Digital imaging

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Standard health level seven for odontological digital imaging

Standard health level seven for odontological digital imaging

Background: A guide for the implementation of dental digital imaging reports was developed and validated through the International Standard of Health Informatics–Health Level Seven (HL7), achieving interoperability with an electronic system that keeps dental records. Introduction: Digital im- aging benefits patients, who can view previous close-ups of dental examinations; providers, because of greater efficiency in managing information; and insurers, because of improved accessibility, patient monitoring, and more efficient cost man- agement. Finally, imaging is beneficial for the dentist who can be more agile in the diagnosis and treatment of patients using this tool. Materials and Methods: The guide was developed under the parameters of an HL7 standard. It was necessary to create a group of dentists and three experts in information and communication technologies from different institutions. Discussion: Diagnostic images scanned with conventional radiology or from a radiovisiograph can be converted to Di- gital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format, while also retaining patient information. The guide shows how the information of the health record of the patient and the information of the dental image could be standardized in a Clinical Dental Record document using international informatics standard like HL7-V3-CDA document (dental document Level 2). Since it is an informatics standardized document, it could be sent, stored, or displayed using dif- ferent devices—personal computers or mobile devices—in- dependent of the platform used. Conclusions: Interoperability
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8 Lee mas

ANALYSIS OF VOCAL FOLD VIBRATION DURING REGISTER CHANGE BY HIGH SPEED DIGITAL IMAGING SYSTEM

ANALYSIS OF VOCAL FOLD VIBRATION DURING REGISTER CHANGE BY HIGH SPEED DIGITAL IMAGING SYSTEM

In free talk, the change of vocal fold vibration will be found frequently. That is, changes of the frequency of the vibration (intentionally controlled intonation, unintentional overturn of the pitch, etc.), or changes of the manner of the vibration (intentional and unintentional stop of the phonation, change of the voice quality, etc.). These phenomena are very important prosodic events. Therefore, for the study of prosody, our high speed digital imaging system is a very powerful tool by which physiological information can be obtained.

5 Lee mas

PS 3.6-2011 Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Part 6: Data Dictionary

PS 3.6-2011 Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Part 6: Data Dictionary

This part of the DICOM Standard is PS 3.6 of a multi-part standard produced to facilitate the interchange of information between digital imaging computer systems in medical environments. This interchange will enhance diagnostic imaging and potentially other clinical applications. The multi-part DICOM Standard covers the protocols and data that shall be supplied to achieve this interchange of information.

216 Lee mas

PS 3.6-2009 Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Part 6: Data Dictionary

PS 3.6-2009 Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Part 6: Data Dictionary

This part of the DICOM Standard is PS 3.6 of a multi-part standard produced to facilitate the interchange of information between digital imaging computer systems in medical environments. This interchange will enhance diagnostic imaging and potentially other clinical applications. The multi-part DICOM Standard covers the protocols and data that shall be supplied to achieve this interchange of information.

188 Lee mas

PS 3.3-2009 Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Part 3: Information Object Definitions

PS 3.3-2009 Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Part 3: Information Object Definitions

A Requested Procedure is an instance of a Procedure of a given Procedure Type. An instance of a Requested Procedure includes all of the items of information that are specified by an instance of a Procedure Plan that is selected for the Requested Procedure by the imaging service provider. This Procedure Plan is defined by the imaging service provider on the basis of the Procedure Plan templates associated with the considered Procedure Type. An Imaging Service Request may include requests for several different Requested Procedures. The purpose of this entity is to establish the association between Imaging Service Requests and Procedure Types, to convey the information that belongs to this association and to establish the relationships between Requested Procedures and the other entities that are needed to describe them. A single Requested Procedure of one Procedure Type is the smallest unit of service that can be requested, reported, coded and billed. Performance of one instance of a
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1286 Lee mas

Diseño e implementación de una aplicación DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) cliente / servidor para el transporte de imágenes radiológicas digitales en un ambiente hospitalario

Diseño e implementación de una aplicación DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) cliente / servidor para el transporte de imágenes radiológicas digitales en un ambiente hospitalario

