include that of (Fagade and Adebisi 1979, Adebisi 1981, 1987, Elliot 1986, Olurin 1994). All these reported on food and feeding habits of several species, so there is no detailed work on Schilbe mystus which is the only member of family Schilbeidae in both lakes. The species serves as delicacy for many low income earn- ers as it is cherished for its taste and affordable price since it does not attain large size and its of considerable commercial importance (Reed et al. 1967). This paper describes the diet and dietary habits of S. mystus in Asejire and Oyan lakes, highlighting effects of size, season and sex on feeding.
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Abstract: Dietary habits of the up side-down Mochokid catfish, Synodontis membranaceus were investigated for 24 months (April 2002-March 2004, in Jebba lake, Nigeria) using frequency of occurrence, numerical, gravimetric and index of relative importance (RI) methods. The fish is euryphagus and feeds more at night. RI values indicate that 10 of the 16 food items were major diet components. The main five food categories are detritus (10.64 %), Aspatharia (9.08 %), plant parts (8.85 %), seeds (8.61 %) and Spirogyra (8.43 %), while the 5 less prominent food categories were gastropods (7.05 %), insect appendages (6.88 %), copepods (6.31 %), adult Povilla adusta (5.89 %) and coleoptera larvae (5.36 %). The remaining six food items, dragon flies, P. adusta larvae, chironomid larvae, Daphnia, water mites and fish scales had RI values considerably under 5 %. The prominence of detritus in the diet indicated that the fish is a bottom or benthic feeder. The wide variability in food supply enables S. membranaceus to maintain its overwhelming prominence in Jebba lake, and its eury- phagus habit makes it suited for pond culture. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2): 931-936. Epub 2008 June 30.
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Descriptive statistics with means and standard de- viation or frequencies and percentages depending on the nature of the variables were performed. Associa- tion between variables was analyzed using chi-squared test. Multiple regression analysis models were fitted to examine the potential relationships and associations between dietary habits and BMI values. Additionally, a logistic regression model was carried out in order to analyze the association between dietary habits and truancy. In every regression model age and gender were included as confounder factors. Statistical analy- ses were performed via the SPSS 21 software for Win- dows (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL) and the significance was set at an alpha level of 0.05.
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We tested for a functional association between body mass and enzymatic activity, performing both conventional least squares regression (CLSR) and regression on phylogenetic independent contrasts (PIC, Felsenstein, 1985). Because the three enzyme activ- ities were positively correlated with body mass, we corrected for this by calculating the residuals from least squares linear regres- sions both the conventional way and through the origin with phy- logenetic independent contrasts (PICs, see Garland et al., 1992; Cheverud et al., 1985; Rohlf, 2001). With the purpose of testing the impact of dietary habits and composition on enzymatic activi- ties, we examined the possible relationships between mass-inde- pendent enzymatic activities (i.e., the residuals of regression of total enzyme activity against body mass and mass of small intes- tine) and the percentage of nitrogen, as well as the percentage of prey items in the gut content of each species, using conventional
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Additional studies also proposed that the changes in living arrangements that a univer- sity student encounters influence their lifestyle factors such as food choices (Ansari, Stock, & Mikolajczyk, 2012; Bagordo, Grassi, Serio, Idolo, & De Donno, 2013). It was also observed that the lack of parental oversight means that students are more likely to eat an unbalanced diet (Zagorsky & Smith, 2011). Furthermore, when college students leave home and adjust to in- dependent living, good dietary habits decline and poor dietary habits often tend to get worse (Brunt & Rhee, 2008). These researchers continued that students in general frequently have a diet of limited variety, high snacking and high consumption of fast foods and in an effort to control weight, a pattern of skipping meals occurs.
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165 ones due to better dietary habits with age similarly to a study conducted among Michigan adults; younger ones were found to have bad eating habits (14). 47.48 % of the sample has an adequate adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Score ≥9) compared to 50.2% of participants having adequate score in a coronary artery disease study among older adults (15). However, 52% of older adults have an adequate score of adherence confirming healthier habits among this age group. More men have adequate score of adherence to Mediterranean diet than women due to the effect of gender on food choices influenced by the effect of the superior temporal sulcus stimulation (16). A higher percentage of adherence to Mediterranean diet was found for questions Q1, Q5, Q6, Q7, Q8, Q10, Q11 and Q13 among coronary artery disease study than Lebanese participants (15); older adults in Beirut, Lebanon had higher percentage of adherence for questions Q2, Q3, Q4, Q9, Q12 and Q14. It should be noted that the consumption of butter and margarine is highest among Lebanese older adults (adherence 37.6% compared to 90% in the coronary artery disease study and 73.5% among older adults) who probably use it in the traditional foods (1). The low consumption of fish confirms the outcome of another study showing a low consumption of fish among the adult population living in Beirut, Lebanon (17). The correlation among the questions differs in the two age groups due to different eating habits.
