In sum, this dissertation has several contributions. First, it attempts to empirically add to our understanding about antecedents that develop dynamic capabilities in an emerging context. Second, determine specific resources that have a positive effect on particular dynamic capabilities (intellectual capital and integrative capabilities respectively). Third, provide empirical evidence for the theorized intellectual capital – dynamic capabilities relationship. Fourth, offer a theoretical and empirical contribution by linking the entrepreneurial orientation construct to a current theory of strategic management answering Miller’s (2011) call. Furthermore, this dissertation also sheds light expanding the natural relationship between the fields of entrepreneurship and strategic management providing a joint added value (Schendel and Hitt, 2007). Finally, this study provides evidence on the dynamic capabilities area leveraging on information mostly from small and medium enterprises since most research on this topic have been done in large corporations (Zahra et al., 2006).
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Speciﬁcally, this study rises to the challenge made by sev- eral studies that propose two possible lines of research of great importance for improving knowledge of the dynamic capabilities construct. On the one hand, the attempt to identify those factors providing the catalyst to start the development of dynamic capabilities (Chakravarthym and Gargiulo, 1998; Eisenhardt and Martin, 2000). And, on the other hand, to examine in greater depth the determination of the speciﬁc way in which these capabilities interrelate (Eisenhardt and Martin, 2000; Pablo et al., 2007). In this respect, the results obtained support the assumptions of previous studies that, in contexts of high dynamism and complexity, the management of organisational knowledge is the starting point from which new capabilities are con- structed or existing ones are adapted (Nonaka et al., 2000; Becerra and Sabherwal, 2001; Wang et al., 2007). In this sense, this study demonstrates empirically that relational management of knowledge associated with the market ori- entation of the network, which makes it possible to manage the construction, deﬁnition, access, organisation, exchange and utilisation of knowledge assets in all their forms among the different agents forming the network to help to create, share and use the knowledge effectively in the markets, becomes a fundamental factor for the BG in its capability to continually improve its skills in order to respond rapidly to changes in the environment, or in other words, when developing its dynamic capabilities.
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In modern times, competitiveness is a challenge and opportunity for organizations. The globaliza- tion of markets and the introduction of new technologies in new business models, large companies and especiall SMEs, require strategies that encourage them to strengthen their competitiveness and increase profitability. For this, SMEs are incorporating actions derived from the dynamic capabi- lities, among which the orientation towards entrepreneurship, organizational learning, R&D, and market strategies stand out. The main objective is to analyze if, the dynamic capabilities and the entrepreneurial orientation, have influence on the activities of innovation and the profitability that is manifested in the SME. The study focuses on a sample of 1,012 SMEs from the Northwest region of Mexico; the data collection was made through a structured survey directed to the company ma- nager during the period from September to December 2016. The statistical technique based on the analysis of variance through the Structural Equation Method (SEM) with the support of Partial Least Square (PLS), it was used to test hypotheses. The results reveal that the dynamic capabilities have a strong influence on the variables: entrepreneurial orientation, innovative activity and the profita- bility of the SME. In addition, we found that entrepreneurial orientation and Innovation activities significantly influence the profitability of SMEs. The research contributes to the development of the literature of the dynamic capabilities and of the entrepreneurial orientation.
