ECONOMIC CRISIS

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The Impact of Economic Crisis on Graduates’ Employment and Work

The Impact of Economic Crisis on Graduates’ Employment and Work

Secondly, due to the global economic crisis that began in 2008, Spain’s youth unemployment rates have grown considerably. However, youth most affected by the crisis is the one without post-secondary education, particularly people who have not completed secondary education. This happens because during the eco- nomic expansion that preceded the crisis, employers offered well-paid jobs with no educational requirements (mostly in construction and services). As a contextual data, we show in Table 1 that university graduates faced a better labour situation than the rest of the population, since unemployment rates of the total population almost double those of graduates both in Spain and Catalonia. However, differ- ences are observed in the employment opportunities that graduates fi nd once they have obtained a degree (ANECA, 2009; Teichler, 2007; Fachelli and Planas, 2014; 2016).
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26 Lee mas

The Effect of Economic Crisis on Inequality and Poverty in Spain

The Effect of Economic Crisis on Inequality and Poverty in Spain

The justification to make this analysis of Spanish economy in terms of inequality and poverty is that there are very interesting areas, not only for the researches, the society is interested on it. Due to this fact, analysis always have ethical connotations because of its connection to the social welfare, which is well known to be something very important for our nowadays society. Even more in an economic crisis environment, an example of the importance of this analysis could be seen in the United Nations Millennium Developments Goals, where fighting inequalities and poverty is one of them. Concretely reducing the population who lives with less than a dollar per day to the half in 2015, at the same time the Europe 2020 Strategy has the goal of rescuing at least 20 million of people from poverty and social exclusion in the period 2010-2020.
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36 Lee mas

Climate change and economic crisis: How to reduce both

Climate change and economic crisis: How to reduce both

Market instruments have always been a tool used by environmental economists since they have a very direct application for most environmental problems. Climate change is an environmental externality that requires urgent action by all the countries. Today, in the context of economic crisis market incentives become a necessary claim since they clearly constitute public intervention mechanisms. This means that taxes can get very interesting advantages from the cost efficiency point of view (static and dynamic efficiency). We already know that the carbon tax encourages dynamic efficiency, ie, the development of more efficient technologies. Moreover, in the crisis context taxes are becoming more necessary to counteract the potential increase in fossil fuels demand, particularly the coal, for its moderate prices and large stockpiles, the oil, for its abundant reserves, and, the natural gas, being now an alternative energy source to the most polluting fossil fuels. Finally, as noted Labanderia (2011)3 , if we can increase the prices of energy products through market instruments this will lead to improvements in energy efficiency, reducing external vulnerability and dependence.
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31 Lee mas

Back to (a different) emigration? Mobility from Spain and Italy during the economic crisis

Back to (a different) emigration? Mobility from Spain and Italy during the economic crisis

perspective. There exist different perspectives on whether new emigrations represent a contingent phenomenon, a structural one, or both. Many studies implicitly or explicitly point to the current economic crisis as a predominant factor in the recent increase in emigration rates in Southern Europe (Tryandafyllidou & Gropas 2014, Vodafone 2014). At the same time, however, other studies underline the importance of deeper structural factors (Díaz et al. 2015), such as the precarization of work (Raffini 2014, Santos 2013), the lack of long term production and investment plans (Valero et al. 2015) or corruption (King et al. 2014, p. 22). The fact that academic literature on Italian high skilled emigration dates back to early 2000 (see Becker et al. 2003, Avveduto et al. 2004, Di Pietro 2005) also seems to suggest that although the current economic crisis might represent a strong push factor, the roots of the new emigration might need to be examined for deeper and more structural dynamics.
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Gender differences in mental health during the economic crisis

Gender differences in mental health during the economic crisis

Our research provides two important evidences about this topic. First, fi nancial crisis differently affects the mental health of men and women in Spain between 2006-2007 and 2010-2011. In particular, the prevalence of mental disorders – except for Probable Alcohol Abuse/Dependence and Bulimia Nervosa - increased signifi cantly during the current economic crisis in both genders, but the gain is higher in men than in women for Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Non-specifi c Multi- somatoform Disorder. When both genders are compared in 2010, the prevalence ratios tend to equalize as a result of a higher increase in men. Second, unemployment is considered a signifi cant predictor for some particular disorders, specifi cally in men. These results were consistent with some previous research that assesses general mental health during similar period of time and concludes that poor mental health was more prevalent among men.
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7 Lee mas