Las imágenes obtenidas sobre película convencional deben ser convertidas a formato digital para incorporarlas a la carpeta del paciente. El proceso consiste en una lectura punto a punto de cada película con un digitalizador, que puede ser de tres tipos: cámara de video CCD (el detector CCD, del inglés Charge Coupled Device, se encarga de la conversión de una señal luminosa en una señal eléctrica), barrido por CCD, o barrido por láser. La mejor calidad se obtiene con los digitalizadores láser, que proveen una resolución superior a 2000x2000 píxeles y una gama de densidades de 12 bits (4096 tonos) por píxel. Con la cámara de video CCD, limitada a 8 bits (256 grises) y a resoluciones inferiores a 1024x1024 píxeles, la calidad es muy limitada, (aunque hay prototipos a 2048x2048 píxeles).
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Detection of breast lesions in medical digital imaging using neural networks

Detection of breast lesions in medical digital imaging using neural networks

Radiologists do not diagnose cancer versus benign nodules; they detect suspicious regions and send them for additional work up [Baydush et al, 2001]. Bearing in mind the way medical imaging specialists work, the system works as follows: i. capturing medical image, ii. storing image on the data base, iii. starting up processing, iv. generating report, v. validating report. The first and last steps generate information which provides a work environment where system users are given the ability to create new network topologies in order to validate the results obtained.
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10 Lee mas

Anotador de anomalías para imágenes médicas

Anotador de anomalías para imágenes médicas

Para evaluar el desempeño de los algoritmos de DA se debe disponer de un estándar de oro adecuado. El método más común en la evaluación de los resultados es comparar estos con los de un grupo de expertos (anotados o segmentados a mano) para un conjunto de imágenes (Chen, 1999). Los expertos humanos tienen excelentes capacidades de reconocimiento debido a su conocimiento global previo; sin embargo, su habilidad de delineación es pobre. Los coeficientes de variación intra-expertos han sido reportados alrededor del 6,5%, y los coeficientes de variación inter-expertos cerca del 22,1% de acuerdo a (Ashton, 2006). A diferencia de los cientos de bases de datos de imágenes médicas disponibles para otras tareas de análisis de datos, son muy poco comunes las bases de datos anotadas para la prueba de algoritmos de DA. Esta carencia de estándares de oro, forzaron a Bouix et al. (2007) a enfocar su atención en un principio de acuerdo común para evaluar algoritmos para la clasificación de tejidos blandos de cerebro sin un estándar de oro, sin embargo no fue suficiente para una evaluación precisa del desempeño de dichos algoritmos. Actualmente existen un conjunto de aplicaciones de software (Philips, 2008; AccuImage, 2008) que permiten realizar anotaciones sobre las imágenes médicas. Sin embargo, estas vienen como valor agregado en los equipos médicos y acarrean problemas de licencia. Peor aún, en muchos casos estas herramientas carecen de la flexibilidad y funcionalidades requeridas para hacer anotaciones adecuadas en la creación de un estándar de oro para la evaluación de algoritmos de DA. En este trabajo se describe la implementación de un software para anotar anomalías en imágenes médicas en varios formatos, entre los que se incluye DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine). El software permite cargar imágenes y realizar operaciones como deshacer y repetir, dibujar líneas, rectángulos, elipses, dibujar a mano alzada, rellenar, borrar, magnificar, usar varios colores y niveles de transparencia, entre otras. El software ha sido íntegramente programado en C# 2.0, cumple totalmente con especificaciones abiertas y es capaz de ejecutarse en varios sistemas operativos y plataformas de hardware.
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8 Lee mas

Advances in the Simultaneous Multiple Surface optical design method for imaging and non-imaging applications

Advances in the Simultaneous Multiple Surface optical design method for imaging and non-imaging applications

The SMS method in three dimensions (SMS3D) has already been widely used in the non-imaging optical designs to achieve maximum transfer efficiency [6-9], particularly in chapter 6 of this thesis. The SMS3D method provides a constructive algorithm to design two free-form optical surfaces with full control of two couples of wave-fronts and partial control of a third couple. These properties make SMS3D method of great interest in the free-form imaging design. One major obstacle in the free-form imaging design is the total amount of variables used to represent free-form surfaces. Without directly construction method, designer has to put all surfaces’ parameters into an optimizer to find local minimum. However, current optimizers have difficulties to optimize efficiently when total amount is big. With the SMS3D method, designer only needs to choose a convenient surface representation to the calculated free-form surfaces and focus on other free parameters. Amount of unknown variables are greatly reduced. Also, from imaging point of view, these two free-form surfaces produce zero aberration for the selected object points, and low aberrations for the around object points. By carefully placing these two nodal points within all fields, it’s possible to reduce the average aberrations dramatically. In this chapter, we are going to explore the imaging ability of SMS3D method with a selected example composed of two un-obscured mirrors.
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171 Lee mas

