En los últimos años la OECD está prestando creciente atención a las cuestiones regionales. Se han seguido publicando, desde luego, los estudios de la serie de Infor- mes sobre países (titulados genéricamente «OECD Territorial Reviews of...»), de los que han aparecido en los últimos años los correspondientes a Suiza (2011), Suecia (2010), Chile (2009) o Portugal (2008). Pero, además, los servicios de la Organiza- ción han preparado otros estudios sobre las cuestiones territoriales de carácter más general, también referidas a las cuestiones regionales. En general se trata de Informes realmente interesantes y de excelente factura, como los titulados: How Regions Grow. Trends and Analysis (2009) y Regions Matter. Economic Recovery, Innovations and sustainable Growth (2009), al que se ha unido el que es objeto de esta reseña: Regio- nal Development Policies in OECD Countries, lanzado en 2010 y que contaba ya con un trabajo similar anterior.
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A well organized, technically sound, private counterpart : In many of the cases we have examined, a well organized private counterpart has been critical to effective public private collaboration. This has been the case regarding the PCC’s role in the Competitiveness System, and specific business associations in the productive transformation programs for cosmetics and BPO&O. Interestingly, the standing and capacity of the private counterpart has frequently been endogenous to both actions of the government and the context of public-private collaboration: the strength of the PCC is clearly a by-product of its designated role regarding productive development policies; the Contact Center Association has strengthened thanks to the PTP; and ANDI’s BPO&O chamber emerged as a result of the same program. Explicit government-led efforts to organize the private sector have in fact been common in Colombia’s history, and have led to strong business representation that, many argue, have had a reflection on sound economic policies throughout history (e.g. ANDI and the Coffee Growers Federation, see, for instance, Schneider, ). The quality of public counterparts to the government in collaborative enterprises, therefore, needs not be taken as given by the government. Attempts to strengthen private sector representation must be careful to balance the potentially conflicting goals of keeping representation sufficiently concentrated to be effective, yet sufficiently representative of a wide arrange of interests to minimize benefits to specific sectors at the expense of the common interest. In Colombia, having private interests organized around horizontal goals (such as competitiveness), and empowering those interests for mainly horizontal purposes or for identifying and solving government failures, has also proven beneficial. As discussed at greater length in the conclusions to the PCC case, limiting the reach of collaboration to these dimensions can also help replicate the benevolent character that private representation by the PCC has had in Colombia as a result of historical circumstances. This is another lesson of wider application.
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A global balance between markets and governance is essential for democratizing the economy and achieving development. The main objection to taxes will come from TNCs. Why does the World Bank (2010) say infrastructure is badly needed but never suggests harmonizing TNC taxes to fund it? Should the countries providing TNCs with cheap labor borrow for infrastructure investment?
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After arguing that the market by itself produces suboptimal results, the authors warn about failures associated with state intervention. One of the findings from their case studies is that very often there is a wide spread of programs with insufficient resources. They suggest that, trying to avoid selection biases, it is important that the promoted programs have the appropriate budget. In other words it is important to have a definition if the priority is given to the impact of the programs or just to cover a wide range of alternatives. A second failure refers to the human capital in charge of managing the programs. Many of these managers have strong background on the network-program area of expertise (e.g. agriculture, biotech, etc.) but are not as strong in modern management techniques, negotiations techniques and business plan follow up. A third problem with state intervention regards the necessity to make of all public policies a coherent group of policies with care on superposition problems. Finally, the networks could transform in club goods the innovations and therefore partnerships between research centers, labs and firms have a lot of potential but care should be taken not to transfer partnerships in a goal in itself. The programs should not reward partnerships per se rather should reward with respect to the innovation in hand.
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Health has become a major recipient of aid – including from innovative financing sources. For a variety of reasons – humanitarian concerns, fear of epidemics (HIV/AIDS, pandemic influenza), and recognition of health’s importance for economic growth, poverty reduction and realisation of human rights – health is a central pillar of most development policies. Development assistance for health has increased from just over USD 6 billion in 1999 to USD 13.4 billion in 2005. 5 The bulk of this increase can be credited to new major global stakeholders or global health partnerships (GHPs) such as the GAVI Alliance (formerly known as the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation) and the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM). Other sources include specific and new programmes such as the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and private foundations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Funding from these global programmes and philanthropies account for 20% to 25% of development assistance for health. Estimates suggest that there are now, depending on definition, between 80 and 100 global health partnerships. Several GHPs aim to improve aid effectiveness by mobilising and channelling funding to countries more quickly than via traditional routes. Nevertheless, many studies suggest that the situation has become more complex, as countries with limited capacity to manage and spend aid effectively attempt to deal with the multiplicity of aid instruments and mechanisms on offer. The challenges raised by these trends make it even more urgent to tackle aid effectiveness in health.
