In the last stage in the process of training university students in Translationand Interpreting when students get to the subject “specialized translation, economic- financial English-Spanish”, it is time for students to acquire certain textual, documentary, terminological, and thematic sub-competencies, as well as specific knowledge about the professional translation market in general, and about this sector in particular. In this paper, we have referred to specific teaching-learning objectives which we expect students to achieve with regard to the sub-competencies, and we have proposed certain learning materials to that end. At the same time, it is fundamental that students always bear in mind that they must acquire a series of professional competencies which are not learned in the classroom but that are related to exercising professional activity. Classrooms constitute only the beginning of an unending stage of learning-working. This sector of professional translation is one that offers multiple opportunities for employment. The complexity and amplitude of the financial area, sometimes coexisting with the legal field of specialty, certainly poses a difficulty for translation, but, at the same time, it makes this sector less competitive while representing a challenge for the translator who will have to continue learning and acquire certain professional competencies in order to meet the final goal of every translator: to obtain personal and professional satisfaction from his work.
En conclusión, Economic, financialand business translation. La traducción económica, financiera y comercial supone una obra de referencia de gran interés para todos aquellos lectores interesados en la traducción especializada económica, no solo desde una perspectiva formativa, sino también desde una dimensión profesional. La obra que reseñamos constituye todo un ejemplo de trabajo bien coordinado y que tiene el mérito de subrayar la importancia de este campo de especialización desde diferentes enfoques, lo que le aporta un carácter novedoso y enriquecedor.
Parallel texts are undoubtedly the most useful resource that I have used to carry out my translation. As I will explain in the following section, parallel texts are texts whose topic, structure, genre and date of publication, are very similar and those texts must be “representative samples of corresponding text types in pairs of languages” (Hartmann, 1980: 112) The parallel texts that I have used were found on the economic, financial or international sections of newspapers. For this study, I have searched for parallel texts related to BRICS. Searching for these parallel texts have been a difficult task because not all the texts were suitable for my translation. I have chosen the texts whose structure, genre, terminology, field and date of publication were similar. I found many different news from the same period related to BRICS and this could be due to the fact that the date in which my text was published, a meeting with all the leaders of the BRICS was going to take place very soon. That is the reason why there was a huge variety of texts having the same topic, however, I found out that the register or the terms used in some of them did not coincide with my text, so I ended up not using them. I would like to highlight the usefulness of news reports that were published in the economicand international sections of the following Spanish newspapers: El Economista, La Vanguardia, and El País 9 . The parallel texts used in this study are included in the annexes.
Subsequently there has been a financial analysis of the company in which we reveal that over time has got a trust with their customers and for them these take longer to charge, it may also be because they are already regular customers of the company. Then we analyzed the return on assets (ROA), which measures the performance that takes the company to the assets and rights that you have. This value could be higher but over the years this ratio it is more likely to grow by the level of growth of the company. To conclude this analysis, the calculation of financial profitability where we consider it high but because the company has more debt is made that own funds to carry out their activities but this is taken into account due to the high financial costs reduce the ultimate benefit.
The implications of a parallel increase in financial inclusion and use of cash in Mexico can generate an ambiguous effect on the economy. On the one hand, the positive effects of poverty reduction through access to financial instruments can be offset by another sector of the population that in parallel is increasing its use of cash to evade taxes or commit illegal activities. On the other hand, the effects of financial inclusion on price stability are nullified with the increase of use of cash because interest rates cease to be effective in modifying agent behavior and the work of the central bank becomes more difficult. Also, from a theoretical point of view, there is also an effect of the parallel increase in financial inclusion and use of cash. For example, the increase in the use of cash avoids the problem of replacing the central bank's currency with digital money. The reason is that, following the quantitative theory of money, the increase in the use of cash causes an increase in the monetary base at the same time as the use of digital money increases the speed of money.