The Decline of the Spanish National Identity during the Economic Crisis

The Decline of the Spanish National Identity during the Economic Crisis

When focusing on emotional aspects — although from a theoretical perspective, without empirical evidence—, Deutsch (1964: 146) suggests that economic crisis or increased inequality may affect the strength of the national links and may enhance disin- tegrating trends. From a psychological perspective, Brown (1998: 10-11) suggests changes in the components of identity, although it is not clear if these changes in- volve the strengthening or weakening of na- tional links. Brown notes that the existence of inequality may be interpreted as a defi- ciency of the nation, and that individuals who do not feel protected or safe within the supposed nation-state community may be- gin to doubt whether they actually belong to it. In a crisis context, this may imply the re- defining of how the distinction between our people and the others is understood, favo- ring more restrictive interpretations of natio- nal membership, based on strict definitions of citizenship or the territory (state borders), as well as ethnicity (excluding immigrants or rejected segments of society that, despite being legal citizens of the state, are not so- cially accepted as full members of the na- tion) (Brubaker, 2011: 94-95). In other words, economic crisis and inequality create inse- curity, which may lead people to retreat to their primary groups (Andersen and Fetner, 2008: 10-11), weakening the idea of the na- tion as a community of solidarity. However, it is not clear if a more restrictive interpreta- tion of who forms part of the nation may result on stronger emotional ties with the new and more limited “us”.
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Activity in the Labor Market and the Economic Crisis: Gender Differences in Galicia

Activity in the Labor Market and the Economic Crisis: Gender Differences in Galicia

Ares and Rey (2008) state that Galicia has a stabilized and aging population, which is greater than in other economies. This does not favor a dynamic labor market or the creation of jobs and wealth, however. The Galician labor-market activity rate decreased (in the previous years of the 2008 economic crisis), for instance, due to low female participation in the labor market and is worse than in the Spanish economy. The Galician occupation rate is not better; it increased less than in Spain due to fewer workers in the primary sector and difficulties other productive sectors had in absorbing those jobs. However, it is surprising that Galician industrial employment in relative terms is now higher than in Spain.
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23 Lee mas

Long-term fundamentals of the 2008 economic crisis

Long-term fundamentals of the 2008 economic crisis

The current economic crisis has long-term causes that are rooted in the economic dynamics of globalization. I construct a Solow-style endogenous model of capital accumulation, technological change, trade and cheap- factor-seeking foreign direct investment (FDI), based on myopic agents. Combining advanced technologies with low costs, FDI yields extraordinary profits that generate asymmetric innovation incentives that explain the following stylized facts. Globalization (a) increases capital accumulation; (b) is consistent with development, underdevelopment and miracle growth; (c) increases inequality in leading countries; (d) generates a transition path along which the interest rate diminishes if capital accumulates at a faster rate than technological change. Over the period 1980-2007, liberalization unleashed a wave of globalization, and the international sector experienced miracle growth. Profits rose to all time highs and global saving exceeded global investment. This savings glut or investment shortfall fueled a global housing appreciation, after which excessive risk in a deregulated financial market led to a financial meltdown. While restoring financial markets and reducing the housing market fallout are immediate priorities for the US, economic growth can only be recovered by restoring global investment. Lowering interest rates cannot generate very much investment, nor will consumption flows from fiscal spending. To stimulate the global economy, whole new economic sectors and technologies must be developed in advanced countries, and economic development deepened in underdeveloped countries. A global harmonization of taxes, which is eventually necessary anyway, is required to fund publicly provided goods, to balance incentives between local and international production, to reduce the polarization between developed and underdeveloped countries, to balance global markets with global governance, and to reinforce global cooperation. Developing the green energy sector is consistent with these aims.
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The End of Conventional Wisdom? Economic Governance after the World Economic Crisis

