Dispute resolution (law)

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Mediation as an alternative dispute resolution: world experience

Mediation as an alternative dispute resolution: world experience

As an alternative dispute resolution procedure, mediation has relatively recently appeared in Russian legislation. The legal basis is the Federal Law of Russian Federation (2010) “On the alternative procedure for settling disputes involving an intermediary (mediation procedure)”. Article 3 of this Act specifies the basic principles for regulating this procedure. Thus, the mediation procedure is carried out with mutual will of the parties and according to the principles of voluntariness, confidentiality, cooperation and equality of the parties, as well as impartiality and independence of the mediator. Under these conditions, the function of a mediator can be performed by organizations coordinating economic activity (Mityakina et al, 2018; Zare et al, 2014).

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Ombudsing in Higher Education: A Contingent Model for Mediation in University Dispute Resolution Processes

Ombudsing in Higher Education: A Contingent Model for Mediation in University Dispute Resolution Processes

Mediation as a strategy to resolve conflicts in university contexts and carried out by the University Ombudsperson can increase its effectiveness if we take into consideration the elements briefly analyzed in this paper which include the most outstanding characteristics of the university structure and `processes. In this way, we seek to increase the benefits and advantages demonstrated by mediation as compared to adversarial processes of confrontation –as in formal adjudication or courts of justice (Ambroz#, 2005; Butts, Munduate, Barón, & Medina, 2005; Shestowsky, 2004). One of these most outstanding benefits, from the psychosocial perspective which is adopted here, is to provide the foundation for the parties involved to feel as if they are the protagonists of the process as well as the results obtained, thus increasing their level of participation in the processes of decision making leading to agreements and increasing their level of empowerment. Mediation in academia is a viable process for resolving conflict. It preserves the concept of academic freedom and autonomy and allows for faculty empowerment in a constructive, growth-producing process for the institution (Doelker, 1989). Like Coleman (2006) argues, cooperative conflicts, for instance, actually generate power on the parties involved, understood as «power with». It has been confirmed that, in general, mediation gives rise to high levels of satisfaction in its participants, as well as the increasing social value as to its reliability and effectiveness in dispute resolution (Pruitt & Carnevale, 2003). The contingent model of mediation presented in this paper leaves from the principle that social and environmental constraints (i. e., power relations between the parties involved and temporal scope of its relationships) can strongly affect both the desirability and effectiveness of different modes of mediation, and these factors should be considered before a given mediation or conflict resolution procedure is employed (Houlden, LaTour, Walker, & Thibaut, 1976; LaTour et al., 1976). So, this contingent model of mediation can have a doubtless practical value and implications, since it considers the complexity of the university contexts and the adaptation of the type of mediation (formal-informal continuum) to the specific characteristics of each one of the conflicts and the implied parties. Like Lim and Carnevale noted (1990), most of the factors perceived to be contingently effective were more effective as the level of dispute problems increased.

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Arbitraje comercial internacional "online"

Arbitraje comercial internacional "online"

94. P ERRITT , H.H., “Dispute Resolution in Electronic Network Communities”, 38(2) Vi- llanova Law Review, 1993, p. 5, disponible en http://www.kentlaw.edu/perritt/publica- tions/38_VILL._L._REV._349.htm (última visita efectuada: 29 de septiembre de 2007); L AS- PROGATA , G.A., “Virtual Arbitration: Contract Law and Alternative Dispute Resolution Meet in Cyberspace”, 2001, pp. 26-27, disponible en http://www.seattleu.edu/asbe/igbi/publica- tions/Virtual%20Arbitration_%20Contract%20Law%20and%20Alternative%20Dispu- te%20Resolution%20Meet%20in%20Cyberspace.doc (última visita efectuada: 29 de sep- tiembre de 2007); A RSIC , J., “International Commercial Arbitration on the Internet...”, op. cit., p. 219; H ILL , R., “On-line Arbitration...”, op. cit.; P HILIPPE , M., “Where Is Everyone Going...”, op. cit., pp. 6-7; S CHELLEKENS , M., “Online Arbitration an E-commerce...”, op. cit., 122; S CHULTZ , T., “Online Arbitration: Binding or Non-Binding?”, op. cit.; S CHULTZ , T., “On- line Dispute Resolution...”, op. cit.; K ESSEDJIAN , C. y C AHN , S., “Dispute Resolution On- Line”, op. cit., pp. 986-987; W AHAB , M., “The global information society...”, op. cit., p. 164; L YNCH , K.L., “The forces of economic globalization...”, op. cit., pp. 395-396; S CHNEIDER , M.E. y K UNER , C., “Dispute Resolution in International Electronic Commerce”, op. cit., p. 18; M ANEVY, I., “Online dispute resolution: what future?”, op. cit.

