This study proposes a method based on a combination of spatial and statistical analyses to define bundles and to explain the driversofchangeof 24 ecosystem services in Trentino, an Alpine region of Italy. Results show that multiple services can be grouped in a few number of bundles with a complex shape. When mapping multiple services across the territory, the spatial units of representation are a combination of the intrinsic units of representation of single ecosystem services and land use classes. Land use management was found as the external factor that causes the greatest variability of the ecosystem services distribution across the region.
seek other livelihoods. Adaptation also allows for the pressure on one fishery to be reduced when conditions make it vulnerable. Other fisheries that might benefit from such an intercon- nected system can adopt a number of strategies to encourage the ease of shifting effort among fisheries. In fisheries that are strongly driven by factors such as climate and markets, gover- nance systems may enable or hinder adaptability (i.e., the ability to be flexible and shift focus among fisheries). Thus, to enable the flexibility to adapt, fishery managers should understand the social-ecological dynamics and actively acknowledge possible external drivers as inherent aspects of the system as opposed to external shocks or ‘surprises’ and encourage flexibility. Pro- moting access through less expensive permits or less stringent regulation to multiple fisheries of an interconnected system, stimulating investment in diversifying gear types, and establishing multi-species processing at local facilities can all lead to stronger interconnected and adaptive fishing systems. While the Monterey Bay case may be a fortuitous outcome of unplanned re- sponses by various actors, we highlight aspects that may be codified and applied elsewhere. Below we explore the details and plausible explanations for the dominance mode transitions and model selection results, followed by an overview of understanding the vitality of the Mon- terey Bay wetfish SSF and more general lessons on the applicability of interconnected flexibility to other fisheries.
physiological and behavioural traits can generate unexpected selection patterns, and the direction of the selection differentials is an open (and hot) topic (Cooke et al., 2007). Literature about this topic is still scarce and does not show a clear pattern of the direction of fishing-induced selection on life-history traits. On the one hand, authors such as (Saura et al., 2010) reported a decline in body length and weight per generation (a decrease in the growth rate) because of recreational fishing pressure in the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. On the other hand, a line of fish more vulnerable to fishing exhibited a lower growth rate after only three generations of artificial selection for either high or low vulnerability in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (Redpath et al., 2009). The theoretical framework justifying such a pattern is that vulnerable fish seem to display a more accelerated metabolic rate, the energetic cost of which is compensated by greater energy intake through an increased feeding rate (Redpath et al., 2009; Redpath et al., 2010). Thus, the results reported for recreational fishing are contradictory and cast doubt on the a priori expectation that more-vulnerable fish should necessarily encompass the faster-growing individuals within a population.
In addition to these changes in the reproductive output of C. hyssopifolia, we also observed changes in the onset, duration, and peak of reproductive and dispersal events in response to habitat quality and climate change in both study years. Based on its well-known variation with annual weather, it is expected that plant phenology will be one of the most responsive and easily observable traits that change in response to climate (Badeck et al. 2004, Parmesan 2006). In addition and related to the known major role of water in semiarid ecosystems, altered phenological patterns associated with reductions in rainfall were also expected. In this sense, it is worth mentioning that both study years had drier-than-average springs, matching the predictions for this region. Accordingly, other stressful abiotic conditions such as those experienced in the poor-quality habitat sites (e.g., lower nutrient content) may also elicit changes in phenology (Sandvik and Totland 2000, Franks et al. 2007). Under resource limitation, plants may either invest in reproduction, which may limit vegetative growth, or cope with stress through tolerance (e.g., increasing water or nutrient use efﬁciency; Cohen 1976, Fox 1990, Franks et al. 2007). When environmental conditions (e.g., water availability or habitat quality) are benign, we may expect a delay in ﬂowering and other phenophases because plants that spend more time growing will have more resources and thus will produce more ﬂowers and seeds (Cohen 1976, Franks et al. 2007). However, when conditions are resource limiting (e.g., drought or reduced quality habitat sites), plants may advance their phenophases in order to mature seeds before conditions deteriorate too much, thereby ensuring reproduction but limiting growth. Our results agree with a stress escape strategy, as stressed plants (i.e., non- watered plants and plants in poor-quality habitat sites) tended to advance most phenophases. This fact also coincides with the lower relative growth detected in plants from the poor-quality habitat sites in 2005. Interestingly, abiotic stress did not result in lower reproductive success (see Table 3). Only in 2006 did we observe a lower number of viable seeds in non-watered plants, which matches with recent evidence relating altered phenological patterns with a decoupling of ﬂowering and pollination activity (Badeck et al. 2004, Parmesan 2006). We are unable to determine whether this change represents a passive plastic response of C.