The End of Conventional Wisdom? Economic Governance after the World Economic Crisis

specific region or country. The first section focuses on this broad issue by analyzing how „repoliticization‟ becomes possible during moments of crisis. It also argues that even though there might be pressures to revert to conventional wisdom or the rationalities of dominant discourses once a crisis period has passed, nevertheless good public policymaking, or more broadly „good governance‟, should include a heightened skepticism about common wisdom and stay focused on contextual factors. The second section analyzes some interesting aspects of the international policy responses to the world economic crisis of 2008-09, including the revival of Keynesian policy strategies and the subsequent debt crises in certain European countries. Such developments have raised new questions about contemporary policymaking trends in the world. The final section examines the long-term consequences of this reevaluation of policy responses to the world economic crisis, including the philosophical question of how public policymakers can achieve long-term policy success without blindly following fashionable economic theories. Instead I argue that they should develop policy strategies that emphasize, and respond to, the specificities of the particular
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15 Lee mas

Household behavior in the presence of economic crisis: evidence from Argentina, 2002

Household behavior in the presence of economic crisis: evidence from Argentina, 2002

households, even those that did not experience one of the economic shocks studied here. Most families have reacted to the economic crisis through a combination of consuming less and substituting for less expensive goods both for essential and non-essential items. In each case, households affected directly by economic shocks are more likely to participate in adaptive coping strategies. It is somewhat surprising that reduction of food consumption is reported by such a large percentage of households, especially households with more children (see Table 1). However, the data in this table reflects behavioral changes in the aggregate and do not parse out the income effect from the substitution effect. We note that during the crisis, relative prices were changing, and food became relatively more expensive. 7 In the more detailed analyses that follows, we isolate the effect of income losses from the substitution effect by looking specifically at whether income-related economic shocks are linked directly to these changes in behavior.
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30 Lee mas

Between Austerity and Discontent: Discourse on Consumption and Economic Crisis in Spain

Between Austerity and Discontent: Discourse on Consumption and Economic Crisis in Spain

La situación de crisis económica es un tema presente en casi cualquier refl exión sobre los desafíos y retos a los que se enfrenta la ciu- dadanía española en el futuro próximo. El escenario de estancamiento económico y deterioro del bienestar se ve agravado, en el caso español, por la pervivencia de elevadí- simos niveles de desempleo, con tasas cer- canas al 25% (y de más de un 50% para los jóvenes) (García y Ruesga, 2014). Ligado a esta situación, se ha observado un incre- mento notable de la desigualdad económica y social, y un aumento signifi cativo de la po- breza entre los grupos más vulnerables, tal y como atestiguan investigaciones recientes en el terreno de la sociología e informes de distintas instituciones (Laparra y Pérez Eran- sus, 2013; Moreno Mínguez, 2013; Funda- ción FOESSA, 2014; OCDE, 2014). Por estas razones, es comprensible que la mayoría de los trabajos sobre la crisis en España se ha- yan centrado en las áreas relacionadas con el terreno de la socioeconomía (particular- mente las relaciones laborales) y la política social, con menor interés por otros ámbitos de interés sociológico que, aunque fuerte- mente afectados por la crisis, han pasado quizás algo más desapercibidos para los académicos. No es de extrañar, así, que ha- yan sido escasas las investigaciones centra- das en la esfera del consumo (en el resto de Europa no ha sido muy diferente), salvo algu- nas excepciones puntuales (véanse, por ejemplo, Brändle, 2010; Callejo, 2015; Alon- so, Fernández Rodríguez e Ibáñez Rojo, 2011; 2012; 2015).
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Economic Crisis and Anti-Immigrant Sentiment: The Case of Andalusia

Economic Crisis and Anti-Immigrant Sentiment: The Case of Andalusia

Nine explanatory hypotheses were tested, five of which refer to predispositions, and four to situational perceptions. One situational hy- pothesis was rejected in intriguing ways: rather than receding, animosity was found to increase among natives who viewed immi- grants as especially vulnerable to the crisis’ impact. On the assumption that natives per- ceive the plight of immigrant workers as an ominous precedent for their own occupation- al prospects, this finding adds an interesting nuance to group-position theory (Kunovich, 2004): fear of status contagion appears to take priority over the relative comfort of im- migrants’ unfavourable status trajectories. Future research should follow up on this inter- pretation, which seems plausible in circum- stances where unemployment and austerity policies exert downward pressure on salaries and work conditions. Also pinpointing future research needs, two dispositional hypothe- ses were confirmed with qualifications only. Social desirability might distort verbalisations of anti-immigrant sentiment, although this study does not prove such bias, much less quantify its extent. And while coherent pro- diversity views were found to reduce animos- ity, a trade-off between generalised antipathy and mistrust towards specific immigrant groups emerged when such consistent con- victions were absent.
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La crisis económica mundial ¿La proliferación del proteccionismo como una causa efecto? (The global economic crisis, the proliferation of protectionism as a causal effect)