TítuloUltrasound Imaging of the Abdominal Wall and Trunk Muscles in Patients with Achilles Tendinopathy versus Healthy Participants

TítuloUltrasound Imaging of the Abdominal Wall and Trunk Muscles in Patients with Achilles Tendinopathy versus Healthy Participants

Ultrasonography was developed with a LogiQ ultrasound system (GE, Healthcare, UK), with a 4–13 MHz linear transducer (38-mm footprint) for the anterior abdominal wall muscles and with a 2–5.5 MHz convex transducer (38-mm footprint) for the multifidus evaluations. All the evaluations were developed by the same therapist (P.M.L.), with 3 years of experience in ultrasound imaging of the musculoskeletal field. All the images for the anterior abdominal muscles were taken in supine position. The images of the EO, IO, and TrAb muscles was developed by placing the transductor in the mid-axillary line, between the subcostal line and the iliac crest [9] (Figure 1A). For the RA muscle examination, the transducer was placed aligned with the umbilicus, and just under the umbilicus for the IRD evaluation (Figure 1B). Muscle thickness was considered as the distance between the edges of each muscle and IRD was described as the distance between the both RA muscles [9]. For the multifidus muscles examinations patients were placed lying in prone position at rest and during a maximal isometric contraction with the ipsilateral extended lower limb for 5 s. Following the Wallwork et al. [36] guidelines, the transducer locations were identified by palpations of L4–L5 spinous as the reference points. The thickness of the multifidus muscles was considered as the tip of the target zigapophyseal L4–L5 joint to the inside edge of the superior border of the multifidus muscle [36] (Figure 2A). According to Huang et al. [37], the CSA of the multifidus muscle was recorded with the transducer placed on the skin 25-mm distal from the spinous process of L5 and vertical to the spine (Figure 2B).
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10 Lee mas

Acute Frontal Lobe Dysfunction Following Prefrontal Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in a Patient with Treatment Resistant Depression

Acute Frontal Lobe Dysfunction Following Prefrontal Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in a Patient with Treatment Resistant Depression

Considering this acute frontal syndrome, we conducted an extensive checkup in order to rule out any acute neurological etiology. Epilepsy was ruled out with an EEG conducted during the acute symptomatic phase, revealing no ictal activity, nota- bly in the frontal and temporal areas (even after provocation with hyperventilation test and flicker-fusion test). A second control EEG was conducted 7 days after the first EEG, reveal- ing no abnormalities. Viral and bacterial encephalitis were ruled out by normal blood tests and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) analysis [normal cell counts including no pleocytosis (0 cells), normal CSF protein level (0.33 g/L), normal CSF glucose level (3.5 mmol/L), negative HSV1/2-PCR, negative 14-3-3 protein]. General metabolic disturbances were ruled out by normal laboratory tests (normal glycemia, calcemia, and natremia). In order to rule out the hypothesis of an acute ischemic stroke, a 1.5 T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on day 1. Right DLPFC hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted imaging was reported with a significant decreased apparent dif- fusion coefficient (ADC) as compared to the homotopic region [difference of 0.039 × 10 −3  mm 2 /s, showing 0.723 in the rDLPFC
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6 Lee mas

Correlación entre la resonancia magnética de imagen (RMI) y la regeneración histológica del nervio periférico

Correlación entre la resonancia magnética de imagen (RMI) y la regeneración histológica del nervio periférico

28 Figura 9: Imagen de tensor de difusión con reconstrucción tridimensional y tractografía de nervios periféricos de ratón ex vivo. El seguimiento de la fibra con un umbral FA de 0.5 se realizó con los datos del tensor de difusión recogidos de los nervios seccionados. Se expone toda la muestra de tejido nervioso (izquierda, gris, reconstruida a partir de imágenes potenciadas en T2) y el resultado del seguimiento de fibra (derecha, roja). Las flechas marcan el corte transversal (amarillo). En los nervios transeccionados la orientación del tracto fibroso no está bien alineada y desaparecen distalmente a la transección. (Lehmann HC, Zhang J, Mori S, Sheikh KA. Diffusion tensor imaging to assess axonal regeneration in peripheral nerves. Exp Neurol. 2010; 223(1):238-44)
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32 Lee mas

Brain Changes in Long Term Zen Meditators Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Controlled Study

