Drug therapy

Top PDF Drug therapy:

Potential drug therapy problems on an elderly nursing home population

Potential drug therapy problems on an elderly nursing home population

PDTP were accounted when one of the following were detected: double therapy (DT); sub-dose; overdose; drug-drug interaction (DDI); food-drug interaction (FDI); Potentially Inappropriate [r]

1 Read more

Mejora de los resultados de la farmacoterapia de pacientes hipertensos en una farmacia comunitaria

Mejora de los resultados de la farmacoterapia de pacientes hipertensos en una farmacia comunitaria

Finally, with respect to the evolution of the blood pressure values of the patients included in this drug therapy monitoring service, in all of them an average reduction of 1.5 mmHg in the systolic pressure and an average reduction of 1 mmHg in the diastolic pressure, was achieved after an average time of 10 months, and was also maintained constant all along the period of this study. We consider that this reduction in the blood pressure levels is due to the total adhesion to the treatment that is achieved with the patients that are included in this drug therapy monitoring service. Moreover, it can also be justified by the achievement, by means of different actions designed for a better knowledge of the purposes of its pharmacotherapy (sanitary education on FIGURA 1. Influencia de la vía de comunicación utilizada (F-P: Farmacéutico-Paciente; F-P-M: Farmacéutico-Paciente-Médico) sobre la resolución de los PRMs (IA-PSR: Intervención Aceptada-Problema
Show more

12 Read more

Self Regulatory Drug Transport: An Intelligent Drug Delivery System

Self Regulatory Drug Transport: An Intelligent Drug Delivery System

Intelligent drug deliver means deliver of drug to selective- ly to targeted cells and tissues while leaving other healthy parts of the body untouched. Although research working on many areas to improve drug delivery to targeted site and therefore drug delivery systems gained wide attention in biomedical research due to their potential to significantly reduce the side effects of drugs and control the concentra- tion and location of active drugs released in the body over long periods of time. Clearly new strategies for preparing drug delivery systems are capable of selectively releasing drug at targeted site will help improve many of the current problems in drug therapy.
Show more

11 Read more

Equipos multidisciplinares comprometidos: detección de problemas relacionados con los medicamentos a través de la continuidad asistencial

Equipos multidisciplinares comprometidos: detección de problemas relacionados con los medicamentos a través de la continuidad asistencial

Despite these limitations, we consider that the number of interventions is adequate in order to create awareness in professionals regarding the fact that Transition of Care is a real problem in our health system, regardless of the existence of integrated clinical records. The strengths of an on-going, safe and integrated Program for Transition of Care are: to ensure the best outcome in drug therapy for patients, and to guarantee access to the medication with an efficient and effective use. An adequate Transition of Care represents a challenge for the health system. If there is no adequate continuity, and the impenetrability of levels of care is not eliminated, DRPs will appear that can generate additional costs for the patient and the system; therefore, projects like this represent an improvement in patient care, as has been demonstrated by other studies 30 .
Show more

15 Read more

Influencia de la complejidad farmacoterapéutica en el cumplimiento de los objetivos terapéuticos en pacientes VIH+ con tratamiento antirretroviral y concomitante para la dislipemia. Proyecto INCOFAR

Influencia de la complejidad farmacoterapéutica en el cumplimiento de los objetivos terapéuticos en pacientes VIH+ con tratamiento antirretroviral y concomitante para la dislipemia. Proyecto INCOFAR

In this study, drug therapy complexity and adheren- ce to lipid lowering treatment have been identified as factors predicting compliance with the therapeutic ob- jectives established fo[r]

12 Read more

Tpicos emergentes en endocarditis infecciosa

Tpicos emergentes en endocarditis infecciosa

In 1885, Sir William Osler presented three Gulstonian Lectures on the topic of malignant endocarditis, which gave a comprehensive account of the disease and outlined the difficulties in its diagnosis (2). The disease had, in fact, been described by a French Renaissance physician, Jean François Fernel, approximately 350 years previously (3). More than 100 years after Osler’s lectures, this serious infection can still remain a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Its name has been changed several times, first to "bacterial endocarditis" and subsequently to "infective endocarditis" after the observation that microbiologic agents other than bacteria may cause the disease. In the early years of the new millennium, infective endocarditis still proves to be difficult to diagnose and is associated with a high death rate (21%–35%). Although many developments have taken place with respect to antimicrobial drug therapy in the treatment of the disease, its incidence is continuing to rise, with 3.3 cases per 100,000 population per year in the United Kingdom, with similar figures for the United States and 1.4–4.0 cases per 100,000 population per year in Europe as a whole (4). The reasons for this rise are the following: 1) longer survival of patients with degenerative heart diseases, 2) increased use of antibiotics, 3) increased incidence of prosthetic heart valves, 4) congenital heart disease in younger children, 5) increase in bicuspid valve disease, 6) advances in medical and surgical treatments, 7) increase in the number of injection drug users, and 8) more sensitive and specific diagnosis. Generally, the incidence is higher in men than in women (2:1), and the average age group affected is in the fifth decade (2).
Show more

10 Read more

Specific Cell Targeting Therapy Bypasses Drug Resistance Mechanisms in African Trypanosomiasis.