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epistemological parameters of classical anthropological fieldwork by the world- wide emergence of indigenous political movements and related support NGOs. It looks first at the links between post-war development policies and the rise of these indigenous and indigenist organizations. It then introduces a general dis- cussion about the relationships between ethno-political struggles, anthropologi- cal advocacy, ethnographic research and ’participant observation’. It finally examines the conditions of intellectual independence of an engaged anthro-
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Various public and private institutions have committed to financing a $536.8 mn 100 MW geothermal project in Tanzania, including a CIF grant ($25 mn), the Tanzanian government ($1.5 mn), and loans from the AfDB ($45 mn), commercial banks ($317.5 mn), other development partners ($5.3 mn) and private-sector commitments ($142.5 mn) (CIF, n.d.). Private-sector investors are at an advanced stage in mobilising the financial resources required for a 100 MW Makambako wind farm in Tanzania (CI, Lunogelo et al., 2015). Initial phases were self-funded, but following feasibility demonstrations they received further finance from Chinese and Norwegian firms and the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD), with further project development and financing in the pipeline (ERD meeting, 9 May 2014, Dar es Salaam). Implementation now hinges on the regulatory framework. A smaller-scale venture in Tanzania, the $29 mn 10 MW Mapenbasi hydropower plant, also has blended public and private finance. The private company (a Special Purpose Vehicle of Njombe Resources Development Company) financed the project with a debt-equity structure including investments from British and Sri Lankan companies and the Government of Tanzania (ERD meeting, 9 May 2014, Dar es Salaam). Kenya and Tanzania have also adopted complementary policies to promote investment in their domestic renewable-energy sectors. Incentives in Kenya include zero-tax-rated solar panels, also exempt from excise tax, and investment allowances for larger firms for entire construction periods (Kimuyu et al., 2011). A stable investment environment has also been promoted through guarantees on price and market share for the generation of renewable energy, while companies can obtain tradable certificates in markets and bid competitively for renewable-energy concessions (Kimuyu et al., 2011). Such policy support contributed to Kenya’s having one of the most active renewable-energy markets in SSA, and, although far
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119. We will promote adequate investments in protective, accessible, and sustainable infrastructure and service provision systems for water, sanitation, and hygiene, sewage, solid waste management, urban drainage, reduction of air pollution, and storm water management, in order to improve safety against water-related disasters, health, and ensure universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all; as well as access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all; and end open defecation, with special attention to the needs and safety of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations. We will seek to ensure that this infrastructure is climate-resilient and forms part of integrated urban and territorial development plans, including housing and mobility, among others, and is implemented in a participatory manner, considering innovative, resource efficient, accessible, context specific, and culturally sensitive sustainable solutions.
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Santa Clara, Folsom and Austin in the United States remain the primary locations for core technology development and applied research, while the lab in Haifa, Israel, (established as early as 1974) focuses on processor research and the lab in Nishny Novgorod, Russia, on software development. Intel has established seven R&D labs in Asia (outside Japan), and it is planning to expand rapidly both the number of labs and their headcounts. Bangalore has Intel’s largest lab outside of the United States. With a workforce of around 3,000, the Bangalore lab conducts leading-edge dual processor development. Intel’s management plans a substantial expansion in India, most likely in second-tier cities that have lower labour costs than Bangalore. In Shanghai, Intel has recently expanded its R&D team to focus on applied research to identify new applications for China and other emerging markets.
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The autonomous administrations can finance their strategies in several different ways. Evidently, budgetary limits are often severe and additional funds always well received. As well as fiscal revenues, the regional administrations are well aware that they can receive transfers of capital from the State and the EU. But in order to access these sources of funding some formal documents have to be written as an essential requirement. Normally, the regional programming activity begins by drawing up a first, general draft in which the autonomous administration describes the strategy on a several-year basis. To be precise, the document is written by the Department of Economy and is then subjected to an open process of public debate and review. Today, the main autonomous departments, local government, the universities, the Economic and Social Council, the trade unions, business associations, NGOs and professional groups can all participate in the debate, presenting their comments on the draft. Finally, the regional strategic plan (revised) is submitted for the approval of the autonomous parliament. Once approved, this represents the official strategy for regional development and becomes a binding document for the regional executive. Subsequently, the document is turned into a Regional Development Plan (RDP), i.e. a document which also provides for actions which are co-financed by the State and the EU. Only in this way can regional development strategy receive European structural aid. Finally, the Regional Operational Programmes (ROPs) define this strategy in more operational terms. As a result, many of the actions included in the regional development plan coincide with those contained in the regional operational programmes.