Brain Changes in Long Term Zen Meditators Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Controlled Study

of meditation.Water molecules in the brain are in constant Brownian motion, and although the movement of theses protons affects conventional structural imaging, diffusion weighted imag- ing (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allow quantification of this microscopic movement within each voxel. The appropriate mathematical combination of the directional diffusion-weighted images provides quantitative measures of water diffusion for each voxel via the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), as well as the degree of diffusion directionality, or fractional anisotropy (FA) [16]. Grey matter is composed of neuronal cell bodies and dendrites concentrated in the outer layers of the cortex. Microstructural changes in white matter can be revealed by specialized MRI brain imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This method analyses proton diffusion in tissue, which is more restricted in white matter than in grey matter. FA augments with increased myelination, diameter and axon com- paction. Although the adult brain was once seen as a rather static organ, it is now clear that the organization of brain circuitry is constantly changing as a function of experience or learning [17]. Luders et al. showed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), pronounced structural connectivity throughout the entire brain within major projection pathways, commissural pathways, and association pathways in meditators compared to controls [18]. Recently, Tang found that a form of mindfulness meditation, integrative body-mind training (IBMT), improved FA in areas surrounding the anterior cingulate cortex after 4-week training more than in controls given relaxation training. Reductions in radial diffusivity (RD) have been interpreted as improved myelin but reductions in axial diffusivity (AD) involve other mechanisms, such as axonal density [19].
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14 Lee mas

El papel de la imagenologa en el diagnstico de enfermedades cardiovasculares

El papel de la imagenologa en el diagnstico de enfermedades cardiovasculares

In the diagnostic approach of cardiovascular pa- thology the potential of established imaging tech- niques like ultrasound has been expanded in re- cent years and new imaging techniques have been developed. These new techniques are mag- netic resonance imaging, multi-detector comput- ed tomography and electron-beam computed tomography; a common characteristic is that the images of the heart and vessels are obtained non-invasively. The imaging tools have deepened the insight in the acute and chronic manifesta- tions of atherosclerosis. They have also replaced or at least diminished invasive diagnostic proce- dures in the diagnostic work-up of patients with heart valve defects and complex congenital heart disease. Furthermore, in other common cardio- vascular disorders like hypertension, aortic pa- thology, heart tumours and pericardial disease the diagnostic approach has also been changed dramatically by the aforementioned imaging tools.
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7 Lee mas

Imaging systems application of multichannel configurations

Imaging systems application of multichannel configurations

While multichannel configurations are well established for non-imaging applications, they have not been used yet for imaging applications. In this paper we present for the first time some of multichannel designs for imaging systems. The multichannel comprises discontinuous optical sections which are called channels. The phase-space representation of the bundle of rays going from the object to the image is discontinuous between channels. This phase-space ray-bundle flow is divided in as many paths as channels there are but it is a single wavefront both at the source and the target. Typically, these multichannel systems are at least formed by three optical surfaces: two of them have discontinuities (either in the shape or in the shape derivative) while the last is a smooth one. Optical surfaces discontinuities cause at the phase space the wave front split in separate paths. The number of discontinuities is the same in the two first surfaces: Each channel is defined by the smooth surfaces in between discontinuities, so the surfaces forming each separate channel are all smooth. Aplanatic multichannel designs are also shown and used to explain the design procedure .
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8 Lee mas

Optogenética: el uso de la luz para revertir la paraálisis por accidentes cerebrovasculares

Optogenética: el uso de la luz para revertir la paraálisis por accidentes cerebrovasculares

Other works introducing optogenetics in functional brain imaging include optogenetic fMRI (ofMRI), which is the acquisition of a whole-brain fMRI using light to activate or silence specific neurons in order to map functional connections between different regions. Choe et al. (2018) used Arch for silencing of Purkinje neurons, a cannula for introducing the optical fibre for delivering photostimulation and a 532nm DPSS laser at 5-20Hz in 10 cycles of 30 second intervals. The laser was driven by TTL signals and different frequencies were used (5, 10, 20Hz) at 20mW intensity for inducing cerebral output of the forebrain. The optimal parameters were 5Hz at 143mW/mm 2 intensity. The effectiveness of this technique for brain mapping was previously reported by Lee et al. (2010); who concluded that ofMRI extended the possibilities of current imaging methods, including casual connectivities, circuit topology and the conformation of cells’ connections in-vivo.
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73 Lee mas

