading comprehension and that when readers receive this type of instruction, they can use monitoring processes and regulation strategies adequately. The goal of this work is to analyze the effects of strategic and metacognitive instruction on reading comprehension processes and strategies, using the “Aprender a Comprender” [Learning to Understand] program. Method: Instruction was carried out in the classroom by two teachers during six months. Ninety-four students participated, 49 from 5th grade and 45 from 6th grade. A pretest-intervention-posttest-follow-up design was used with a comparison group by grade. Results: The analysis of variance shows an impact of the intervention and its differential maintenance in each grade. The 5th-grade intervention group scored higher than the comparison group in the reading comprehension test, both at posttest and at follow-up. The 6th-grade intervention group scored higher than the comparison group in the Planning scale, both at posttest and at follow-up. Conclusions: Textual strategy instruction favors reading comprehension and the progressive developmentof planning, which is necessary for supervision and regulation, and its effects are maintained over time.
training component. The global component includes structured tasks that do not imply reading but require the application ofcognitive processing strategies. In addition, they provide students with the opportunity to internalize strategies in a personally meaningful manner, which facilitates the transfer. The bridge component links improved cognitiveprocesses to specific tasks whose content is related to word decoding and comprehension. Both the global and bridge components have three levels of difficulty, as to allow the participant to gradually progress in strategy development only after mastering each level. If an individual does not answer correctly 80% of the items in each task, an alternate set is used at the same level of difficulty to provide for additional training. This creates a series of scaffolds that support and guide the participant to ensure that tasks are completed with minimum help and greater success, facilitating the transfer of learned principles so that they can apply the strategies learned in other situations. The effectiveness of PREP as a remedial reading program has been successfully evaluated in several studies (Boden & Kirby, 1995; Carlson & Das, 1997; Churches, Skuy & Das, 2002; Das, Mishra & Pool, 1995; Mahapatra, Das, Stack-Cutler, & Parrila, 2010; Parrilla, Das, Kendrick, Papadopoulos & Kirby, 1999).
The importance of the teaching-learning of literacy, because the cognitivedevelopmentof the person is based on an adequate acquisition ofreading and writing. And although the paper book currently coexists with online information and the digital book, understanding the information we obtain from any of these media requires a correct readingof the text. It is going to try to give answer to a great incognito as it is: At what moment it is necessary to teach to read? Well, to answer this question there are currently two positions
cesos que se espera mejoren gradualmente en una psicoterapia que genera bienestar psicológico, pero en este caso es coherente con el resultado negativo. En los casos exitosos, hay diferencias indivi- duales en el procesamiento de información, pero muestran coherencia y una misma dirección hacia la consecución del bienestar psicológico. Ambos casos indican procesos de identificación e integra- ción progresiva de información que se transforma gradualmente en bienestar psicológico. Por otra parte, la variable Sentido de Sí Mismo y Tiempo Flui- do revela que se empieza a tener un sentido de sí mismo menos aversivo y una sensación interna de que el tiempo empieza a fluir normalmente, es decir, clínicamente se observa una disolución de un antes y un después que se dio con la aparición de los sín- tomas y signos en un primer momento. Asimismo, la variable Proceso de Mentalización indica que se empieza a mentalizar e integrar información de ma- nera fluida, es decir, tanto a nivel personal como in- terpersonal. En la misma dirección anterior, la varia- ble Información Novedosa indica que se empiezan a tener descubrimientos al autoobservar la propia experiencia, aprender de sí mismo lentamente y en un sentido adaptativo. También la variable Afronta- miento muestra consecución de bienestar psicoló- gico porque se empiezan a manejar las tensiones emocionales de manera más saludable y efectiva. Finalmente, la variable Narrativa Reflexiva muestra una asimilación y acomodación gradual de la infor- mación relevante para el bienestar psicológico. Ello se aprecia en una elaboración de significado más adaptativo en los clientes, lo que nos señala que se comienza a conceptualizar la realidad interpersonal de una manera más articulada y saludable.
The previous chapter described the data analysis and the results that emerged from the data collection instrument. The purpose of this study was to characterize the contribution that skimming and scanning through flipped learning had on students’ reading comprehension (Research question(s) and objective(s)). Conducting the research study was necessary to characterize the contribution ofreading strategies on the improvement of learners’ reading comprehension since Colombian society requests the acquisition of speaking, reading and comprehension skills in at least one foreign language (Sánchez & Obando, 2008). It is important to help students with strategies to read better since this skill is a need in the academic and professional domains. Through reading and the understanding of what is read, students can perform their academic tasks. In most cases, professionals use this ability in their activities because most information in any area is in English; hence, students need to know the strategies they can use to read in English in an effective way. However, it is necessary to teach new strategies with a more flexible learning approach so that students can use them according to the reading objective.