Specific Cell Targeting Therapy Bypasses Drug Resistance Mechanisms in African Trypanosomiasis.

Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is caused by the flagellated protozoa T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense, which are transmitted by tsetse flies of the genus Glossina from human and/or animal reservoirs [1 – 2]. Trypanosomes evade their hosts ’ humoral immune response through continuous variation of the variant surface glycoprotein through a process called antigenic variation, hampering the generation of conventional vac- cines [3]. Therefore, treatment of African trypanosomiasis with chemotherapy is the only via- ble control option. HAT chemotherapy relies primarily on four drugs: pentamidine, suramin, melarsoprol and, most recently, eflornithine/nifurtimox combination therapy (NECT) [4]. All of them have limitations, ranging from problems with poor efficacy and acute toxicity to drug resistance [5].One of the most promising new therapeutic approaches for improved chemo- therapy focuses on the design of polymeric nanostructures as drug delivery systems. Chitosan is a biodegradable and biocompatible compound obtained by partial deacetylation of the natu- ral polymer chitin. Chitosan may be prepared as nanoparticle (NP) drug carriers functionalized with agents such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). Targeted delivery of nanoparticles enhances the effectiveness of the treatment, minimizes toxicity and prevents drug metabolism and elimina- tion [6]. Active targeting and delivery can be achieved by coupling ligands or antibodies onto the surface of the NPs. For example, the single-domain antibodies (called nanobodies) are small antibodies fragments, derived from camelids heavy chain antibodies through recombi- nant gene technology, with unique antigen recognition properties; they can be used to target bi- ological structures or specific cell types [7], including African trypanosomes [8–9].
Show more

20 Read more

Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT) as a third-wave therapy

Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT) as a third-wave therapy

Some results in line with the above were recently presented by Perissutti and Barraca (2013), after reviewing the dozen empirical studies that have been published (mostly randomized). After an analysis of results, these authors concluded that to date, only a slight advantage can be attributed to IBCT over the traditional couple behavior therapy (which is no little thing given the effectiveness of the Jacobson and Margolin therapy), but it is also evident that the IBCT follows a different course of change from traditional therapy, in which positive changes are somewhat faster, but then the improvement comes to a standstill. On the other hand, couples treated with IBCT improve more gradually, but continuously and without bogging down. This, along with the fact that at the end of two years the couples treated with IBCT were signifi cantly better than those who received traditional therapy, make a solid argument for opting for this new type of therapy for marital problems. Although it could be argued that the study by Perissutti and Barraca (2013) is not a meta-analysis, Christensen himself (A. Christensen, personal communication, April 2, 2013) explained that there are still not enough independent randomized studies for performing this type of comparative analysis.
Show more

6 Read more

Acceptance and commitment therapy for drug abuse in incarcerated women

Acceptance and commitment therapy for drug abuse in incarcerated women

Background: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy is the third wave therapy with the greatest empirical evidence in the treatment of drug abuse. Method: Thirty-one women with substance use disorder (SUD) were randomly assigned to two conditions, an intervention based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and a control group on a waiting list. All participants were assessed three times (before treatment, at the end, and at a six-month follow-up) using urinalysis, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II). Results: After 16 ACT intervention sessions, abstinence rates of 27.8% were observed, increasing to 43.8% after six months. The treatment also promoted improvements in other areas, such as reductions in the percentage of comorbid psychopathology and anxiety sensitivity, and the increase of psychological fl exibility, which, in general, were not documented in the comparison group. Conclusions: Clinical gains were achieved, and we consider ACT to be an effective and appropriate treatment to be applied in the prison context.
Show more

6 Read more

Protocolo de estudio y tratamiento de la trombocitopenia inmune primaria: PTI-2018

Protocolo de estudio y tratamiento de la trombocitopenia inmune primaria: PTI-2018

A prospective, randomized trial of high-dose intravenous immune globulin G therapy, oral pred- nisone therapy, and no therapy in childhood acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Blanchet[r]