ABSTRACT. This paper presents, through the theories of administration, finance and economy, a proposal for the economicandfinancial evaluation throughthe application of fuzzy logic. The objective is to design financial strategies that allow the aquaculture organizations in the south of the State of Sonora to establish a control system and the evaluation of financial risk by means of hedging instruments which purpose is to decrease risk and increase the rate of return. The analysis of classical techniques for the economy andfinancial evaluation of the net present value (NPV) and the internal rate of return (IRR) is performed. Adding the theoretical components of fuzzy logic through triangular fuzzy numbers, it is proposed the fuzzification of the interest rate under different scenarios for its evaluation (0,1) that represent different levels of presumption under which a financial indicator can be established. Such indicator will allow decision making that can be approximated to measure the rate of return and viability of a new investment with financing in pesos and dollars. PALABRAS CLAVE: Valor presente neto borroso, Tasa interna de rendimiento borroso, Números borrosos triangulares.
Before analysing the causality, we still need to do several tests on the financialand macroeconomic variables. Firstly, we should test the stationarity of all those variables because all those variables are composed of time series data which might be non-stationary. Thus, the ADF (Augmented Dickey- Fuller) test is conducted, and the results (not presented here) indicate that they are stationary. Moreover, all those variables should not exhibit the seasonal pattern and autoregressive behaviour which can lead to biased results. To check whether they have the seasonality and autoregressive behaviour, this study uses the correlogram in Gretl to see the graphs of the time series distribution of the data. After checking, the seasonal patterns exist within the variable of the growth rate of international tourist arrivals (ΔTA) in Spain and the UK. Also, the autoregressive behaviour is found in variables of changes of short-term interest rate (ΔSIR), changes of average monthly currency exchange rate (ΔEXR) and changes of the unemployment rate (ΔUNEP) both from Spain and the UK. In this scenario, we need to use the autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) model to decompose the seasonal patterns and autoregressive behaviour from the defined variables. After the decomposition process, we should be sure that no linear relationship exists among those variables. For reaching that point, we need to test the multicollinearity by means of checking the correlation among those variables. In this project, the whole empirical analysis process is done using Gretl which is a popular econometric software.
13. DECIDES that the contribution of each Contracting Party to this budget shall be in accordance with the scale of assessments for the contribution of Member States to the United Nations budget as approved by the UN General Assembly for 2000 (Annex II) and yet to be approved for the years 2001 and 2002, except in the case of Contracting Parties which, in applying the UN scale, would make annual contributions to the Convention Budget of less than SFR 1,000, in which case the annual contribution shall be this amount. The difference between the assessed contribution for these Contracting Parties according to the UN scale and the minimum threshold of SFR 1,000 shall be allocated toward funding the position of a Development Assistance Officer in the Ramsar Bureau. All other Contracting Parties will continue to be assessed in accordance with the UN scale of contributions as indicated in Annex II;
Social implications: Nowadays the majority of the ski resorts have been rescued or purchased by the Administration. We can deduce that it keeps by the incomes that generate his existence. That is to say, by the positive externalities that generates in the territory where they are situate. Originality/value: The present research focuses in the financial study of a little studied sector as they are the ski resorts and the snow tourism with the enormous importance that has in the economy of the region and in the territorial development. The agents interested are so much the public administrations like the managers of this type of firms.
The speciality of translation thinking lies in its feature as the transfer between two languages and cultures. In this sense, translation thinking should be a transfer thinking. And the general properties of translation thinking mentioned above must center around this feature. Kussmaul (1995) once discussed the creativity in translation. He argued that “creativity is not a gift of the select few but a basic feature of the human mind and that we can all be creative when we translate” (ibid: 52). In addition, Kussmaul (2000) put forward five psychological types of creative translation in the process of transfer with such cognitive linguistic ideas as figure-ground, sense-frame, 3 as well as prototype and category. The five psychological types include chaining categories, picking out scene elements within a frame (i.e., a scene of TT replaces a frame of ST), enlarging a scene, framing a scene (i.e., a frame of TT replaces a scene of ST), and creating a new frame. They constitute five types of transfer thinking of translation, which describe the
As explained, we implemented the PEP Standard Model. However, we introduced some changes in order to better reflect the Bolivian economy. Specifically, we adapted the model in order to reflect that Bolivia is a price taker in world markets; producers can always sell as much as they wish on the world market at the (exogenous) current price; alternatively, we introduced the ―pure‖ form of the small -country hypothesis. In some cases (see below the ―edem - txt‖ scenario), we want to simulate a decrease in world export demand without altering the world export price. This is achieved by making selected export quantities exogenous and deleting the CET tangency condition for export and domestic sales. Additionally, we have modified the functioning of the government sector: (1) we assume that government consumption of each commodity is fixed in real terms, instead of assuming that total government spending in commodities is fixed, and (2) we differentiate between private and public investment. Consequently, we can simulate increases in government current and capital spending. Finally, we introduced a wage curve (see Blanchflower and Oswald, 1994) to endogenize unemployment; it establishes a negative relationship between the levels of unemployment and wages. 5 The wage curve was calibrated using the 2006 Bolivian Household Survey. The initial levels of unemployment
First, an analysis of the patrimonial structure has been carried out through vertical indexes and horizontal indexes. From this analysis, it is deduced that the in total Assets of the companies, the more part of these are of Non-Current Asset, that is, that the greater part of their assets and rights are destined to a lasting form in the company. In the case of the equity and Liabilities, in the company Pharma Mar this section is divided more or less in the same percentage, and in the company of Grifols, the majority corresponding to the non-current liabilities, that is to say the obligations are superior to the year, being the obligations less than a year no significant. In addition, it should be noted that the company Pharma Mar has seen all its global parts reduced as the years passed, On the other hand, Grifols' business in 2017 increased all of its items to a large extent, since the assets and the equity and liabilities are increased by more than 150%, and in 2018 they fell slightly, not exceeding a decrease in 2%.