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al., 2013), to the extreme governance challenges of civil infrastructure projects (Henisz et al., 2012) or to the question of how a firm’s portfolio of outsourced work is managed across suppliers (Moeen et al., 2013). All these papers consider projects as just another activity embedded in the organizational structure that can be studied based on economic and organizational theories, and whose managers (project managers) face the same problems and utilize the same decision-making mechanism as their colleges – human resource officer, chief financial manager, chief marketing officer, etc. In the recent years, there has been a paradigm shift in project management discipline. The normative project management discipline focused on achieving individual project success by developing and improving tools and techniques (Boynton & Zmud, 1984; De Wit, 1988; Pinto & Slevin, 198 8, 198 7 ), shifted to studies that abandon the lonely project perspective and focus on the theoretical foundations and the history of projects; the awareness of the importance of project environment; and the recognition of projects as temporary organizations whose linkages to the permanent- PBF - are a key point in explaining project and organizational success (Artto et al., 2008; Engwall, 2003; Kujala et al. 2010; Morris et al., 2012). Project management scholars claim that there is enough about projects that is organizational so that a cross-fertilization between project and organization and management theory possesses a huge potential for the development of both disciplines (Grundy, 1998; Reich et al., 2013). Specifically, some intents have been made to study projects from a capabilities perspective ( e.g. Biendenbach and Müller , 2012 ; Brady and Davies , 2004 , 2000 ; Melkonian and Picq , 2011 ; Petit , 2012 ; Petit and Hobbs , 2010 ; but the questions of how project capabilities are built and above all, how they influence organizational capabilities and organizational performance are still unanswered.
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In this paper we propose the concepts and variables that characterize resilient organizational capabilities (onwards ROC that can be viewed as dynamic capabilities. The concept of resilience highlights the ability to overcome trauma and the power to emerge more reinforced, considering the concept of “lessons learned” as the basis for its development. There are two key factors: attitudes and culture that can be transformed into a concept of resilience. In this work, the concept and characteristics of the ROC or “adaptive capabilities” generating innovation in the field of SMEs are presented. Also, the role of dynamic capabilities and intellectual capital that has been playing to date will be explained. In this research a methodological triangulation and a qualitative analysis to data on a Case Studies in new technology based firms (NTBFs) of the Scientific Park of Madrid and Colombian SMEs are realized. And will be completed with a quantitative analysis through the survey of these same two groups. The results of the comparative study show differences in analysed ROC, explained by cultural or economic themes, or by the sectors or sizes to which the companies of the reference groups belong, which is the basis for a future line of research.
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Generally speaking, the Resource- Based View (RBV) literature seems to raise more questions than it provides answers about strategic choices that enable a firm to generate a competitive advantage (Con- nor, 2002). Appealing indeed-especially in a theoretical fashion-but often ineffective as a management tool for practitioners, the RBV has provoked ardent debates amongst strategy researchers that are still far from being settled. And yet, despite having been the target of some harsh questioning, this perspective has also influenced much of the last decade’s studies on strategy. Areas of great rele- vance and actuality for the organizational sciences, such as the Knowledge-Based View of the firm (Grant, 1996) or the Dynamic Capabilities Theory (Eisenhardt & Martin, 2000; Teece, Pisano, & Shuen, 1997), strongly rely on resource-based strategies, highlighting the main role played by the RBV in the construction of strategic theory. A critical analysis of the RBV that assesses its possible limitations and virtues in the context of current aca- demic and management trends can shed some light not only on the state of the art in RBV-related studies but also on the bearing that this research might follow in years to come. Understanding where and how this field is heading to is evidently useful for both theorists and practitio- ners: whereas theorists will certainly benefit from gaining a keener knowledge of the strategy field and how the most salient theories relate to each other, practicing managers will likely appreciate any insight into current and future trends on best management practices.
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such as clean water, access to doctors, protection from infections and diseases, and basic knowledge on health issues. It asks whether people are well-nourished, and whether the conditions for this capability, such as having sufficient food supplies and food entitlements, are being met. 4 It asks whether people have access to a high-quality educational system, to real political participation, to community activities that support them to cope with struggles in daily life and that foster real friendships. For some of these capabilities, the main input will be financial resources and economic production, but for others it can also be political practices and institutions, such as the effective guaranteeing and protection of freedom of thought, political participation, social or cultural practices, social structures, social institutions, public goods, social norms, traditions and habits. The capability approach thus covers all dimensions of human well-being. Development, well-being, and justice are regarded in a comprehensive and integrated manner, and much attention is paid to the links between material, mental and social well-being, or to the economic, social, political and cultural dimensions of life. The following sections will describe the capability approach in somewhat more detail.