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10. Diario Oficial de la Federación. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-121- SSA1-1994, bienes y servicios. Quesos: frescos, madurados y procesados. Especificaciones sanitarias. México: DOF [accessed on July 1, 2016]. Avail- able at: http://www.salud.gob.mx/unidades/cdi/nom/121ssa14.html. 11. Rosner B. Percentage points for a generalized ESD many-outlier pro- cedure. Technometrics 1983;25(2):165-172. http://doi.org/brbv 12. Institute of Medicine. Energy. In: Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrates, fiber, fat, protein and amino acids (macronutrients). Wash- ington, DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academies Press, 2005:107-264. 13. Hernández B, de-Haene J, Barquera S, Monterrubio E, Rivera J, Shamah T, et al. Factores asociados con la actividad física en mujeres mexicanas en edad reproductiva. Rev Panam Salud Publica 2003;14(4):235-244. http:// doi.org/c65xs8
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In the last few years, a number of pharmacological approaches that can potentially prevent and counteract the neuronal dysfunction and death associated with neurodegenerative diseases have been investigated. However, considering that these diseases are multifactorial and no drugs are available to stop their progression, intervention strategies using phytochemicals, organic compounds of foods with several physiological properties, have been proposed. This approach stems from the well- known association between dietary patterns rich in fruits and vegetables and lower ND prevalence (Scarmeas N, 2009; Frisardi V, 2010 ; Valls-Pedret C, 2015). Moreover, adapting the diet to increase intake of these phytochemicals is an option that can be continued for a lifetime without the risk of side-effects that are often caused by pharmaceuticals.
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bacterial infections, requires both energy and an immune- cellular response. However, the question as to how these two components are interconnected in small endotherms by means of the host diet remains only poorly understood. Here, we tested in laboratory mice whether dietary proteins and carbohydrates can modulate the interplay between energy expenditure, food intake and the innate and adap- tive immune response when confronting a bacterial chal- lenge (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, BCG). We observed that mice fed with a high protein diet (HP) developed a better immune response associated to increased numbers of cir- culating monocytes. In addition, HP diet directly influ- enced the peripheral blood proportions of both T and B lymphocytes even before the BCG challenge. Interestingly, animals that developed this type of immune response after
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According to PISA 2009 results (OCDE, 2010), the Reading literacy of Spanish teenagers is under the international average, and reading motivation and reading habits are highly related to reading performance. And ass research reveals that teachers can be very important for the development of reading pleasure (Gambrell, 1996; Guthrie, 2008) specially if they are reading models (De Neaghel & Van Keer, 2013), the objective of this study is to explore reading habit and reading motivation in preservice teachers.
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Dietary fiber (DF) represents a broad range of carbohydrate compounds varying in structure that scape digestion and absorption within the upper gastrointestinal part. High fiber diets may also be helpful for fecal bulking, decreased transit time, reduction of postprandial glycemic response, maintenance of normal blood cholesterol levels, and a lower risk of developing coronary heart disease (Verspreet, et al., 2016). Despite its physiological benefits, diets contain a low amount of DF, on average ranging from 12-14g of dietary fiber per day in United States and 18-20 grams in Europe (Schmitz, Marquart, and van de Kamp, 2007). Among dietary fibers, resistant starch (RS) is the starch fraction that scape luminal digestion. It encompasses five different starch sub- types based on the mechanism by which they resist digestion. In particular, resistant starch type 2 (RSII) is defined as starch granules that are inherently resistant due to the composition and conformation of the granule. For most sources of RSII, including potato and banana, normal cooking temperatures, such as those found in baking, will tend to disrupt the structure of the granule, potentially leading to gelatinization and increasing its digestibility (Birkett and Brown, 2007). This loss of dietary RS in western diets contributes to what has been termed the “carbohydrate gap”, which is the observed deficit in the amount of fermentable nutrients compared with what is required by the intestinal microflora to maintain digestive health. In this scenario, diets that reverse the current trends and increase dietary RS intake are important strategies to rectify this gap for improving overall health (Birkett and Brown, 2007).