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It may be argued that terms- of-trade effects favouring natural resource sectors cause adverse distributional outcomes. One rea- son is that ownership of natural resources is typically less equal- ly distributed than other assets. Another reason is that, unlike manufacturing indus- tries and services, natural-resource-related activities do not generate much employment (TDR 2010, chap. IV). This may contribute to widening the dispari- ties in income distribution when the terms-of-trade effect makes manufacturing less competitive, so that workers may be pushed from manufacturing into lower wage jobs or even into informality and unem- ployment. An increase in inequality can be avoided if good-quality jobs are created elsewhere in the economy. This depends on the linkages that can be established between the export-oriented activities in the primary sector, on the one hand, and modern services (public and private) and manufacturing on the other. Such linkages rarely emerge from market forces alone; they normally require supportive macro- economic and wage policies as well as targeted fiscal and industrial policies aimed at ensuring that most of the income generated by natural-resource-related activities is used within the coun- try. In particular, to the extent that an improvement in the terms of trade leads to increases in a government’s fiscal revenues, this would enable greater public spending to create jobs directly in the public and services sec- tors, and indirectly in jobs related to infrastructure development, as well as in manuf acturing if macroeconomic conditions are favourable. 33
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EPAL: It is XML-based language and was proposed by IBM . It is focused on privacy policies and unlike other policy languages it’s not very easy to implement correctly. It uses a purpose-based access control, where the authorization decision is evaluated by the subject’s purpose of using the requested service. This access control mechanism is easier than RBAC but requires a well-structured purpose element. IBM has considered this problem and thus palliated this limitation by providing tools to facilitate the implementation of this policy language 
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However, sustainable economic development is based on creating green jobs that will require green manufacturing and service activities, which will influence the behaviour of economic agents, both as producers and consumers. Investments in green areas will lead to the expansion of green production and the direct creation of green jobs. Expanded production invariably leads to a higher demand for inputs, resulting in an indirect increase in jobs in supplier industries. Increased consumer spending as a result of jobs created directly and indirectly will also generate jobs. Thus, more green jobs mean a cleaner environment, a better quality of life and green economic growth, all supporting sustainable development.
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Sometimes it is as interesting to see what is not learned. For example, the US has long influenced the development of the library profession in South Africa. During the apartheid years the South African library community continued to adopt American technical innovations such as on-line searching, integrated library management systems, and electronic book detection systems, but significant elements in the white leadership of the profession filtered out professional values such as freedom of expression and equal rights for all library clients (Lor 1996).
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International standards of good corporate citizenship are for the most part embodied in voluntary instruments or codes of various types, including those prepared by NGOs and individual companies. The scope, content and formality of these instruments vary considerably, especially the arrangements for monitoring compliance. 32 And there are few legally binding provisions, mainly because treaties normally entail binding obligations on States not firms. Even though they can also be drawn up to create obligations for individuals, the procedure for creating binding law for individuals or firms at the international level is cumbersome and uncertain (Picciotto 2002, p.16). The growing number of international conventions and declarations dealing with labour, human rights, environmental, ethical and other social issues— as well as regional efforts to harmonize relevant national laws—shows that companies are operating under clearer national and international frameworks on key good corporate citizenship issues. They are thus bound (directly or indirectly) by relevant minimum standards. This aspect is stressed in the 1999 initiative by the Secretary-General of the United Nations for “A Compact for the New Century”. The Global Compact calls on world business to embrace and enact—both in their individual corporate practices and in support of their appropriate public policies—nine universally agreed values and principles derived from United Nations instruments (Kell and Ruggie 1999).
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As our USAF modernizes, UAS will continue to provide new and improved capabilities that will require unique interfaces with other operations, systems, and operators with a wide spectrum of skills and training to operate, maintain, support and sustain these systems and interfaces. Regardless of where the human interfaces occur, or the sophistication of the system and its flight control capability, the ultimate success of the systems will depend on the effectiveness of the human interfaces. The enabling concepts, front end analyses, and the requirements related to the human must be captured early and then continuously applied within the acquisition processes. High Performance Teams (HPTs), Integrated Process Teams (IPTs), working groups, and program offices must be able to comprehensively address the human-centric issues for all UAS systems. The requirements for these HSI solutions will be defined and advocated by the lead MAJCOM for the weapons system, either ACC, AMC or AFSOC . An HSI representative will be assigned as a core member on every UAS HPT. This representative will be provided with reach-back capability to each HSI domain. USAF HSI Subject Matter Experts (SME) and HSI domain practitioners will assist the UAS community in addressing the various human-centered domains in the requirements and systems engineering processes. These practitioners and SMEs will serve as focal points for integration of those concerns into UAS requirements, technology development, systems design and development, manufacturing, test and evaluation, operation, sustainment, and disposal.