Las certificaciones internacionales pueden mejorar la credibilidad, la competitividad y el acceso a los mercados nacionales e internacionales. Brasil ha dado lugar al desarrollo de un proceso de certificación 29110 ISO / IEC. Un auditor ISO/IEC 29110 debe ser competente en técnicas de auditoría, tener experiencia en ISO/IEC 29110 y experiencia en sistemas o desarrollo de software. Para las microempresas, tal certificación debe ser corta y barata. El proceso de certificación ha sido probado con éxito en pocas empresas pequeñas de origen brasileño. El sistema de certificación, que se describe en la norma ISO/ IEC 29110-3-2 se basa sobre las normas ISO sobre evaluación de la conformidad (Laporte & O’Connor, A Systems Process Lifecycle Standard for Very Small Entities: Development and Pilot Trials, 2014).
When starting the scene, a group of syllables is selected with which to perform the game. Within that group, the syllable that the player should look for in the apples that fall from the tree is assigned. The process that determines the syllables that will fall from the tree is not a completely random process. Within the group of words a percentage is assigned to each of the words, which will control the probability of each of them leaving. Initially, the probability that the correct syllable comes out is set at 40%, while the rest of the words are distributed equally 60%. In spite of this, it is controlled that the correct syllable appears every a certain number of apples, happening this if it does not happen before probabilistically. As the game progresses, making mistakes in a certain word will increase the probability that the word comes out again, guaranteeing a minimum of probability for all the others. This aims, once a word that is more difficult to distinguish for the player is detected, to focus on that word through its repetition and achieve with the repetition help the player to assimilate it better.
7. Es importante aquí refrescar algunos datos. El 25% del crudo comercializado a nivel internacional en 2005 era comprado por EEUU, quien solo representaba el 9% de la producción mundial de petróleo. La Unión Europea importa el 80% del petróleo que consume y Japón compra al exterior casi el 100%. Entre las tres potencias producen solo el 12% del total a nivel mundial, aunque en su consumo se va el 50% del producido a nivel mundial e importan el 62% del comercio internacional (Beinstein, 2004). Más concretamente, vale lo dicho por el ex presidente de los EEUU: “…America is now more dependent on foreign oil than a time in its history. In 1973, the country imported 36 percent of its oil needs. Today, the U.S. imports 56 percent of its crude oil (…) The U.S. bill for foreign oil has more than doubled from last year…” (Bush, G. W. (2000) On The Issues Energy, 4president.org, http:// www.4president.org/issues/bush2000/bush2000energy.htm). Pese a que en las últimas décadas, con la técnica de la fractura hidráulica y la extracción de hidrocarburos denominados no convencionales (shale oil/gas o tight gas, entre los más conocidos), EEUU ha incrementado la extracción de crudo (EIA: Hydraulic fracturing accounts for about half of current U.S. crude oil production, https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=25372#), la lógica se mantiene intacta. En este caso, lo que están distribuyendo a nivel mundial es el conocimiento técnico y el paquete tecnológico del fracking, que es experimental y se encuentra protegido por el secreto comercial en EEUU, por lo cual poco se puede saber de las consecuencias territoriales de su aplicación en cualquier parte del mundo (Pérez Roig, 2014).