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Objective. To construct a scale for assessing the quality of mealtime habits in a sample of urban Mexican adults, com- puting the contribution of a set of advisable and unadvisable mealtime habits. Material and Methods. We performed an exploratory factor analysis among 7 472 adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study, to assess the mealtime habits quality. Likelihood ratio test for difference of two probabilities and test for the differ- ence of two means were used to identify differences between low and high categories of the Mealtime Habits Quality Scale (MHQS) across variables of interest. Results. Participants with the top quality of mealtime habits showed lower rates of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and elevated body fat. They were also more adherent to a prudent dietary pat- tern than a western dietary pattern, and consumed more fruits and vegetables. Conclusions. Anthropometric and dietary variables differed across MHQS categories. However, further validation of the scale, and assessment of their ability to predict weight gain or related diseases are needed, using prospective and intervention studies.
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The commercials with strategies of body image (dietary and slimming strategies), provide a clear pattern – both groups of participants perceive same values (typically welfare, health, effort and family), but each group assesses the contents of the three commercials with opposite intensities (negative in the case of ED and positive in the case of the group without ED). Apparently, participants without ED have difficulties perceiving the health value in these commercials, as they have a very little agreement (low confidence), while participants with ED provide a clear negative judgment. So, while the group with ED presents reactive responses that reveal their capacity to interpret the negative consequences on health and welfare associated with this type of strategies, the group without ED sticks with the explicit message that connects “being thin” (and missing dinner or refusing a croissant for breakfast) with health and without further interpretation. This is consistent with the education received in the institute ITA by the group with ED about the sociocultural and psychological influences of media and advertising. Thus ED participants are media literate and do perceive a risk in these messages.
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Esto se logra al sensar datos provenientes de los sensores acelerómetro y GPS disponibles en dispositivos móviles Android (i.e. teléfonos inteligentes y tabletas) y un dispositivo Bluetooth ELM327 conectado al puerto estándar OBD-II con que cuentan los vehículos fabricados a partir de 1996 para capturar información (i.e. trazas de movilidad, información sobre la operación del motor del vehículo y datos de acelerómetro). Los trabajos previos carecen de contexto relacionado con la presencia de estos malos hábitos de manejo. En contraste, el Sistema Driving Habits permite al conductor precisar las causas de sus comportamientos agresivos, lo que permite a su vez identificar problemas del entorno urbano (i.e. tráfico, baches, topes, señales deficientes, etc.). El Sistema Driving Habits provee retroalimentación al conductor a través de una interfaz semejante a la de un sistema de navegación GPS, cuatro íconos que muestran el desempeño del conductor respecto a las maniobras mencionadas, y mensajes de voz para promover la conciencia y reflexión del conductor en sus hábitos de manejo. El Sistema Driving Habits se evaluó en tres campañas de sensado participativo en la ciudad de Ensenada, B.C., durante los meses de julio y agosto de 2014. Los resultados muestran que el Sistema fue útil y fácil de usar para los participantes del estudio. Se encontró evidencia cualitativa de un cambio de conciencia de los conductores, no solo respecto a sus hábitos de manejo, sino respecto a los hábitos de otros conductores. Los resultados además indican que el Sistema Driving Habits ayuda a conocer aspectos del entorno urbano y patrones de movilidad.
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Participation is a human right that must be guaranteed. However, various physical and social restrictions make it difficult for people with neurological conditions to participate in their community. Many Latin American countries do not have validated instruments to analyze the participation of these groups. The present investigation used an instrumental design to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Life Habits Assessment Questionnaire (LIFE-H) in a sample of 123 people with cerebral palsy between 9 and 21 years old (M = 14.14; DE = 2.89). Adequate internal consistency indices were detected. The two-dimensional structure proposed by the authors was not replicated through confirmatory factor analysis. However, the exploratory factor analysis of the data evidenced a general factor that explained 69.55 % of the variance. It is concluded that LIFE-H is an ideal instrument for the study of participation as a global construct in this population. Key words: Validity, Participation, LIFE-H, Quality of life, Cerebral Palsy.
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Currently, there are many sporting events held in Europe, but only a few have the primary purpose of promoting the physical practice of sport among the population groups that have higher rates of inactivity (i.e., women and older people) or claim to know the characteristics and motivations of the participants in these events. Thus, the objective of this study is twofold: First, it seeks to discover the level of sports participation and the physical activity habits of participants in a popular sporting event such as European Sports Day in five countries of the European Union: Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Ireland, and Hungary, which participated in the project Euro Sport Health promoted by The European Commission; Second, it aims to identify the effects of socio- demographic variables of participation and exercise habits in future development of policies and strategies to promote phy- sical and sports activities in these countries.