10 Read more

Cannabis A Short Review

Cannabis A Short Review

that  cannot  be  explained  away  by  concurrent  shifts  in  a  number  of  other  lifestyle  factors.  Perceived  risk  remains  a  powerful  predictor  of  use,  even  when  controlling  for  a  host  of  other  known  risk  factors  (Bachman  et  al.,  1988;  Bachman,  Johnston,  &O’Malley, 1990 & 1998). This research also finds that these attitudes are more able  to  explain  the  changes  in  use,  rather  than  the  inverse.  This  fact  is  clearly  demonstrated  when  looking  at  U.S.  school‐based  survey  data,  such  as  Monitoring  the  Future  (MTF)  trend  data.  For  example,  according  to  the  Monitoring  the  Future  National  Survey  Results  on  Drug  Use,  1975‐2009,  Volume  I,  Secondary  School  Students  2008,  “the  amount  of  perceived  risk  associated  with  using  cannabis  fell  during the earlier period of increased use in the late 1970s, and fell again during the  more  recent  resurgence  of  use  in  the  1990s.  Indeed  perceived  risk  among  12th  graders began to decline a year before use began to rise in the upturn of the 1990s,  making perceived  risk  a leading indicator  of  change  in  use. The decline in perceived  risk  halted  after  1997  for  8th  and  10th  graders,  and  annual  prevalence  began  to  decline a year or two later. Again, perceived risk was a leading indicator of change in  use, as it has been proven to be for a number of drugs.” 
Show more

29 Read more

Long-term outcome of patients after a single interruption of antiretroviral therapy: a cohort study.

Long-term outcome of patients after a single interruption of antiretroviral therapy: a cohort study.

Patients were visited at least every 12 weeks. In all routine visits, a clinical examination and routine blood tests including a CD4+ cell count and RNA HIV-1 viral load testing (Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor Test version 1.5, Roche Diagnostic System) were performed. Decisions about restarting HAART were discussed in every visit with the patients; the following criteria were pre- established as indications to reinitiate therapy: CD4+ cell count < 300 cells/μL (the attending physicians had previ- ously agreed to consider this CD4+ count threshold for resuming therapy), pregnancy, acute retroviral syn- drome, thrombocytopenia, and any other B or C event [8]. Data were collected from the structured charts until death or lost to follow-up, and patients were censored in October 2008 to perform this analysis.
Show more

8 Read more

Approach to the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions: similarities and differences between Europe and North America

Approach to the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions: similarities and differences between Europe and North America

While a general consensus exists on the importance of STs for evaluating DHRs, Americans and Europeans agree solely on their use for IDHRs (Table  5). Although in vitro tests may be helpful, particularly for severe life- threatening DHRs when STs are negative or not possible or contraindicated, they are used almost exclusively in Europe. In order to improve drug allergy testing, we must standardize protocols, and perform large, multi-site stud- ies in well-characterized patients diagnosed by STs and/ or DPTs when possible, to confirm drug-specific sensitiv- ity, specificity, NPV, and PPV. Finally, DPTs are often the only reliable way to establish a diagnosis, but this pro- cedure should be undertaken only in case of a compel- ling need and with caution. Regarding these matters, the position papers from both continents completely agree.
Show more

13 Read more

Manipulating Memory - Technology Review

Manipulating Memory - Technology Review

Brunet pulls up a graph on his computer screen, its downward-slanting line reflecting the continued decline in the propranolol recipients' PTSD symptoms over the five weeks of the study. "We're seeing at least as good, if not better, results than people get with exposure treatment--and in much less time," he says. (In exposure treatment, one of the most common types of behavioral therapy for PTSD, patients repeatedly recall the details of their trauma with a therapist in a safe environment, eventually learning to dissociate the extreme fear from the details of the event.) And patients were still doing well four months after treatment, even though relapse is fairly common in PTSD therapy.
Show more

6 Read more

WORLD DRUG REPORT 2011

WORLD DRUG REPORT 2011

Asian opiate prevalence estimates range between 0.2 and 0.5% of the population aged 15-64, or an estimated 6.5 to 13.2 million people. Most of the opiate users in Asia reportedly use heroin or opium, and more than half of the world’s estimated opiate users live in Asia. Although recent prevalence estimates are not available for most countries in Asia, less than half (46%) of the countries that responded to the ARQ perceived an increase in opioid use. However, 38% of the responding countries, mostly in South-East Asia, perceived a decrease in 2009. Countries in South-West Asia continue to have high prevalence rates for opiate use. Together, these countries account for nearly one third of opiate users in Asia. In Afghanistan, around 60% of the estimated opiate users use opium. In the Islamic Republic of Iran, 40% of the estimated opiate users consume opium, and the rest mainly consume heroin. In the Islamic Republic of Iran, 83% of treatment admissions in 2009 were for opiate use, in Pakistan, the share was 41% in 2006/2007. Opi- ates are also the most common cause of drug-related deaths reported in these countries. In the Islamic Repub- lic of Iran, the rate of drug-related deaths was 91 per 1 million people aged 15-64; the majority of these related to opiate use. Moreover, overall opiate use in Afghani- stan increased from 1.4% in 2005 to 2.7% of the popu- lation aged 15-64 in 2009. Heroin remains the most problematic illicit drug in Central Asia and the Cauca- sus. Experts in Central Asia perceived a stabilizing trend of opioid use, but the proportion of officially registered heroin users continued to increase, with 47% of regis- tered drug users in Kyrgyzstan identifying themselves as Fig. 16: Prevalence of opioid use in West and Central Europe, 2009 or most recent year available
Show more