The experimental design was divided in two phases. The first one asked 100 primary school- children from each age range (third to fifth grade), male and female, to define a list of words select- ed from short reading texts from primary school text books. The texts were also chosen following indexes (synthetic and relevant to 8 specific dimensions: comprehensibility and appropriateness of the text as regards emotions and affection, interests, and moral, social, linguistic, aesthetic and sci- entific education of the students) provided by a sample of primary education teachers according to their value, expressed using a scale of 0 to 10, of the text overall (synthetic index) and of the 8 cat- egories above. The texts used (narrative and descriptive) presented approval ratings above 80%. The texts were also tested against the Flesch readability formula (DuBay, 2004), obtaining scores from 64 to 73; given that the medium level of difficulty for the formula is 50, the texts were deemed suit- able for the ages considered in the study. During the first phase, then, we observed the responses given by the children to questions such as ‘What does x (word from the text) mean?’, or ‘What is an x (word from the text)?’. The words were chosen according to medium frequency and image value, and therefore suitable for the subjects (see De Mauro, 2000). The children were asked to provide the best written definition according to them. Furthermore, the scholastic performance of the children showed that none of them manifested reading, writing or learning difficulties and they were given all the time they needed to write the answers, after their own readingof the texts and questions. However, to ensure a full and rigorous verification of the width and consistency of the less devel- oped forms object of our study, as well as the more mature ones, we devised multiple-choice tests with four possible answers, including ones presenting these less developed forms among the incor- rect answers. In this second phase of the experimental design, we used the definitions given by the children as the basis tests which we then subjected to item analysis, calculating the index of diffi- culty, ability to distinguish, reliability factor (using the Kuder-Richardson formula). This allowed us to accurately select a list of items with valid metrology to assess the children’s lexical abilities. The final test consisted of 8 tasks: task 1, non contextual synonyms; task 2, contextual synonyms; task 3, non contextual antonyms; task 4, contextual antonyms; task 5, non contextual categories; task 6, contextual categories; task 7 non contextual functions; task 8, contextual functions (Prove Analitiche di Vocabolario PAV [PAV or Analytical Vocabulary Test, Florence, O.S.] by Boschi, Aprile & Scibetta, 1991).
A fraction of children in every survey, ranging from 2 percent in Colombia to 18 percent in Nicaragua, did not take the TVIP. Although we do not have data that are comparable across all 5 countries on the reasons why these children did not take the test, it appears that most of them had difficulty understanding the instructions and making it past the practice items that are applied at the outset. Consistent with this, there are more children with missing test data at younger ages, and more in the poorest country, Nicaragua. Earlier work on Ecuador has shown that children who miss a given test do worse on other tests, or on the same test in different survey waves, than other children with comparable wealth and parental schooling levels (Paxson and Schady 2010; Schady 2011). Because children who miss tests are likely to be “low performers”, we assign these children a test score of zero. We test the robustness of our results to this approach to handling missing data.
Research suggest that children acquire a second language with more ease than adults do because the commitment to native sounds and patterns are still incomplete during the first years of life. In fact, children who are exposed to two languages from birth typically become native language specialists in both languages (Ramírez-Esparza, García-Sierra, & Kuhl, 2014). According to Ferjan et al. (2017) babies’ brains become specialized in processing whatever language or languages present in the environment. Consequently, part of the brain configuration depends on the child’s language experiences (Ramírez-Esparza et al., 2016). Other studies have also suggested that the brain responses depend on social interaction. In a study with 9-month-old infants, it was registered that these infants showed a phonetic reaction from live exposure, but not from recorded audios (Kuhl, 2011). As Ramírez-Esparza et al. (2016) suggest this is due to the fact that both monolinguals and bilinguals respond better to one-on- one interactions when there is a high exposure of child-directed speech; hence language experience at home is vital and fundamental for language acquisition (Ramírez-Esparza et al., 2014). But how is language mapped in the bilingual brain?
One of the reasons why people live in poor conditions or are unemployed is the lack of formal education (Strauss, 2016). That is why literacy is essential for them to be competitive in the new globalized world, where many workers need to be trained adequately to hold a position in their companies. For years, developed countries have invested in Education and Health to respond to the new global skills. Speaking English and being proficient readers are examples of skills that could help people reach higher educative standards. For instance in Thailand, learning English has become an important issue (Doungphummes, N., & Chandransu, N., 2016). The Thai government has invested a lot in formal education; however, they have not obtained successful results from that (Hayes, 2014).
Nuclear reactions explain as well the chemical composition of the stars. By observing the spectrum of each star it is possible to know its composition. These observations constrain all theoretical models of the reactions that are taking place in stars. They not only give an idea about the reactions but it also plays a fundamental role for explaining the complex interplay of the hydrodynamics, convection and rotation of a star [4, 5]. A star has an effective surface temperature and certain amount of luminosity. If these two quantities are plotted we obtain a very famous pattern of extreme importance in stellar astrophysics named the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (figure 2.2). This correla- tion is extremely important, since every star can be classified according to this diagram and provides information about the stellar stage where the star is. The vast majority of stars occupies the main sequence (MS), which in the diagram is the main diagonal; the sun is on this stage. In the lower right corner we find red dwarfs (RD). In the upper right is the sub-giant branch (SGB) and above these ones is the red giant branch (RGB). In the lower left we find the cold stellar remnants white dwarfs (WD). The place a star occupies is the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is determined by the mass of the star. This important property determines the evolution and the reactions that take place.