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El acceso a la justicia para consumidores en el comercio electrónico transfronterizo mediante los ODR, una realidad más cercana

El acceso a la justicia para consumidores en el comercio electrónico transfronterizo mediante los ODR, una realidad más cercana

Online Dispute Resolution System for Cross-Border Online Transactions for the Sale of Goods”. Pp.107-124 en: AAVV. ABDEL, Mohamed S. KATSH, Ethan. RAINEY, Daniel. (Coords.) Online Dispute Resolution: Theory and Practice. Ed. Eleven International Publishing. La Haya, 2011. RULE, Colin Del DUCA, Louis F. ROGERS, Vikki. “ Designing a Global Consumer Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) System for Cross-Border Small Value - High Volume Claims - OAS Developments (July 6, 2010) ” . Uniform Commercial Code Law Journal, Vol. 42, p. 221, 2010; Penn State Legal Studies Research Paper No. 24-2010; Stanford Public Law Working Paper No. 1635463. Disponible en: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1635463 , RULE, Colin, Del DUCA, Louis F. LOEBL, Zbyneck. “Facilitating Expansion of Cross-Border E-Commerce, Developing a Goblal Online Dispute Resolution System (Lessons Derived from Existing ODR Systems – Work of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law ”. Penn State Law Journal of Law & International Affairs. Vol.1 No.1. Abril 2012. Pp.59-85.

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Participative procedure: one of the types of conciliative procedures in civil procedure

Participative procedure: one of the types of conciliative procedures in civil procedure

The basis for creating a participatory procedure in France was the positive experience of the use of the « collaborative law » in North America and « participatory justice » (justice participative) in Canada (G’sell, 2010; Guinchard, 2008). This alternative method of dispute resolution is legally enshrined in French law only since 2010. For the first time, a proposal to create such a way for settling disputes in France was made in the report of the commission led by Serge Ginshar (Guinchard, 2008). The proposal of the Ginshar Commission was to create a procedure in the French legal system that would facilitate the peaceful settlement of disputes by lawyers participating in the procedure, and if the dispute was not resolved, this procedure would involve a simplified transition to a trial and expedited consideration and resolution of the case.

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Virtual reality and online dispute resolution

Virtual reality and online dispute resolution

El ser humano del siglo XXI no puede entenderse sin las TIC (las nuevas tecnologías de la Comunicación y la Información) y el feedback entre la realidad física y la realidad virtual. El mundo global en el que vivimos, y que se remonta mucho más atrás en el tiempo que a la espectacular revolución tecnológica de las últimas décadas, nos ofrece en la actualidad un escenario de lo que muy gráficamente el sociólogo polaco Zygmunt Bauman denomina “realidad líquida”. La Mediación como procedimiento flexible y autocompositivo ha evolucionado también como un instrumento más de conciliación global, la relativamente reciente aplicación de las TIC a algunas modalidades de ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) solo representa la aportación de nuevas y emergentes, algunas ya no tanto, herramientas que faciliten esas actuaciones dentro de esa “realidad liquida”, a la que la Mediación tan idóneamente puede adaptarse, que nos permitan superar hándicaps en la comunicación que desde siempre nos acompañan, como por ejemplo las categorías espacio-temporales que desde los presocráticos han sido una preocupación central en los sistemas filosóficos.