La crisis económica mundial ¿La proliferación del proteccionismo como una causa efecto? (The global economic crisis, the proliferation of protectionism as a causal effect)

general sobre cuáles son las principales barreras al comercio internacional que en la actualidad se han implementado dentro del sistema multilateral de comercio; todas estas promovidas significativamente por la crisis mundial del 2009. De hecho, a través de un análisis estadístico de regresión y correlación lineal simple se logra demostrar matemáticamente, con datos secundarios de la UNCTAD y la OMC, que efectivamente existe una relación directa entre la implementación de políticas proteccionistas de tipo arancelarias y el comportamiento del comercio mundial, y de igual modo, se caracteriza el comportamiento del proteccionismo en los últimos años. De este modo se concluye que si bien la OMC ha intentado establecer reglas para controlar el proteccionismo, los países, en muchos casos, han terminado incrementando las políticas y medidas restrictivas para el comercio internacional, en cuyo caso las barreras no arancelarias superan significativamente las barreras arancelarias.
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Más allá de la crisis económica : CO2lonialismo y geografías de esperanza (Dossier) = Beyond the economic crisis : CO2lonialism and geographies of hope

Más allá de la crisis económica : CO2lonialismo y geografías de esperanza (Dossier) = Beyond the economic crisis : CO2lonialism and geographies of hope

Es esencial legitimar y apoyar la construc- ción de geografías de esperanza intra-islas e inter-islas de los pueblos indígenas y afro-ecua- toriano para desestabilizar y descolonizar los discursos que ponen en movimiento el desa- rrollo de agrocombustibles y el cultivo de pal- ma. Un anciano afro-ecuatoriano de La Chi- quita afirmó: “La esperanza es la última cosa que se acaba [….] de allí, la esperanza se acaba cuando uno se muere” (comunicación perso- nal, 01/10/2009), una frase que se refleja en las prácticas y actitudes cotidianas de los resi- dentes de San Lorenzo. A pesar de la destruc- ción del bosque húmedo y la contaminación de los ríos, la resistencia de las comunidades no se ha quebardo. Con nuestro mundo en una profunda crisis económica y medioam- biental, la gente de los bosques, que planta la esperanza y que cultiva geografías para un fu- turo mejor, podría potencialmente compartir sus experiencias y resultante sabiduría con la comunidad global. Es esencial crear espacios para tales intercambios y apoyar y reforzar los derechos de la Naturaleza y de las comunida- des a la autodeterminación para escoger cami- nos al sumak kawsay en sus respectivos lugares. Haciendo esto podremos construir colectiva- mente caminos esperanzadores que nos sa- quen de la crisis climática.
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The international economic crisis from point of view of the social market economy

The international economic crisis from point of view of the social market economy

Establishing a political framework allowing for the creation of fair conditions, even in a globalized market economy, is and remains society's primary mission and the fundamental undertaking of any political system founded on individual consent. The demand for justice that is consequently issued towards the state and international organizations is founded in the democratic identity of modern societies and is a responsibility that must constantly be embraced anew. This is particularly true in the current situation. Pope Benedict writes in "Caritas in veritate": "The current crisis obliges us to re-plan our journey, to set ourselves new rules and to discover new forms of commitment, to build on positive experiences and to reject negative ones. The crisis thus becomes an opportunity for discernment, in which to shape a new vision for the future." (CV 21)
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7 Lee mas

Spanish SMEs´ subsidised and guaranteed credit during economic crisis: a regional perspective

Spanish SMEs´ subsidised and guaranteed credit during economic crisis: a regional perspective