While Table 1 could be used as a basis for variable classi- fication, it does not accurately reflect how companies, both large and SMEs, plan and execute their strategy. Instead, companies adopt a strategic view when considering the different aspects involving decisions related to the imple- mentation of new technologies or the development of new sales channels. This view has been extensively validated in business contexts (Fahey & Narayanan, 1986; Kotler & Keller, 2006; Porter, 1985), facilitating a systematic and strategy-based approach to the study of the variables affect- ing MCEC development. It is also possible to establish a correspondence between the categories in Table 1 and the different components of strategic analysis. Thus, by adopting this view, the study differentiates three different groups of variables of influence, depending on where in the strategic analysis they are considered: environmental scanning ‒ex- ternal analysis, general‒, competitive forces ‒external analy- sis, specific‒ and organizational variables ‒internal analysis.
The second part consisted of realizing an experimental evaluation at 100 kHz of switching frequency and 400 V of dc-bus. The results showed that the AGD can reduce the overshoot voltages until 28.2% and until 31.6% of the current peak. The reduction of the overshoots leads total switching losses until about 53.3% less than conventional gate driver with high gate resistance fixed. On the other hand, the AGD cannot only attenuate the current oscillations, but also eliminated the voltage oscillations, which are caused by parasitic elements in 5.4 MHz for conditions of this study. In addition, an experimental validation for two different SiC MOSFET has been developed. The two devices evaluation show that the active gate driver can work for any SiC MOSFET. Taking into account all of the above, it has been demonstrated that if the energy on gate-voltage trajectory of the SiC MOSFET is reduced, varying the R g on a specific interval of v gs around
As previously mentioned, the Clean Energy Package demands each member state to provide a NECP for periods 2021-2030. With some months of delay, Spain was able to deliver its draft by February 2019. These documents help the European Commission to monitor the level of compliance with the European objectives as a whole. The Spanish Government states in this document that they understand their committed responsibility towards climate change and that it implies an act of responsibility through public policies, not only at a state level but also a regional level. This is the case where the Autonomous Communities have undertaken ambitious policies in terms of climate change. This document identifies long term challenges and opportunities across five Energy Union dimensions: decarbonization, energy efficiency, renewables, energy security, internal energy market and research, innovation and competitiveness. This study will try to focus on the areas of decarbonization, and energy efficiency . The measures considered in the NECP allows achieving the following results by 2030. First and foremost, 21% GHG reduction based on 1990 levels. This means moving from 340,2 million tons of equivalent CO 2 in 2007 to 226,7Mton of eq-CO 2 in 2030 (see Table
Al igual que para la oleaginosa, los drivers del mercado siguen siendo los mismos que en el informe anterior. La demora en la siembra producto de malas condiciones climáticas sigue siendo mirada por los brokers, aunque todos saben de la capacidad del productor norteamericano en meterle velocidad a la siembra cuando el clima se lo permita. Y ese es el tema, pronósticos de clima más cálido para los próximos días dan la posibilidad de llevar a cabo lo mencionado. Por otro lado, la seca en los estados del sur de Brasil que afecta al 30-40% de la safrinha está dando apoyo a los precios. Hoy no existe otro dato propio del cereal que mueva el mercado, siendo el comportamiento del trigo un dato al cual se debe prestar atención porque puede marcar, en parte, la tendencia de la cotización del maíz.