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As mentioned earlier, the model just described was developed by de Fontenay & Gans (2005, 2013). However, in the context of a dynamic investment model, their results are insufficient. Specifically, the authors give feasibility conditions for the complete buyer-seller network to arise in equilibrium, and assume that they are satisfied. Unfortunately, this will rarely be the case when considering endogenous and potentially asymmetric production capacities, which is the situation analyzed in this thesis. Since de Fontenay & Gans do not characterize the equilibria that result when the feasibility conditions are not met, I will use different feasibility criteria. I will assume that every period, a graph is randomly chosen with equal probability from the set of non-empty strongly pairwise stable networks. In other words, the ex-post payoffs of the firms will be given by the generalized Myerson-Shapley Value, but the ex-ante payoffs will be given by its expectation over the set of non-empty strongly pairwise stable networks.
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The third and final point I would make about future development of the capabilities approach is that the approach must become less nation- centered than it has been up until now in most versions, and cultivate a rich account of the international public sphere and of what richer nations owe to poorer nations (Nussbaum, 2005). The international public sphere is a crucial part of solving these problems, and women’s security issues clearly require cooperative international action. They also require economic redistribution, since, as I am about to argue, one of the best ways of working against violence is through forms of economic empowerment, which, in turn, require a robust economy. In general, promoting the central capabilities for all world citizens requires cooperative international thought and considerable redistribution. What is true in general is true in particular for women, whose access to employment is often inhibited by systemic problems in a nation, as well as by more easily remediable bad practices. (Women in Kerala get educated — but then, they often cannot find jobs, and many of them end up as sex workers in Delhi.)
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The packet scheduler is the critical mechanism of radio resource management to minimize the overall use of resources while the individual requirements of quality of service QoS  are guaranteed. Particularly in LTE, the resource structure in physical blocks (PRB) achieves greater efficiency in the operation of the system. For optimal allocations, the scheduler may take advantage of the channel properties and the dynamic characteristics of the traffic ideally every TTI (Transmission Time Interval). Therefore, uplink and downlink signalling channels, which report the quality information of the channel, the type of traffic and reservations, are necessary to facilitate such scheduling. The features of traffic in M2M scenarios, such as the burst transmissions or the large number of devices significantly increase the complexity and the amount of signalling.
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Managerial self-evaluations have precedence in measuring firms’ resources and capabilities and have been found to be convergent measurements with equivalent objective indicators (e.g., Camisón and Forés, 2010). However, common method variance is a problem that can arise when the dependent and independent variables are collected from a single respondent. In order to reduce this potential problem, dependent variables were placed after independent variables in the questionnaire to reduce the impact of nonrespondents’ implicit effectiveness theories (Podsakoff and Organ, 1986). Since all three constructs were measured using items in a questionnaire completed by a single respondent, we also examined whether common method variance was a serious issue by conducting Harman’s one-factor test (Podsakoff and Organ, 1986). In this test, all items are entered together in a factor analyzis, and the results of the unrotated factor solution are examined. If substantial common method variance is present, either a single factor would emerge, or one general factor would account for most of the covariance in the independent and criterion variables (Podsakoff et al., 2003; Podsakoff and Organ, 1986). All items, 6 measuring internal knowledge creation capability, 14 measuring absorptive capability, 4 measuring radical innovation performance and 3 measuring incremental innovation performance, were used in a principal components factor analyzis. No general factor was apparent in the unrotated factor solution. Moreover, this study verified the convergent validity of the subjective measures from self-evaluation with objective measures both internal and exogenous to the firm (Podsakoff et al., 2003) (details below). The statistical tests do not eliminate the threat; however they suggest that the results are not driven predominantly by common method variance.