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Portable Document Format (PDF)

Portable Document Format (PDF)

Many investment treaties grant protections and substantive rights to foreign investors, and many have arbitration mechanisms with which to enforce those rights (for example, the ICC’s International Court of Arbitration). However, no arbitration mechanism offers quite as many advantages for TNCs as ISDS. A crucial function of the ISDS mechanism is to create a state of exception by redefining the legal rights and duties of foreign investors while suspending the host-state’s regulatory power. By doing so, the ISDS enables TNCs to construct their claims in contractual terms leaving aside state sovereignty and most importantly the interests of the local population. The ISDS has thus enabled arbitration tribunals to radically reshape the notions of property and expropriation (Perrone 2017, Nichols 2018). Although in several cases the investors’ claims were rejected, the general outcome of the system has been to legally improve the position of investors in detriment of states and the local populations. Moreover, the expansive interpretation of property rights and expropriation has created uncertainty among states and investors, which favours corporations in several ways. Firstly, because of this uncertainty, governments tend to self-restrain their use of regulatory powers (i.e. regulatory chill) [Tienhaara 2011]. Secondly, as Howse (2017, pp. 58-59) argues, powerful corporations may still threaten states even if they ultimately lose the claim because they can reallocate part of the risk by resorting to third party funding, such as hedge or vulture funds. Lastly, Howse’s (Idem, p. 60) recent study shows that in almost all 121 settled investment proceedings he investigated, where public information is available, the investor obtained either significant monetary relief or a significant adjustment of the regulatory framework to its benefit. In light of these elements, one might conclude that rather than evidence of an independent and impartial dispute resolution regime, the statistics illustrate one of the key survival mechanisms of capitalism, which is to concede when necessary to maintain the legitimacy of a system that overwhelmingly favours capitalist interests (see Pearce 1976). 12

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El orden público como motivo de anulación del laudo

El orden público como motivo de anulación del laudo

de la Universidad de Harvard– para referirse a toda una serie de procedimientos que sirven como alternativas entre el proceso y algunos otros mecanismos no jurisdiccionales en los que, generalmente, participa un tercero que asiste a dos o más sujetos para facilitar la resolución de un conflicto. Además del arbitraje, algunos de esos mecanismos son la conciliación, la mediación, la evaluación neutral, la determinación por expertos, el tribunal empresarial, el ombudsman, etc. Sobre la cuestión de los ADR, señalar que la Unión Europea se ha mostrado interesada desde finales del siglo pasado y, más aún, a partir del inicio del presente en las modalidades alternativas de solución de conflictos hasta el punto que la Comisión Europea publicó en abril de 2002 un documento de debate llamado Libro Verde y la Directiva 52/2008 que son manifestación del esfuerzo para la consolidación de esos métodos novedosos de administración de justicia. Recuerda el Libro Verde: «…las ADR se inscriben plenamente en el contexto de las políticas sobre la mejora del acceso a la justicia. En efecto, las ADR desempeñan un papel complementario con relación a los procedimientos jurisdiccionales en la medida en que, a menudo, los métodos aplicados en las ADR se adaptan mejor al carácter de los litigios». Por último, señalar que aunque mayoritariamente se ha considerado el arbitraje como un medio alternativo de resolución de conflictos, hay quien lo excluye en atención al carácter impositivo del laudo arbitral; en este sentido, BERGER, K., Private Dispute Resolution in International Business: Negotiation, Mediation, Arbitration, La Haya, 2006, p. 46. En España, también hay quien afirma que el arbitraje no debe ser visto como un sustituto o un mecanismo alternativo a la jurisdicción, sino como una «forma de solución de controversias –adecuada al nuevo lenguaje de la ponderación de intereses y de la negociación– fundada en el principio de autonomía de la voluntad y apta para aportar soluciones en determinado tipo de conflictos y determinados momentos y sectores de la actividad de la vida económica», XIOL RÍOS, J., «El arbitraje y los Tribunales de justicia», La Notaria, núm. 47 y 48, p. 83.