272 Read more

WORLD DRUG REPORT 2009

WORLD DRUG REPORT 2009

Analysing drug use among young people matters for several key reasons. First, most people start to use drugs during their youth and it is among young people that drug prevention activities are best targeted. Secondly, trends in the use of illicit drugs among young people may indicate shifts in drug markets, since young people usually react to changes in drug availability or social perceptions about drug use more quickly than older people; such use is likely to be occasional drug use. Thirdly, starting drug use at an early age has been linked to negative health and social outcomes in later years. A review of the most recent data reported to UNODC on drug use among young people across the world found quite marked variation across regions. Among the high- est levels across all drug types were reported in North America, Oceania and Western Europe, although there are signs of a decreasing trend in some of the major drugs. Recent data suggest decreases in the level of can- nabis use in developed countries. Decreases have also been recorded in cocaine use among young people in North America and some European countries although increases are still visible in many other European coun- tries. There are large data gaps in regions across Asia and Africa, so less is known about drug use among young people there. Where data is available it suggests that levels of use among young people in developing coun- tries remain lower than the ones in developed countries. However the trend for cannabis and cocaine is upwards
Show more

314 Read more

WORLD DRUG REPORT 2010

WORLD DRUG REPORT 2010

The global heroin and cocaine markets appear simulta- neously as persistent problems from a previous era of drug control, priorities for interventions due to the severity of their impacts on affected societies and good candidates for a global solution within a reasonable time-frame. Since they are both sourced from relatively concentrated production areas, most of their compo- nents are directly or indirectly linked. The resulting transnational drug economies they form, from produc- tion to trafficking and consumption, can thus be addressed as a whole and be affected by shocks and ripple effects. Not only are holistic market control approaches possible in these two cases, but, as shown by history, they are also a necessity. Local successes against illicit cultivation in the past – there were many – have always been offset by displacements to other locations, and closed trafficking routes replaced by new ones. Illicit production is presently largely entrenched in rural areas that are difficult to control. On the demand side, increases in cocaine consumption in Europe have ten- eded to compensate reductions in North America, and the stabilization of heroin use in West Europe has been offset by a deterioration of the situation in the Russian Federation. Meanwhile, the size and concentration of the trafficking flows to these main destination markets have often created havoc in vulnerable production and transit areas by overwhelming local law enforcement capacities, generating corruption, fuelling violence and instability, and spreading addiction.
Show more

313 Read more

Sndrome DRESS

Sndrome DRESS

DRESS syndrome (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms), also called drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DiHS), is a severe drug reaction that is char- acterized by rash, fever, lymphadenopathy, multi-organ impairment, eosinophilia and atypical lymphocytes. Liver, heart, kidneys and lungs are the most affected. We report the case of a 50-old-year woman with this illness, and diagnostic criteria, treatment and prognosis are reviewed.

7 Read more

Amphotericin B plasma monitoring for one burn child using high-performance liquid chromatography

Amphotericin B plasma monitoring for one burn child using high-performance liquid chromatography

drug plasma monitoring by HPLC was quite useful to guarantee low risk and drug efficacy in a paediatric burn patient.[r]

1 Read more

Gold Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Agents. Detoxifying the Chemotherapeutic Drug Cisplatin

Gold Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Agents. Detoxifying the Chemotherapeutic Drug Cisplatin

In this chapter, AuNPs-cisplatin were tested in in vitro assays to evaluate the cell and DNA accumulation as well as cell viability. More importantly, in vivo assays using tumor-bearing mice were also performed. This includes evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy and evaluation of the toxicity induced by cisplatin and by AuNPs-cisplatin. Interestingly, nephrotoxicity, which is dose limiting in the clinics, was avoided only in the case of animals treated with AuNPs-cisplatin. In addition, systemic toxicity, as evaluated by body weight loss and analyzing relevant biomarkers, was also improved. Organs in which NPs are known to be accumulated (liver and spleen) were carefully examined showing no adverse long-time effects. Thus, the toxicological profile of cisplatin is clearly reduced without affecting its antitumor activity. The lack of toxicity is correlated to the modification of the pharmacokinetic properties and biodistribution of the drug by conjugation to AuNPs.
Show more

116 Read more

Show all 1070 documents...