Ewetasker  is a smart automation application (developed in the Intelligent System Group), which works with ECA (Event-Condition-Action) rules. The main purpose of this app, is to control the contextual events and Internet events caused by user’s interac- tions, and to automate the responses produced by the rule inference engine. The modules used to carry out these functions are the Task Automation Server and the Mobile App . Firstly, the Task Automation Server is in charge of the management functions of rules and channels . It includes the rule engine, where rules and channel events are evaluated in order to make an action, and an action trigger to interact directly with the smart devices. Secondly, the Mobile App(created by Antonio Fern´ andez Llamas from Intelligent System Group), which receives events through Bluetooth from beacons or other devices, and through the Internet directly from devices like smart lights. Events are sent to the Task Automation Server for be evaluated. The Mobile App is able to make actions ordered by the Task Server, because of being the simplest way of connection between some devices.
Holidays is a 2D educational video game for children between five and seven years old based on pastimes adapted for a game. The main aim for the game is to improve the cognitive abilities of the player as well as his memory and attention. In order to accomplish that purpose, a research of differents activities, games and pastimes has been made trying to deal with all the problems exposed and finding an interactive way of surpassing them. There has been a total of four games designed with two possible themes that will been explained below.
Este test está diseñado para la medida de la In- teligencia verbal y no verbal en niños, adolescentes y adultos, por lo que abarca un amplio rango de edades que oscila entre los 4 y los 90 años. Consta de dos subtests, uno de vocabulario y otro de ma- trices, el primero mide habilidades verbales, rela- cionadas con el aprendizaje escolar, y el segundo aprecia habilidades no verbales y capacidad para resolver nuevos problemas. Las puntuaciones típi- cas de esta prueba se calcularon de forma que tu- vieran el mismo valor métrico que el de numerosos tests de Inteligencia y rendimiento, permitiendo hacer comparaciones directas con las puntuaciones globales que un sujeto hubiera alcanzado en las Es- calas de Wechsler WAIS-III (1992), WPPSI-R (1993) y WISC-III (1997), en la Batería de Kaufman para niños (K-ABC; Kaufman y Kaufman, 1997), en el Test de Inteligencia para Adolescentes y Adultos de Kauf- man (KAIT; Kaufman y Kaufman, 1993) y en otras ba- terías de rendimiento.
The operating method consists of the integration of the stereo model systems developed through photogrammetric methods, producing epipolar images with internal and external orientation parameters and appiying collinearity ecuations for a constant valué of Z. The object points coordinates which are subject t o measurements are obtained by appiying the unidimensional correlation process in normalized images. Therefore, the amount of calculations in search submatrixes and their errors are reduced.
La direccionalidad de los cambios que se buscan propiciar se apoya siempre en un modelo de construcción de poder, de saber y de legitimación. Es decir, de reconocimiento que desde los imaginarios de conflictividad aquí evidenciados, consideramos necesaria su interpelación y discusión. Por ende, en tanto la reflexividad aparece como una acción necesaria para modificar las prácticas, consideramos relevante la incorporación de formatos específicos de problematización, que tomen lo individual y lo colectivo como niveles de análisis en la reproducción de los imaginarios. En la actualidad, gran parte del cambio necesario aún descansa en la buena voluntad individual, como un formato que circularmente reproduce lógicas que en su raíz se reconocen como problemáticas. La adaptación de programas o proyectos de investigación para que, en forma implícita, contengan la extensión, es un ejemplo. Son casos exitosos pero que no impactan en modificar la estructura que reproduce las distancias que las separan. Pensar en diseños que den cuenta de la complejidad de los fenómenos sobre los cuales intervenir no es imposible, sin embargo está trabado por los accesos institucionales y los imaginarios presentes. Los cambios, o la posibilidad de sortear estas limitaciones, estarían basados en el reconocimiento de las capacidades individuales, de modo de ir estableciendo prácticas que permitan reconocer la posibilidad de sortear las dificultades y, en directa relación, la necesidad de llevar los resultados de la investigación-extensión a la discusión sobre la estructura institucional que contiene las prácticas. En última instancia, nos referimos a (in)capacidades compartidas, donde el horizonte a construir pasaría por organizar de otra manera el trabajo o la labor que se debe realizar cooperativamente (e.g. entre investigadores y extensionistas o entre instituciones y organizaciones). Salir de la mera convivencia (idealmente, ya que siempre hay articulaciones o nichos de integración entre ciertos grupos de trabajo), implicaría primero empezar a reconocer que podemos trabajar de otro modo.