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This ITS-application simulation framework works with both QUALNET or NS-2 as network model. Automesh has 5 modules in its structure. It has a module for inter- vehicle communication which receives the data from driving simulator to modify routes. It generates a dynamic mobility model for each vehicle that supports speed limits, traffic signals, acceleration and deceleration. Propagation module takes charge of evaluation for correctness and performance of communication protocols. By geographic database module, geographic information becomes available. Finally, it provides a Graphical user interface to configure and playing simulations. Automesh offers 3 plug-in modules to take care of vehicle control, propagation and communication control, .
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Regard to the methodology, the first step focused on the transformation of the base model to an interpretation in the social context looking for social innovation capabilities, was made based on the existing and accessible literature, having the complexity that although it has been seen to be an increasing research current, there is still no unification of the theory, due in part to the broad spectrum of use with the merge of more than one discipline and its complexity of conducting empirical studies, that need large in time and resources to be scientifically verified. This might raise doubts about the interpretation of the constructs, especially since there is no capability model of social innovation, which would have favoured the investigation as a middle model, but as the scope of the research is merely explorative and propositional, its seen the model a starting point to be further tested. In the second and third steps, there was the complexity that there are capacities that have little or no research from the design side within the social context, lacking empirical studies of interpretation and impact, such as the transfer of motivation to intrinsic motivation through design, relating it from the relationship that exists with design-driven innovation and the intrinsic motivation that is characteristic of social innovation. On the refinement phase, the broad case study strategy incorporated to illustrate the capabilities, its seen as a manner to validate the capabilities within precise contexts accomplishing their duty, nevertheless the difficulties to gather relevant information regard the maturity levels might difficult a precise representation of the capabilities, however the most visible and evident capabilities were illustrated clearly to be understood by the reader. The prioritization through the AHP, has favoured the generation of a plan according to the limitation of resources that is generally generated in the initiatives, setting sustainability, the characteristics of the solutions and collaboration within the top three clusters of the model to be further supported by design management, adding value to the proposal of the model, thinking of the need to make efficient its resources to the maximum.
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Royalties and Transfers from the Central Government : The inclusion of transfers and royalties per capita as potential determinants or controls lead to some interesting results. Both were found to be positively and significantly associated with the Fiscal Capabilities index. In other words, they do not appear to produce a ´fiscal laziness´ impact on municipalities, as much of the global decentralization literature finds elsewhere, and as some of the earlier decentralization literature in Colombia had found. This apparently surprising result may be due to the fact that the 2001 constitutional reform created some incentives in favor of local fiscal effort, built in the allocation rules of transfers among subnational entities. First, transfers for education and health are now proportional to actual enrollments and services (they were proportional before to potential users), so that a municipality that improves enrollment by raising more local taxes will get latter on higher transfers. Second, a small fraction of transfers is now allocated directly in proportion to a measure of local tax effort. As a consequence, as Sanchez and Pachón observe, municipal taxes have been raising fast since these changes were instituted. It is less clear why royalties could stimulate local fiscal effort, though the coefficient is smaller. It might be that municipalities perceive these revenues as temporary and use them to build capabilities to collect other taxes.
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linked to the existence of better conditions for allian- ce success. This term is relatively new and it suggests that when an organization develops fur ther its com- petences or capabilities through accumulative lear- ning and process improvement practices, it reinfor- ce its competitiveness (Draulans et al., 2003). Organizations tr y to sur vive in a competitive envi- ronment; if they can get capabilities to develop suc- cessful alliances, it could be an impor tant competiti- ve advantage (Kale et al., 2009). According to Kale et al (2002), alliance capabilities are defined as mecha- nisms or routines designed to accumulate, integrate and disseminate relevant information from current alliances to improve the efficiency and success of the future par tnerships. For Draulans et al (2003), tho- se capabilities are defined as the generation of struc- tures within an organization that establishing objec- tives, plan, control and evaluate each alliance, so that future alliances can be improved based on previous experiences.