On the other hand, there are people who claim that cryptocurrencies should be illegal, because their existence can increase the number of cyber crimes. However, computer criminals will always find a way to do their misdeeds and obtain profitability, if the cryptocurrencies were made illegal, in the medium / long term, a new alternative would arise. Deep Web was created in 2001, 8 years before the creation of Bitcoin, if cryptocurrencies really contributed to cybercrime, then other cryptocurrencies that existed in the past would have been used, such as Beenz, Flooz or any other cryptocurrency previous to Bitcoin, but they were not used and disappeared due to the lack of success, because nobody considered them useful.
Table 1 presents our cross-country results. Columns I and II report regressions similar to LLSV and PR, in the sense that we use their exact data and specification. 13 As in LLSV and PR, the creditor rights index in itself comes in significantly at a marginal level, but does not come in significant when including additional controls. An F test, however, rejects that both credit rights and rule of law are jointly insignificant. In columns III and IV we present regressions similar to the previous ones, but including a larger sample. We update the LLSV and PR data sets to include information on all Latin American and Caribbean countries for which we updated the LLSV index, and we complete some missing data of the previous data sets. In short,we extend the sample to include 58 countries. The only important difference regarding additional data is that we use the Kaufmann et al. (1999) rule of law index, which has a wider variety of countries. 14 Unlike the PR study, in the expanded sample we find that creditor rights are a significant determinant of credit market breadth. The effective creditor rights index appears highly significant, but now the creditor rights variable in itself appears significant also. Coefficients, however, remain relatively constant across specifications, suggesting that the new data allows a more precise estimation of the model’s standard errors. 15
In regression (6), we include a vector of variables related to political andeconomic institutions: Socialism, which is a dummy variable for socialist economic institutions; New State, which measures the proportion of time under colonial rule; Public, which measures the quality of governmental institutions; and Open, which measures the proportion of time between 1965 and 1990 that the country is open to international trade. We find, in line with many recent studies, that openness and quality of public institutions are highly correlated with the level of income. The socialist variable is not significant, probably because of the strong collinearity with Open and because of the smaller data set once we include the Public variable (since that variable is not available for most of the socialist economies). Newly independent countries also do not have signficantly lower income levels. If the malaria index is not included, the new state variable is highly significant, which suggests the possibility that the heavy burden of disease in tropical Africa and Asia made these regions more susceptible to colonization. We find, importantly, that both policy and geography variables are strongly correlated with the level of 1995 per capita GDP. Remember that geography may be even more important than suggested by this equation, since there are reasons to believe that favorable geography plays a role in inducing growth-promoting
he present discussion, however, is clearly in tension with the spread of machine-led translation as a means to bring the beneits of globalization to those in need of expeditious access to all forms of semiotic con- sumption. Again, the problem is not to deine whether semiotic consumption is sustainable or not, but whether the actor’s agency, deined in terms of virtue epistemologies (the agent’s reliability) is compatible with current reliabilist views (e.g. Goldberg 2010). hus, whereas agents’ beliefs fail to account for the whole host of forms of (distributed) cognition facilitated by non-human technological resources and afordances, the question arises as to whether the power of technological resources bestows databases of an epistemic reliability on an equal foot- ing with human beings. Two questions must be posed here: Is it ethical to equate a search engine with its user? And, perhaps most importantly, is access to widespread technological resources (i.e. a repository of ‘diversity’ accessible to all) an ethics in action? As we have seen throughout this paper, the answer to question one is a plain ‘no’. Not that search engines or databases are intrinsically bad. But, as many would agree, the medium serves no purpose beyond the design of their users. In this sense, the ethical agency of machines can be safely ruled-out from the ethical question. As to question two, the ethical value of a single action cannot be reduced to its pur- pose. In this sense, the utilitarian dictum whereby something good (useful) must be good to someone somehow, falls short, since usefulness is not the measure of utility. his is why functional reliability is not necessarily ethical for everyone. As discussed earlier in this paper, object fetishism inevitably entails the positioning of products as intrinsically endowed with an ethical dimension projected onto them by both users and consumers. hese ob- jects provide satisfaction of speciic preferences which, as we have seen