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Escrituras y disidencias pedagógicas:  una práctica educativa para (des)aprender los cuerpos

Escrituras y disidencias pedagógicas: una práctica educativa para (des)aprender los cuerpos

La práctica se planteó como un trabajo de invención e incitación a hacer una experiencia colectiva con prácticas de escritura que altere, cuestione y dispute nuestros modos habi­ tuales de escribir, hacer(nos) cuerpo y saber docente. Una invitación a la escritura tramada desde teorías y prácticas feministas, de la disi­ dencia sexual, cuir y decolonial, que convoca a lxs participantes a ensayar formas de extrañar la pedagogía desde una perspectiva deshete­ rosexualizante del saber educativo y lo erótico como fuerza deseante e intensificador afectivo del cuerpo y del conocimiento (Flores, 2017b). Desde un primer momento, la charla­taller tuvo un carácter participativo con la finalidad de sus­ citar en los participantes la posibilidad explorar el conocimiento desde posiciones críticas.

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Concept and theoretical aspects of international migration law

Concept and theoretical aspects of international migration law

The concept of international migration law has a distinct history. He first applied Louis Vuitton’s “International Migration Law” in Richar in 1927 before his publication at the Hague Academy in 1972. Over the past two decades, many textbooks have been published to reflect this growing field of international law. International migration law is a universal international regulation governing the legal status of migrants in host countries and the movement of individuals between countries. However, international migration law does not replace other areas of international law and is not an autonomous regime. On the contrary, it is designed to formulate clear rules in various fields of law. Like many other legal disciplines (for example, environmental law or trade law), international migration law has a doctrinal structure based primarily on the sources and subjects of international law (Vincent C, 2016). According to Nicolas Sitaropoulos, Deputy Director of the Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe, international migration law is not an autonomous regime. It is a multi-tiered set of rights consisting of various international, regional or bilateral treaties and agreements (Nikolaos S, 2015). The Glossary in the Field of Migration states that international migration law has been applied to international migration law (http://www.ejiltalk.org/why-ternational). In our opinion, the legal nature of international migration law is not fully understood in the above definitions. In particular, they study universal, interregional, regional and regional institutions and their activities related to international migration law, bilateral and multilateral international agreements on the subjects of migration processes and their rights and obligations, international and national mechanisms of control and international migration. A special area of international law. One of the main factors in the formation of international migration law in the global legal system is, firstly, the rapid development of interstate relations in the regulation of international migration processes, and secondly, the separate categories of migrants (refugees, refugees, parents, migrant workers, illegal migrants). Increasing the scope of universal, interregional and regional and sub-regional human rights agreements will be ignited. Third, it is desirable to study the rights of international migrants, refugees, asylum-seekers and labor migrants, as well as the citizens in the field of international migration.

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Private Law: Reforming the law of obligations in Europe

Private Law: Reforming the law of obligations in Europe

The most important question is the following: Must the harmonization of private law be complete? This is a hotly debated issue among scholars and different research groups. This is proven by the proliferation of groups of scholars whose aim is to obtain as a result, a more or less complete text. The publication of the text called Principles, Definitions and Model Rules of European Private Law25, presented as a draft by two European groups and based on the text of the Lando Principles of European Contract Law is an example of what is stated by this paper, as is the text on European Group in Tort Law. The European Commission, however, has for now rejected the idea of a general European Code and the Treaty of Lisbon does not contain any reference of unifying private law in Europe. In fact, the Treaty maintains the Maastricht methodology as regards setting the internal market as an object, at which all the rules are aimed (article 114.1TFUE) and to give up all general rules, to establish the identification of subjects which are the exclusive power of the EU and those which are shared with member States. Only in the field of Family Law is there any specific reference in article 81.3 TFUE, which regulates cooperation in civil law and including the rules in the Brussels 2 and Brussels 2 A regulations. The reported Proposal discussed until 2014 in the European Parliament was a good example as they rejected both a “Regulation establishing a European contract law and a Regulation establishing a European Civil Code”. Perhaps in the high echelons of the EU they may consider that the methodology of the European Civil Code is an obsolete idea and this may possibly be true, and it would also be very difficult to achieve.