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occupations of the population of Third World cities. The scavengers are the true marginals – associated with disease and squalor, perceived as a nuisance and probably criminal, and exploited. They sell waste on to middlemen: studies in Asia and Latin America have found the scavengers receiving some 6% of the price industry pays to the middlemen. In the 1990s, simple organisation into groups has resulted in successful coops. In Latin America the most dynamic instances come from Colombia, with Brazil close behind and Mexico often cited. In Colombia, for instance, by the mid 1990s the cooperative Recuperar in Medellin had almost 1000 members, 60% women, with members earning 1.5 times the minimum wage, being eligible for loans and scholarships from the coop. In Asia a similar movement gained momentum in the 1990s, with examples in India, the Philippines, Indonesia and Bangladesh. (Medina 1998)
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In this paper we demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibil- ity of our D YNAMICO reference model through the evaluation of its implementation and application in an experimental case study. This evaluation showed that D YNAMICO is es- pecially effective for building context-aware self-adaptation mechanisms where the monitoring infrastructure must be self- adaptive to address changing requirements. To realize dynamic context monitoring in our D YNAMICO implementation (i.e., with the CO-FL and M-FL acting in coordination), we used the S MARTER C ONTEXT monitoring infrastructure with the Q O S- CARE/F RA SCA TI middleware as its adaptation mechanism. To compare our D YNAMICO implementation with that of the Rainbow/Znn.com system, we used the Znn.com exemplar as target system. This allowed us to analyze the suitability of Znn.com as a benchmark system for self-adaptation ap- proaches. Our experimental results demonstrate, in terms of performance, the feasibility of instrumenting adaptation mech- anisms with the two extra levels of dynamics of D YNAMICO . This is to support dynamic monitoring according to changes in requirements and thus favoring context awareness. We also analyzed the engineering effort of building D YNAMICO -based implementations, and their suitability to preserve system qual- ity attributes. The obtained results support the effectiveness of our reference model for engineering context-aware SAS systems.
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Software innovations are available for free. Tech giants including Microsoft, Amazon, Google, and IBM have made their internally developed machine learning technologies available to other companies via a combination of the cloud and application programming interfaces (McAfee & Brynjolfsson, 2017). Also, the cost of buying storage and computing power from giants can be less than running a data centre. Hence, even small companies can take the opportunities given by technology. However, they should adapt their business models or processes and then the research question of this work emerges: which factors and resources are relevant to an organization’s preparedness to respond to the digital challenge. Sánchez (2017) provides a theoretical framework that explains the resources, capabilities, management choices and challenges necessary to respond to the new environment. While some model’s constructs and propositions may be valid for any organization, given the nature of the problem it is necessary to make exploratory studies to understand the local environment, barriers, and critical success factors to generate value from technology. This work builds on previous research and on the analysis of three cases. This paper will contribute to existing knowledge by considering relevant issues to digital readiness, and by providing actionable prescriptions for practitioners that are grounded in the empirical reality of the strategies and actions of the considered organizations. The scope is on small and medium size established companies.
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The contrast of perspectives can be brought out with many different types of illustrations; let me choose a rather harsh example. It is, by now, fairly well established that, given symmetric care, women tend to live longer than men. If one were concerned only with capabilities (and nothing else), and in particular with equality of the capability to live long, it would have been possible to construct an argument for giving men more medical attention than women to counteract the natural masculine handicap. But giving women less medical attention than men for the same health problems would clearly violate an important requirement of process equity, and it seems reasonable to argue, in cases of this kind, that demands of equity in process freedom could sensibly override a single- minded concentration on the opportunity aspect of freedom (and on the requirements of capability equality in particular). While it is important to emphasise the relevance of the capability perspective in judging people’s substantive opportunities (particularly in comparison with alternative approaches that focus on incomes, or primary goods, or resources), that point does not, in any way, go against seeing the relevance also of the process aspect of freedom in a theory of human rights — or, for that matter, in a theory of justice.
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