This cross-sectional study aimed to establish the consumption of licit psychoactive substances in a sample of 237 nursing students at a private university in the city of Bogota, Colombia; and relate it with independent study variables: age, sex, marital status, semester, number of children, work and living together. Fagerström’s Tolerance questionnaire was used to evaluate the gravity of nicotine dependence and the AUDIT to evaluate alcohol dependence. Confidentiality was guaranteed through the self administered Questionnaire and anonymous survey. Univariate analysis was used. Relevant data in this population was tobacco consumption in about 24 % and alcohol in 82%. The level of tobacco dependence corresponded to 5 (8.5%) students with slight dependence, 42 (72%) with average dependence and 12 (20%) with high dependence. When relating tobacco and alcohol consumption, 98 % of the students who smoke consume alcohol. The percentage of students who never drink was higher in the group of non smokers (23%) than among smokers (1.72%).
The students practicing sports might benefit from athletics in several ways, such as better academic performance (Barron et al., 2000; Howell et al., 1984; Troutman and Dufur, 2007; Keays and Allison, 1995), improvement of their mental well-being (Greenleaf et al., 2009), increase in productivity (Cornelißen and Pfeifer, 2007), decrease of the stress levels and depression and increase of their sense of mental euphoria (Cai, 2000; Balady, 2000) or even a reduction in the level of negativity and suicide tendencies (Talliaferro et al., 2008). But this situation is changing when those adolescents use steroids. In these cases, they tend to show high-risk behaviors and are more likely to use some other illicit drugs and practice unprotected sex (Ashworth et al., 1993; Chillag et al., 1992; DuRant et al., 1995a, 1995b).
Abstract: Drugsconsumption is a very important problem in Spain, as na- tional and international studies highlight. However, Spanish press has tradi- tionally cover drugs in term of crime. This paper presents a study of media coverage about drugs in two national newspapers –El País and El Mundo– and two Valencian newspapers –Las Provincias and Levante-EMV– in two ways: content analysis from framing perspective and comparative morpho- logical analysis. Results confirm that the actual informative model is the same that the model of two decades ago. But newspapers analyzed highlight with their design issues and frames that are not the most important in cover- age. This proposes a collision between agenda setting and framing theories with theory of social construction of reality. Keywords: drug; framing; jour- nalistic design; media coverage.
This section evaluates, in an indirect manner, the possible consequences of the ruling (Sentence C-221, May, 1994) that decriminalized the minimum dose. The analysis includes three independent but complementary arguments. First, on the basis of the 2008 survey, we reconstruct the evolution of the new consumers since the early 1980s and, through a simple time series methodology, we examine whether the rapid growth in the number of new consumers in this period did in fact coincide with decriminalization. Second, we ask whether the growth in drugsconsumption in Colombia is in line with what has occurred in other countries. If it were, the supposed effect of sentence C-221 would be doubtful or would at least raise the question of why consumption rose in a similar manner in other countries where there were no legal changes. And third, we analyze whether the growth of consumption has been different in the center of the country, or much greater in some cities than others, for example. If that were so, it would likewise raise doubts about the argument that a uniform legal change, which in theory affected the whole country in an equal manner, was a major factor in the rapid growth of consumption.
The importance of the photosensitization processes can be easily understood taking into account the increasing number of reports dealing with phototoxic effects induced by new pharmaceuticals which may be explained on the basis of the different biological effects induced by the photoproducts in relation to their parents molecules. Photophysical and photochemical studies, including exam of excitation and emision properties, identification of reaction intermediates, isolation of photoproducts, analysis of interaction with biological substrates, are often an adequate approach to analyze the mechanisms through phototoxic effects can be produced. In the present article a brief overview is made regarding the mechanisms of photoxicity induced by drugs
The upward trend in the residential sector of energy use has significant consequences in terms of environmental impacts and energy dependence. Numerous studies analysed the factors that explain this trend, nonetheless they were mainly based on estimated consumption data obtained from dynamic simulations tools. These also usually considered the construction characteristics of the building, but they missed behavioural patterns related to users’ dwellings. This paper analyses the energy performance of existing residential stocks based on real consumption data. To do this, a methodology divided into three stages has been proposed. Stage I addresses the collection of real energy consumption data from a sample of dwellings and its characteristics, both construction features and occupants’ behavioural habits, through a survey designed for this purpose. In Stage II, the information collected is disaggregated into a set of covariates (characteristics of the dwelling and occupants’ habits) and response variables (energy consumption data). Stage III develops a statistical model that allows analysing how covariates affect the response variables and, therefore, identifying those most influential factors on dwelling’s real energy consumption.