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MASC y asociaciones público privadas en Colombia: los dispute boards o páneles de expertos

MASC y asociaciones público privadas en Colombia: los dispute boards o páneles de expertos

Es importante concluir, que los mecanismos alternativos de solución de conflictos analizados en la presente investigación son métodos tradicionales que se orientan a presentar una solución a una controversia con el fin de evitar la concurrencia de las partes a escenarios judiciales. Estos métodos presentan diferentes alternativas que se adoptan de conformidad con la necesidad del contrato, las partes y la voluntad contractual. Sin embargo, se evidencia un método denominado Panel de expertos o Dispute Boards, que ofrece un catálogo amplio que contempla conceptos técnicos y decisiones vinculantes durante el proceso de desarrollo contractual. El panel de expertos, que se compone de un cuerpo colegiado de mínimo siete expertos, ofrece al desarrollo de las APP, un método completo para la solución alternativa de conflictos, así como para los requerimientos en materia de estudios y análisis de riesgos. Esta institución jurídica, se compone de la voluntad de las contractual para el perfeccionamiento, así como del contrato de transacción y mandato, que presenta sus decisiones como vinculantes.

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Populismo y rule of law / Populism and Rule of Law

Populismo y rule of law / Populism and Rule of Law

“Aparecen otros aspectos adicionales de esta forma mínima de justicia, que podríamos llamar «natural», si analizamos lo que de hecho va implicado en cualquier método de control social –tanto en las reglas de juegos como en el derecho– que consista primariamente en pautas o criterios generales de conducta comunicados a clases de personas, de quienes se espera que los entiendan y se ajusten a las reglas sin nuevas directivas oficiales. Para que funcione un control social de este tipo, las reglas tienen que satisfacer cier- tos requisitos; han de ser inteligibles y poder ser obedecidas por la mayoría y, en principio, no deben ser retroactivas,aunque excepcionalmente pueden serlo. Esto significa que, en la mayoría de los casos, los que eventualmente sean castigados por la transgresión de las reglas habrán tenido la posibilidad y la oportunidad de acatarlas. Obviamente estas características del control mediante reglas están estrechamente relacionadas con las exigencias de justicia que los juristas llaman principios de legalidad. En verdad, un crítico del positivismo ha visto en estos aspectos del control mediante reglas algo que importa una conexión necesaria entre el derecho y la moral, y ha sugerido que se los denomine «la moral interna del derecho». También aquí, si esto es lo que significa la conexión necesaria del derecho y la moral, podemos aceptarla. Infortunadamente, es compatible con una enorme iniquidad” 33 . Un segundo texto relevante se encuentra en la recensión de Hart a The Morality of Law. Él dice allí que es un error pensar que el Derecho es una rea- lidad “moral” por el solo hecho de que es una actividad que persigue fines. Lo ejemplifica con el caso del envenenamiento. El envenenamiento es una actividad que persigue un fin, y sin embargo sería un error afirmar que los principios del arte del envenenamiento posean una “moralidad inherente”.

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Can PARLASUR change it all? : an analysis of its impacts on the integration process of Mercosur in the light of the evolution of the european parliament

Can PARLASUR change it all? : an analysis of its impacts on the integration process of Mercosur in the light of the evolution of the european parliament

Indeed, its constitutive protocol sets forth that “the accomplishment of the common purposes of the member states requires a balanced and efficient institutional framework that allows for the creation of rules which are effective and which guarantee legal certainty and foreseeability in the development of the integration process” (p.1). Given to the legitimacy people will grant to Parlasur once all this members are elected, this body could gain more and more legislative power (as was the case with the European Parliament). Once the elected body has a significant role in law-making, its legitimacy could turn community laws into directly applicable, superior laws.