As PARKER (2009) notes, in general, mutual guarantee schemes have a limited scope relative to the size of the potential markets they could serve. In fact, in Spain, only a small percentage of SMEs take advantage of the mutual guarantees society (no more than 4%), most likely because the cost to obtain the guarantee is too high (CARDONE-RIPORTELLA and BRIOZZO, 2012). Given the scarcity of resources, especially during times of crisis, these types of studies are particularly useful for policymakers as they work to develop counter- cyclical policies that increase and facilitate SMEs’ access to credit .
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The international economic crisis and the colombian economy

The international economic crisis and the colombian economy

As mentioned above, only remittances and trade were chosen among the transmission channels for simulation. International aid was disregarded as a transmission channel of importance given that its size is relatively small for the economy. Furthermore, the bulk of aid comes from the implementation of the Plan Colombia which is relatively independent of the crisis in the sense that its political nature and pre-committed levels (to certain point) tend to isolate it from the vagaries of the crisis. Admittedly, there are aid programs that are likely to suffer from budgetary reductions driven by the crisis. However, they tend to be relatively small and highly focused on certain population groups. This is what happens, for instance, with programs run by the World Food Program that caters vulnerable groups, mostly displaced population, that tend to be marginal to markets behavior.
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Climate change and economic crisis: How to reduce both

Climate change and economic crisis: How to reduce both

Market instruments have always been a tool used by environmental economists since they have a very direct application for most environmental problems. Climate change is an environmental externality that requires urgent action by all the countries. Today, in the context of economic crisis market incentives become a necessary claim since they clearly constitute public intervention mechanisms. This means that taxes can get very interesting advantages from the cost efficiency point of view (static and dynamic efficiency). We already know that the carbon tax encourages dynamic efficiency, ie, the development of more efficient technologies. Moreover, in the crisis context taxes are becoming more necessary to counteract the potential increase in fossil fuels demand, particularly the coal, for its moderate prices and large stockpiles, the oil, for its abundant reserves, and, the natural gas, being now an alternative energy source to the most polluting fossil fuels. Finally, as noted Labanderia (2011)3 , if we can increase the prices of energy products through market instruments this will lead to improvements in energy efficiency, reducing external vulnerability and dependence.
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30 Lee mas

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				Determinantes sociales de la salud (inequidades) – situación europea y estímulo para la acción

← Volver a los detalles del artículo Determinantes sociales de la salud (inequidades) – situación europea y estímulo para la acción

2007/2008 was the beginning of an economic crisis around the world. Until now, it has had a significant impact on the SDOH (2). An EU-wide survey revealed that the crisis has affected the personal life of 52% of respondents (31). To exemplify the effect on European citizens, figure 7 shows the trend for unemployment rates from 2000 to 2010. Figures started to rise steeply from the second quarter of the year 2008 until now, only recording a slight drop at the beginning of 2011. In November 2012, the seasonally adjusted unem- ployment rate was highest for Spain (26.6%), Greece (26.0%), Portugal (16.3%) and Ireland (14.6%), the countries which were most affected by the finan- cial downturn (figure 8). The unemployment rate for people aged less than 25 years was even more discon- certing, in Greece 57.6% and in Spain 56.5% (32). Consequently, less income of families may likely affect adequate housing and standard of living. In London, for instance, the downward trend from 2003 to 2009 in the number of households accepted as homeless reversed in 2010 and is now increasing (20). That is to say, the crisis has had a tangible impact on peoples’ lives.
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16 Lee mas

Economic Citizenship in Online Financial News: Affect and Argumentation in Eurocrisis News Coverage

Economic Citizenship in Online Financial News: Affect and Argumentation in Eurocrisis News Coverage

The continuing financial turmoil has had an accelerating effect on the lives and possibilities of ordinary people in many ways, while the need to understand, explain and participate in economic discourses has become more pressing. In web-based media, discourses of financial crises are extensively realized in forms of multimodal texts that persuade audiences through selections of facts, analyses of processes and trends, comments and interviews as well as depictions of everyday reality. Online news packages, such as crisis «guides», timelines and chronicles, also include representations of citizens in forms of video interviews, photographs, and citations. These representations are to a significant extent included in the reports of street-level civic activism, such as demonstrations, protests, and violent clashes, prompting the question of the positions available for ordinary citizens in the face of the economic crisis and the role of the media in mediating citizens’ voices and facilitating political agency.
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