From an ecological perspective, data derived from camera traps and analysed via occupancy models are widely used to study carnivores over large geographic areas (Burton et al., 2015; Steenweg et al., 2016). Occupancy modelling offers a flexible framework that can account for imperfect detection and missing observations, making it highly applica- ble to elusive mammals of conservation concern (MacKenzie, Nichols, Hines, Knutson, & Franklin, 2003; MacKenzie & Reardon, 2013). Monitoring population dynamics temporally, and identifying the fac- tors linked to any decline, is critical for management (Di Fonzo, Collen, Chauvenet, & Mace, 2016). For this reason, dynamic (i.e. multiseason) occupancy models are particularly useful because they examine trends through time and can be used to ascertain the drivers underlying ob- served changes in occupancy (MacKenzie et al., 2003, 2006). Similarly, there are a range of specialised social science methods for asking sensi- tive questions that can be used to yield valuable information on human behaviour, including the illegal killing of species (Nuno & St. John, 2015). One such example is the unmatched count technique, which has recently been used to examine the spatial distribution of hunting and its prox- imity to Serengeti National Park, Tanzania (Nuno, Bunnefeld, Naiman, & Milner- Gulland, 2013) and bird hunting in Portugal (Fairbrass, Nuno, Bunnefeld, & Milner- Gulland, 2016). Another method is the randomised response technique (RRT), previously used to estimate the prevalence of predator persecution in South Africa (St John et al., 2012) and vulture poisoning in Namibia (Santangeli, Arkumarev, Rust, & Girardello, 2016).
Some research studies (De Croon, Blonk, de Zwart, Frings- Dresen, & Broersen, 2002; Duffy & McGoldrick, 1990; Evans & Johansson, 1998; Kompier, 1988; Kompier, Van den Berg, Aust, & Siegrist, 2000) indicate that absenteeism and job hazards are greater in professional drivers (bus, trucks and taxis) than in other occupational groups. Various job-related negative repercussions have been associated with the health of this collective (Aronsson & Rissler, 1998; Dorn, Stephen, af Wåhlberg, & Gandolfi , 2010; Taylor & Dorn, 2006). These are fatigue (Ahsberg, 2000; Dorrian, Hussey, & Dawson, 2007; Lal & Craig, 2001; Wright & Cropanzano, 1998), strain (Strahan, Watson, & Lennonb, 2008), gastrointestinal disorders (Winkleby, Ragland, Fisher, & Syme, 1988), diffi culty sleeping (Duffy & McGoldrick, 1990; Philip, 2005), psychological and physical symptoms (Machin & Hoare, 2008), states of depression (Da Silva-Junior, Nunes de Pinho, Tulio de Mello, Sales de Bruin, & Carvalhedo de Bruin, 2009), lower back pain (Issever, Onen, Sabuncu, & Altunkaynak, 2002), musculoskeletal complaints (Anderson, 1992; Robb & Mansfi eld, 2007), high blood pressure (Belkic, Pavolic, Djordjevic, Ugljesic, & Mickovic, 1992), and heart disease (Krantz & McCeney, 2002).
For instance, there is compelling scien- tiﬁ c evidence that our planet is about 4.5 billion years old (the theory of the origin of Earth), that our uni- verse was born from a single event about 14 billion years ago (the Big Bang theory), and that today’s organ- isms evolved from ones living in the past (the theory of evolu- tion). Even as these are overwhelmingly accepted by the scientiﬁ c community, fame still awaits anyone who could show these theories to be wrong. Climate change now falls into this category: There is compelling, comprehensive, and consistent objective evidence that humans are changing the climate in ways that threaten our societies and the ecosystems on which we depend.