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Building Standard Law

Building Standard Law

This text is based on the Building Standard Law and related regulations. It is intended to be used solely as a reference to facilitate in the understanding of the Law and related regulations BCJ will not be responsible for any consequences Law and related regulations. BCJ will not be responsible for any consequences resulting from the use of the information in this text.

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El Fashion Law en Colombia

El Fashion Law en Colombia

Esto pone sobre la mesa un tema importante a nivel de impacto en el escenario económico, en la esfera de lo social y, de manera muy especial, en el ordenamiento jurídico, dado que diversas ramas del derecho convergen en el Fashion Law para dar forma en esta especialidad en la cual se estudian temas de propiedad industrial e intelectual, derecho de la competencia, derecho del trabajo, contratos, publicidad, derechos de imagen, sostenibilidad, responsabilidad social corporativa, marketing, publicidad, negocios, derecho de las nuevas tecnologías y sostenibilidad, entre otros. Ahora bien, a nivel mundial está en apogeo el Derecho de la Moda (Tungate, 2005), refiriendo con ello a la regulación específica de protección de propiedad intelectual, marca, reconocimiento, imagen, comercio interno y externo, y demás situaciones a las que se enfrentan los creadores de un bien de primera necesidad que tiene un status prioritario y lujoso en las decisiones personales.

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High resolution images from low resolution video sequences

High resolution images from low resolution video sequences

The simplest way of obtaining a basic enhancement in an image resolution is applying this image to some of the so-called interpolation techniques. The most popular are bicubic, bilinear, and the nearest neighbor technique (here mentioned decreasingly, taking into account the quality of the result obtained). Even though such methods present a fast solution, this is not enough in surveys, in which the certainty of the observed information in the image must be the highest.

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A proposal on broadening Colombia's national carbon tax's scope in the light of the law of the world trade organization

A proposal on broadening Colombia's national carbon tax's scope in the light of the law of the world trade organization

The proposed issue is important for international law since it is a platform that portrays how different disciplines, International Laws of Trade and Environment, can provide common perspectives aiming at the conservation of a safe environment, but nevertheless may collide. Therefore, given the fact that inside the World Trade Organization there are not cases of carbon taxes scrutinized under its provisions it could shed some light on the outcome that this could reach. On the contrary, there are several cases on this scenario that have dealt with the environment and the protection of human life that could somehow act out as “precedent” but the unique features that the cited charges entail could deflect the course.

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Streamlining COP9 Resolution processes (Resolution VIII.45)

Streamlining COP9 Resolution processes (Resolution VIII.45)

implementation of the Convention”. It is anticipated that this draft Resolution will have a set of thematic sections, each identifying future implementation actions for Contracting Parties, the Standing Committee, the STRP, the Secretariat, and others (i.e., consolidating the suite of actions previously spread through the operative paragraphs of numerous separate technical Resolutions). This would have the advantage that Parties at COP will be able to more readily consider the overall pattern and balance of proposed future activities for the different organs of the Convention, including a clear view of the priorities for the work requested of the STRP in the 2005-2008 triennium.

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Los derechos humanos y la lucha contra el terrorismo:  una evaluación desde la ley antiterrorista etíope

Los derechos humanos y la lucha contra el terrorismo: una evaluación desde la ley antiterrorista etíope

This article has six major parts. The first part introduces the concept of terrorism in general. The second part addresses the link between human rights and the crime of terrorism vis–à–vis security. The third part offers some initial ideas regarding the legal regime governing counter–terrorism in Ethiopia. The fourth part analyzes the human rights implication of the ATP . The fifth part deals with the new draft of anti–terrorism law of Ethiopia. Finally, the sixth part focuses on different approaches that must be considered in balancing the security agenda of the Ethiopian government and the protection of human rights. By analyzing laws and best practices, this article argues that the ATP falls short of delivering an accurate test for determining the type of conduct that may be regarded as terrorism. Consequently, due to its imprecision, the ATP has reinforced the disregard of human rights by casting the ethos of fear. Addition- ally, this article identifies a broad discrepancy between what has been regarded as human rights on paper and human rights in practice. This article proposes

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