The knowledge about hRSV is wide and a signiﬁcant numbers of products have been tested against the disease. Some of these prod- ucts have therapeutic promising anti-viral effect against the disease and others are already candidate prophylactic vaccine in newborns. Several drugs shown promising effects against the pathology in vivo in animal models, but also many of these drugs probably will not reach clinical studies. Thus a signiﬁcant fraction of the work still remains to be completed, such as evaluating carefully any side effects of these drugs in children in a controlled manner, because newborns be deﬁcient at promoting good immunity, these drugs could be very helpful for controlling hRSV infection and preventing subsequent pathology. The use of bacterial vectors seems to be a good way to advance in the ﬁeld of hRSV vaccines, but the adverse secondary effect of these vectors must be evaluated and an impor- tant attention must be paid when these prototype vaccines will be evaluated in clinical trials.
In the literature there are at least three views on how remittances are spent and the impact of these monies on economic development. The first, and probably most widespread, view is that remittances are fungible and are spent at the margin like income from any other source. In other words, a dollar of remittance income is treated by the household just like a dollar of wage income, and the contribution of remittances to development is the same as that from any other source of income. The second view takes a more pessimistic position, arguing that receipt of remittances can cause behavioral changes at the household level that may lower their development impact relative to receipt of income from other sources. For example, a recent review of the literature by Chami, Fullenkamp and Jahjah (2003:10-11) reports that: (a) a “significant proportion, and often the majority,” of remittances are spent on “status-oriented” consumption; and (b) the ways in which remittances are typically invested —in housing, land and jewelry— are “not necessarily productive” to the economy as a whole. A third, and more recent, view of remittances is decidedly more positive, arguing that remittances actually increase investments in human and physical capital at the margin, relative to other forms of household income. For instance, in a recent study of remittances and education in El Salvador, Edwards and Ureta (2003) find that international remittances (mainly from the US) have a large positive impact on student retention rates in school. In a similar study in the Philippines, Yang (2008) reports that positive exchange rate shocks lead to a significant increase in remittance expenditures on education. In Nigeria, Osili (2004) finds that a large proportion of remittance income is spent on housing. A 10 percent increase in remittance income in Nigeria raises the probability of investing in housing by 3 percentage points.
Patient counseling  and reevaluation of drug treatments potentially causing sexual dysfunction are the first step towards successful treatment . Rigidity and bradykinesia contribute to general deterioration in sexual functioning . Ageing, depression, fatigue, sleep disorders, reduced testosterone secretion can also be important contributing factors . Some drugs, such as antihypertensives or antidepressants can also cause or aggravate erectile dysfunction , and thus patients’ pharmacotherapy should be re-evaluated. Nonetheless, drug treatment often becomes necessary, based essentially on phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, including sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil . Treatment options for patients who do not respond to these drugs or for whom they are contraindicated include intracavernous injections, intraurethral alprostadil, vacuum constriction devices, or implantation of a penile prosthesis.
Introduction: Tobacco and cannabis consumption are considered risk factors in the development of multiple pathologies at the pulmonary and cardio-vascular levels, as well as in the development and evolution of mental disorders, among others. Likewise, the consumption of these substances usually begins in adolescence and can be established in adulthood reaching affect in the quality of life of the individual. Aim: To describe the socio-demographic variables: gender and quality of life in terms of tobacco and hashish consumption in a population of Melilla. Methods: T Research work with quantitative design, descriptive and cross-cutting character of a sample of residents in the autonomous city of Melilla. Text. Information was collected about the consumption of tobacco (FTND questionnaire) and hashish, as well as including other sociodemographic variables. Results & discussion: More than three-quarters of the participants said they did not smoke tobacco, without appreciating statistically significant differences of gender. However, in the use of hashish, the girls are in front of the varons.Conclusions:. The findings obtained in our research are of interest in the field of study on the health and consumption of harmful substances. As future lines of research it is proposed the implantation of programs of prevention and education for the health on the consumption of toxic, monitoring and evaluation of the same ones, paying special attention to the female group.