Ionospheric imaging with compressed sensing

Ionospheric imaging with compressed sensing

To further evaluate the performance of these four methods of inverting radar imaging data, we apply them to data from the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO) near Lima, Peru (geographic: 11.95 ◦ S, 76.87 ◦ W). The magnetic dip angle at JRO is approximately 1 ◦ . The data were acquired at 22:18:30 LT on day 277 of 2011. An interval of 12 seconds was used to estimate the signal correlations. It is assumed that image features are stationary over such a short interval. We perform inversions for every range gate and Doppler bin, and add the results from different Doppler bins to obtain a grayscale two- dimensional image. In some applications, the Doppler bins are assigned colors, resulting in a color image, but we do not do so here. The results of different inversion methods are shown in Figure 3.8. As discussed in Chapter 1, these images represent backscattered power at 50 MHz, which is mostly determined by 3m-irregularities in electron density. These large turbulent plumes of plasma are indicative of a phenomenon known as equatorial spread- F. The genesis and growth of equatorial spread-F is of great interest in ionospheric research [2, 4].
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75 Lee mas

Challenges and perspectives of quantitative functional sodium imaging (fNaI)

Challenges and perspectives of quantitative functional sodium imaging (fNaI)

Functional sodium imaging was successfully performed in eight subjects during a right-hand finger-tapping task at 3T. Figure 1a) shows transverse slices from one fNaI volume of a randomly chosen subject, while Figure 1b) shows fNaI statistical activation maps from the group analysis. A total of 16 main clusters were identified and are reported in Table 1. These include the contralateral M1 (Precentral), somatosensory (Postcentral) and supplementary motor (Superior Frontal) gyri, and the ipsilateral anterior cerebellum (lobule I-IV) as well as lobule VI, Crus I-II and the dentate nucleus (Figure 1c). Noticeable are the large number of ipsilateral areas that were also activated in the ipsilateral cerebrum (e.g., frontal and temporal lobes, postcentral gyrus, deep GM including the right thalamus, the insular cortex, the limbic lobe, and parahippocampal gyrus. The lingual gyrus, Brodmann areas (BA) 2, 19, and 37 were also activated ipsilaterally to the movement). Interestingly, WM areas were identified in the CC, contralateral paracentral lobule and medial
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9 Lee mas

Cell Microscopy Imaging: a review on digital image processing applications

Cell Microscopy Imaging: a review on digital image processing applications

Automated analysis in cell imaging generally implies, after appropriate segmentation has been performed, that the regions of interest like cells, nuclei, cytoplasm or cell organelles had been isolated from the whole image and analyzed individually for purposes like anomaly detection, cell classification or pattern recognition tasks in general. These tasks are accomplished by means of computational statistical methods that are encompassed today in the field known as machine learning [105], a branch of artificial intelligence which is widely applied currently in biomedical research. In machine learning, the goal is designing algorithms capable of recognizing complex patterns in the input data and making decisions, like those associated to classification based on these data . A review on cellular image analysis and applications using these techniques is presented in [106]. A basic step in analyzing cell images is the extraction of significant features that can be used with high effectiveness for the above mentioned purposes. These features are to be selected with a task-orientation sense, because using features of low discriminating power can mean an increase of the computational load that is not rewarded in the quality of the results. The biological meaning of the features is also important to interpret the biological processes from which the images were obtained. In the case of cells, a wide variety of morphological attributes have been employed for various analysis tasks.
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59 Lee mas

Complex Modulation Code for Low  Resolution Modulation Devices

Complex Modulation Code for Low Resolution Modulation Devices

Digital information technology is constantly developed using electronic devices. The three dimensional (3D) image processing is also supported by electronic devices to record and display signals. Computer generated holograms (CGH) and integral imaging (II) use liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). This doctoral dissertation studies and develops the application of a commercial twisted nematic liquid crystal display (TNLCD) in computer generated holography and integral imaging. The goal is to encode and reconstruct complex wave fronts with computer generated holograms, and 3D images using Integral Imaging systems. Light modulation curves are presented: amplitude and phase-mostly modulation. Holographic codes are designed and implemented experimentally with optimum reconstruction efficiency, maximum signal bandwidth, and high signal to noise ratio (SNR). The study of TNLCD into II is presented as a review of the basics techniques of display. A digital magnification of 3D images is proposed and implemented. 3D digital magnified images have the same quality of optical magnified images, but the magnified system is less complex. Recognition system for partially occluded object is solved using a 3D II volumetric reconstruction. 3D Recognition solution presents better performance than the conventional 2D image systems. The importance in holography and 3D II is supported by the applications as: optical tweezers, as dynamic trapping light configurations, invariant beams, and 3D medical images.
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180 Lee mas

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