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‘Financial inclusion has been one of the key pillars of Colombia’s development strategy for a number of years. Financial inclusion policies have aimed at channelling microcredit to the poor, spreading formal banking system usage, fostering electronic payment acceptance, and making financial services more available’ (Karpowicz, 2014, pp. 2). The lack of access that low-income individuals have to financial services in Colombia is of great concern. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, 2015) Human Development Report 2015 states that in 2014 Colombia’s Human Development Index (HDI) positioned the country at 97 among 188 countries. The HDI measures three dimensions of human development, which are: ‘long and healthy life, knowledge, and a decent standard of living’ (UNDP, 2015). According to the Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE, 2016), Colombia’s total population in 2015 was 48,203,405, and the country’s Gini coefficient was 0.522 (a Gini coefficient of 0 expresses perfect equality, whereas a coefficient of 1 expresses maximal inequality; the higher the Gini score, the higher the levels of inequality in a society). These statistics expose the reason why it is so important to strengthen financial inclusion initiatives and policies in Colombia since financial inclusion contributes to improving the standard of living and reducing inequality. Subsection 5.2. throws more light on the current state of accessibility to banking services in Colombia.
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point countries, in particular, will not have enough resources to finance development expenditures without a sizeable increase in aid, preferably in the form of grants. There is concern, however, that a significant shift to grants from loans may in- crease uncertainty with regard to future aid flows. Once the debt relief initiatives are complete, countries will have to find additional means to fi- nance the MDGs. The main concern is that the HIPC Initiative makes only a modest contribution to alleviating a government’s budgetary con- straints. While the modalities of debt relief may have an impact on a country’s balance of payments – in the sense that debt stock relief, unlike debt service relief, eliminates the need to mobilize for- eign exchange for repayment to the creditor – it will not ease the budgetary burden, as the amount previously scheduled for debt service payments will instead be transferred into a special account that is drawn upon to finance social expenditures under the country’s PRSP. Where countries had accumulated significant arrears before benefiting from the HIPC Initiative, governments will thus have to incur additional expenditures to “clear” these arrears in the form of higher social spend- ing. These additional expenditures will have to be financed by reducing expenditure on other catego- ries of public sector outlays or by finding ways of increasing government revenue. Hence, to what extent debt relief can provide additional fiscal space to enable the beneficiary government to take measures to achieve the MDGs, and to what ex- tent the conditions attached to the programme impose additional constraints on public spending and investment or on measures in support of growth and structural change in the longer term, is a matter of interpretation.
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“3. Indigenous people recalled their efforts in many different international forums to communicate the urgent need to recognize indigenous people’s rights to self-determination, territories and resources, and cultural and traditional knowledge. They officially submitted to the Summit the “Kimberly Declaration” and the “Indigenous Peoples Implementation Plan of Action”, outcomes of the recent Indigenous Peoples’ International Summit on Sustainable Development, outlining hopes and commitments for the future of sustainable development. Expressing concern regarding the unsustainable agendas of the World Bank, IMF and WTO, they urged the United Nations to uphold the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and protect the rights of the poor and oppressed. They expressed hope for the future in recognizing their rights, utilizing their traditional knowledge and practices in conservation, and forming alliances built on mutual respect and diversity. “4. The NGOs noted that the Summit had constituted a great experience for the cooperation of many like-minded NGOs and common citizenry coming together in the interests of sustainable development. While they did not characterize the Summit as a missed opportunity, they stressed that more could have been done to further the millennium development goals. They emphasized the issues of debt sustainability, the reform of international financial institutions and the need for transparency in WTO. They asked the United Nations to provide leadership in all relevant forums to maintain a spirit of inclusion and cooperation, and honoured the many people who were unable to attend the Summit because they were engaged instead in striving against poverty and fighting for survival.
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• The INBAR Regional Offices were considered to be the main driver to significantly enhance local impacts, obtain financing, strengthen the networks and also to transfer and adapt technologies from other countries to the local context. Most respondents believe that the Regional Offices should play the key role in future project implementation, organization of regional and national events and the development of local partnerships. Respondents not only consider it necessary to strengthen the role of the existing regional offices but also to create additional local teams in South East Asia and French-speaking Africa. .
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