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Bravo et al. (2014) concluded that studies that have focused solely on the effect of phytogenics on ME alone may not be sensitive enough to detect their full nutrition- al value, suggesting that dietary NE is the better way to evaluate broiler response to phytogenics supplementation. Dietary NE is the ME of the diet corrected for the energy losses that result from the heat released during absorp- tion of the dietary nutrients and accretion of body mass. Although changes in maintenance energy, for example, heat production, are more likely to be detected by deter- mination of NE compared to ME (Pirgozliev and Bed- ford, 2013; Bravo et al., 2014), changes in growth perfor- mances may not always relate to dietary available energy. Muscle and fat are the 2 main components of the bird growth studied. Birds fed W and also XT retained more carcass fat compared to the rest of the birds, which was coupled with an increase in NE. Fat and protein contain different amounts of GE but require the same energy to be deposited in the body, resulting in more efficient fat depo- sition and low HP (Macleod, 1990). Indeed, birds fed XT- supplemented W (containing more fat) had reduced HP compared to those fed maize diets. Widening the dietary ME to protein ratio is likely to affect more abdominal fat retention than bird growth performances (Niu et al., 2009), suggesting an explanation for the inconsistency between growth performance and NE of birds fed W.
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Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to explore the sleep habits profile according to ADHD presentation, demo- graphic characteristics, comorbidity and/or prescribed med- ication (Lanza & Rhoades, 2013). This type of analysis al- lows to include both quantitative and qualitative variables. In this analysis the following were included: age (children/ adolescents), gender (male/female), socioeconomic status (low/high), parental age, separation (yes/no), ADHD pre- sentation (ADHD-C/ADHD-I), comorbidity (presence/ab- sence), medication (yes/no), and the CSHQ-A total score. This analysis proposes that the sample can be divided into K number of classes. The Latent Gold 3.0 software (Ver- munt & Magidson, 2000) was used to determine the optimal number of classes (profiles). Models were estimated from one class (under the assumption of homogeneity) up to 10 classes (under the assumption of heterogeneity in the sleep habits profiles of K latent class in ADHD). For the selec- tion of the model with K classes, the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) was used, so it was selected the best fitting model with the lowest BIC among 10 models (Vermunt & Magidson, 2002). Here, the conditional probabilities that indicate the chance of having the characteristic according to class membership are shown, or otherwise the equally con- ditional mean in the quantitative variables. In the same way, the prevalence of each class is shown and for the chosen model the percentage of classification errors and the entro- py (pseudo R 2 that indicates the best fitting model: the clos-
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Dietary data are likewise of importance in behaviora1 studies. Recent work on bat echo1ocation abi1ity indicates that certain species can discriminate gualities oE laboratory targets differing in pattern by on1y 800,u (J. Simmons and N. Suga, personal conununication) . These workers and others are interested in the bat's use of this abi1ity in the field to se1ect ceriain prey items� A" prirnary step in obtaining this know1edge is to determine whether bah have füod prefer
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Energy density, obesogenic environment and food behaviors are determinants related to energy balance that the scientific community has focused their attention. Short term feeding trials have found that lower-energy dense food choices lead to a higher amount of food consumption but lower energy intakes compared to higher-energy density diets. An observational study, assessing whether dietary energy density predicts weight change over 6 y among a sample of non-Hispanic, white women, found that consumption of a lower-ED diet moderates weight gain. These results are supported by those observed in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) where 658 prehypertensive and hypertensive persons were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: the established group received an intervention of 18 sessions implementing well-established hypertension recommendations, the established+Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) group received an intervention of 18 sessions also implementing the DASH diet, and the advice group received 1 session on these topics. Authors concluded that both large and modest energy density reductions were associated with weight loss and improved diet quality. This suggests that lower-energy density diets may lead to better appetite regulation and improved body weight control (35–37). In line with these results, some investigators have pointed out that portion size of foods as other contributing factor of weight gain. Current scientific evidence shows that the portion size of foods are related to the amount of food intake, and also to the perception of the individuals towards food (38). Other factors such skipping breakfast or snaking have also been associated with weight gain, however the results are controversial and inconsistent (39).
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