teniendo en cuenta que estas prácticas de diseño social se realizan según una línea contraria a la de la posverdad, en el sentido de que no son en absoluto complacientes con el entorno, sino que estudian las necesida- des reales de vecindarios específicos con el fin de generar opciones para enmendar las carencias más evidentes del lugar, quizá sea necesario ge- nerar un registro ordenado y fehaciente de las acciones realizadas y crear un archivo que sirva de referente y material de consulta para quienes deseen desarrollar sus propios proyectos en localidades, para evitar que queden atrapados en las verdades a medias o falseadas que nos ofrecen los diversos medios y para que la trabajen como herramienta de investi- gación para mejorar las condiciones de trabajo en iniciativas futuras. Las prácticas de archivo son muy comunes en el arte contemporáneo y van desde artistas que crean su propio archivo con los materiales que generan, los que se apropian de archivos ajenos para generar lecturas específicas y novedosas de los mismos y las iniciativas más recientes, que subvierten la noción convencional que tenemos del archivo y generan enormes metarchivos en los que se registran y se catalogan prácticas artísticas socialmente comprometidas, como el que ha creado la Asocia- ción de Arte Útil 8 , que alberga alrededor de 300 proyectos realizados en Imágenes de las exposiciones, workshops y tours sobre las iniciativas anuales de Agents ofChange y The Umbrella Network. Fuente: <http://theumbrella.nl/agents-of-change/>
To address our research question a three years database of phenological monitoring was used. The data were collected by Mondelez International from August 2012 to August 2014 under the project Mapping Cocoa Productivity in Ghana. The observations were collected by choosing the 96 farms in the regions of Ashanti, Western, Eastern and Brong Ahafo. The farms were located in ecoregions with tropical rainy characteristics and some in transition to dry regions (Fig 1). The design of the surveys was given by fourth plots within each of the farms. In each plot four trees were marked to keep track of the same plants during the data collection period. In total, 1536 trees were monitored during 17 surveys rounds with a periodicity of approximately 6 weeks and each observation round are called Track. During the surveys, counts of different pods classes associated with phenological stages were done namely Tiny, Cherelle, Medium, Large, Immature and Ripe. Likewise counts of pods impacted by pests and disease were tracked along the observations. In total, for each phenophase and pest there were a total of 53760 observations.
Rainfall intensity is the most important factor governing soil erosion caused by rain (Zachar 1982). Dry land precipitation is inherently variable in amounts and intensities more humid regions due to the tendency of dry land soils to form impermeable crusts cover or litter. In these cases, soil transport may be an order of magnitude greater per unit momentum of falling raindrops than when the soil surface is well vegetated. The sparser the plant cover, the more vulnerable the topsoil is to dislodgement and crucial role in soil erosion leading to land degradation. An erratic start to the rainy season along with heavy rain will have a greater impact since the seasonal vegetation will not be available to intercept the rainfall or stabilize the soil with its root structure.
Template Logo CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIABILITY ROLE OF WMO Dr Rupa Kumar Kolli Chief, World Climate Applications & CLIPS Div World Climate Programme Department World Meteorological Organization Geneva,[.]
The aforementioned definitions present some common features: they are based either on the presence of discernible and important changes for individuals subject to them, or on the idea of development, of passing of time. This leads me to pose some questions: Is the process of becoming the result of the passing of time? Do psychological phenomena exert an influence on that process in such a way that those processes become temporal landmarks? In the first case, time would have an existence per se. Time would pass by, elapse, regardless of the occurrence of relevant events. In the second proposition, time is considered to be the result of the social events that mark changes. It is considered as a construction produced by the social relationships in which events of individual and social importance point out moments, highlighting them according to the transformations introduced in daily life. An example of this is the course of the sun, which brings light and darkness introducing sensitive environmental changes that affect our daily life. Years, seasons, weeks, days, hours, minutes, seconds and so on do not constitute "natural" phenomena (as the rotation of stars does).
56. At the international level, removing trade barriers (both tariff and non-tariff) can open up new markets. Costs of technologies will come down through economies of scale and increased competition. World Bank research suggests that the impact of trade barriers on low carbon goods is fairly substantial. It suggests that a removal of tariffs and NTBs for four basic clean energy technologies (wind, solar, clean coal, and efficient lighting) in 18 of the high-GHG-emitting developing countries will result in trade gains of up to 13% 11 . There is less conclusive evidence