The objec ve of this study was to iden- fy diﬀ erences in high school students’ attitudes towards the consumption or non-consumption of alcohol using the theory of planned behavior. This was a qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study that included a sample of 131 stu- dents. We found that 74% of students had consumed alcohol, and 18.3% exhibited a harmful level of consump on. We also found that behavioral beliefs towards consump on were higher among alcohol consumers (mean=29.32, median=27.50) than those who did not consume alco- hol. Moreover, posi ve beliefs towards consump on were higher among alcohol consumers (mean=17.72, median=9.52) than non-consumers, which demonstra- tes a need for preventa ve programs to strengthen adolescents’ beliefs concerning alcohol as well as protec ve factors and healthy lifestyles.
As mentioned above, different approaches are being used in the screening of antiangiogenic compounds in zebrafish models. They include the intersegmental vessel (ISV) formation, the development of subintestinal vessels (SIV), the thoracic duct formation (TDF) assay, the adult caudal fin regeneration (ACFR) test, the hyaloid vessels (HV) formation assay, the blood flux videos, the central nervous system (CNS) vascular development assays, the tumour-xenograft-induced angiogenesis assays, the retinal angiogenesis assays in hypoxia- exposed adult zebrafish and the coronary angiogenesis assay upon cardiac amputation or cryoinjury in adults. A literature review of the published articles that used any of those models to test the activity of antiangiogenic drugs reveals that ISV is largely the most widely used zebrafish-based in vivo assay, followed by SIV and ACFR assays (see histogram in Figure 1C). Reasons for the prevalence of ISV use include the easy-handling, fastness and economy of the tested agent, since it is performed in small volumes . The use of transparent embryos facilitates the visualization of the drug effect and allows an easy automatization, so that in a few days a number of embryos can be treated, yielding abounding results in a short time [20,32]. A high content screening assay  and a high throughput strategy  are good examples of this extensive attempt to establish an efficient drug pipeline using zebrafish.
These NPD can give way to a wide spectrum of psy- chedelic phenomena, many of them intensely unpleasant, depending on the dose. Perception of time gets distorted and visual and auditory hallucinations, and visual illusions with kaleidoscopic images can appear. Synesthetic phenomena and cenestopathies are frequent, and may provoke mystical experiences, as well as an altered consciousness (Kyriakou et al., 2015). Sympathomimetic stimulation appears with tachycardia, hypertension, diaphoresis or mydriasis, as well as nausea and vomiting, headaches or transient dysuria. There are reports of cases of coldness and hypoesthesia of the limbs with potential risk of necrosis by peripheral vaso- constriction. Also, conversely from the safety expected from LSD, consumption of NBOMe (especially 25I-NBOMe) has caused social alarm due to more than ten deaths reported since 2012 (Andreasen, Telving, Rosendal, Eg, Hasselstrøm & Andersen, 2015; Kueppers & Cooke, 2015). In some cas- es, death was nearly immediate (Walterscheid et al., 2014; Poklis et al., 2014). For this reason, in July 2012, the Unit- ed Kingdom included 25C-, 25B-, 25I- and 25D-NBOMe as controlled substances and in the United States they were prohibited in 2013. Although there are few epidemiologi- cal data regarding the consumption of these substances, the 2013 Global Drugs Survey showed that from 22 289 par- ticipants, 582 (2.6%) had consumed some NBOMe at least once, 25I-NBOMe being the most frequent one (Wood, Sedefov, Cunningham & Dargan, 2015).
A formulary is a list of covered drugs selected by Cigna-HealthSpring in consultation with a team of health care providers, which represents the prescription therapies believed to be a necessary part of a quality treatment program. Cigna-HealthSpring will generally cover the drugs listed in our formulary as long as the drug is medically necessary, the prescription is filled at a Cigna- HealthSpring network pharmacy, and other plan rules are followed. For more information on how to fill your prescriptions, please review your Evidence of Coverage.