Our corpus is made up of about fifty print cosmetics leaflets of beauty products. The curiosity for such leaflets arouses from our long standing research interest in the language of advertising, together with a more recent preoccupation for phraseology andtranslation issues. We began a pure random collection of cosmetics leaflets, not exempted, however, from a well- disciplined systematic reading. But as our collection grew in number, an impression started gaining ground, namely, that there was a mismatch between the detailed and neatly written information that appeared in the initial text of the leaflet and the translated versions that followed it. This apparent lack of quality among the different texts was all the more striking if we took into consideration that the different cosmetics leaflets accompanying the products all belonged to highly reputed cosmetics firms known world wide. These firms spend enormous quantities of money in their advertising campaigns in order to reach a consumer who, in most cases, must be willing to pay more than a modest price for the beauty product in question. Accustomed as we are to the usual optimum efficiency of advertising, this glaring contradiction has moved us to pay close attention to the source text and to its translated versions or target texts. Comparing and contrasting them we have discovered irregularities, but also certain linguistic recurrent patterns and common features that may be worth examining. Among them two aspects have appeared most prominently: on the one hand, the rhetorical strategy of metaphor (“beauty is at war”), which will be put forward and developed in section 4.1 below; on the other hand, the phraseological units associated to it. In line with this, cosmetics leaflets abound in examples such as “your skin is under attack”, “your skin is shielded”, “free radicals attack”, “to help prevent wrinkles”, etc. It is fascinating to take up the challenge of studying the language of advertising in relation to phraseology andtranslation. On a first approximation, the analysis has been restricted to cosmetics leaflets (mainly of face creams) intended for a female target group We have not contemplated the study of variables such as gender, age, product price or specific repairing products (i.e. skin stains, sun care cosmetics, etc.) in order to limit and condition the results obtained, even though their interest for future research is not to be dismissed.
key audiences and get those audiences to take action that benefits your product”; “Putting the science of medicine to work for you. Preparing and building the market through professional education”(16). The main antidote to this situation that our profes- sion has been able to develop is disclosure (i.e., the disclosure of potential financial conflicts of interests by researchers authoring a scientific paper, contributing to the production of clinical guidelines, or presenting at a scientific meeting or a CME course). The idea is that, since eradicating or even limiting financial conflicts of interests is unfeasible, at least the readership of scientific journals and the audience of scientific meetings should be aware of their existence and of the possibility that the evidence presented be consequently biased. However, this antidote has not been very effective up to now. In fact, while self-reports reveal that more than 33% of senior journal authors have financial ties to funders of research, the rate of self-disclosure in journals has been reported to be less than 2%(17).
Abstract: The objective of this article is to think on the issue of translation in the reinforcement of the Algerian Hispanism movement. The approach is based upon the presentation of the translation panorama on the Algerian works into Spanish, insisting on the fact that the statistics are scarce, those which are interested in the translation movement between Arabic and Spanish, taking also into consideration the particularities of the Algerian case in which the language of expression, besides Arabic, is French. Thus, this phenomenon has affected the transmission of the Algerian literature in Spain, i.e, the literar production has been omitted from its most important part which is literature written in the Arabic language. Keywords: Algeria; Hispanism; Translation; Literature.