The purpose of this article is to analyze and compare the economic and socialaspects of Bolivarian countries such as Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru and Vene- zuela, to identify the similarities and differences framed throughout their history; In the same way, determine the challenges they are currently facing, and on the other hand, know the expectations that can be glimpsed in the medium and long term. For this purpose, an analytical descriptive study was used as a methodological framework, with a quantitative and qualitative approach, using and processing statistics on Gross Domestic Product GDP, Per Capita Income, GDP variation rate, Commercial Balance, Inflation, Rate of unemployment, and the IDH Human Development Index. This analy- sis allowed to know with critical thinking, the common features and differences bet- ween these countries, which in turn laid the foundations for a prospective vision in terms of the development of the economies of these countries. For this purpose, each of these economic variables was analyzed first, then the respective discussion was generated, and finally the findings and conclusions of the case.
Previous studies dealing with the conservation of vaquita [11,13] adopted measures to protect and trying to reduce the threats against this species. However, we must admit that this is another case of failure in conservation planning, as exposed by Redford and Taber . What is the real failure in vaquita conservation in the UGC? As mentioned earlier, social and economicaspects of fisheries were never considered. Even D’Agrosa et al.  and Jaramillo-Legorreta et al.  mention the need to develop an economically-viable alternative source of income [11,13], but what are these measures that have not been explored? Even now, after years of the acquisition program for fishing licenses, in order for lifelong fishermen to convert to tourism, no one expected the low success rate of the program (only 65 permits in the first round of the program). Further evidence of the failure of the program is the experience of fishermen that moved into the tourism business. With the money they received from selling their fishing permits, they built huts, but few customers use them.
The current phenomenon of globalization, understood as the liberalization of the markets, linked with the concept of economicdevelopment as a primary objective of the countries, entails the constant change of their internal normativity to increase competitiveness and achieve benefits and opportunities for the individuals. It is needed then, an interdisciplinary work, especially the interaction between economicdevelopment and law, to create or modify, both normative and administrative aspects, that leads to the effective economic performance of the countries in a globalized world. However, the existence of the differentiating gap between countries, makes the benefits, as an effect of globalization, not homogeneous, and instead, allows that some countries receive more benefits than the other ones, which in despite their efforts of adaptation of their systems to the global scenario, represent not only an economic delay, but also social. All of this occurs due to the diversity of characteristics and needs of the countries, which must be taken into account for the creation of policies and the adoption of economic models that leads them to economicdevelopment. Colombia as a case of study, is a clear example of the effort to adapt its system through the relationship between economicdevelopment and law in contexts of globalization, efforts that even though, in some cases has helped the country, in others, has represented negative effects for itself.
The rationale for including different variables in the savings func- tion is briefly summarized. The inclusion of real income ( y; or real per capita income, y/N ) in the savings function hardly needs any explana- tion. Most studies on saving behavior in developing countries have in- cluded this variable. The intertemporal optimizing models, such as the life-cycle model, suggest a positive relation between the national saving rate and the growth rate of real income ( y˙). The higher the rate of eco- nomic growth, the richer the younger generation is compared to the older generation. Thus even a moderate effort by the younger generation to accumulate savings will outweigh the potential dissaving by the older generation. Hence, the higher the rate of economic growth, the higher the saving rate. Real money balances (M/P) are included in the savings function to test the complementarity hypothesis. Higher money balances increase the saving rate. The dependency ratio (DR) is included to test the influence of demographic variables on the saving rate. The rate of economic growth will have little or no effect on the saving rate if the population dependency ratio is higher. In the life-cycle model, house- holds with more children are likely to consume more and save less at younger ages than households with few or no children. Hence, the higher the population dependency ratio, the lower the saving rate. The impact of foreign saving (S f / Y) on the national saving rate in developing countries
Public Comment Period June 23, 2017 to July 24, 2017
The City of Waco is providing a thirty-day public comment period regarding the submission of its proposed Draft Annual Action Plan for the 2017-2018 program year. This proposed plan meets federal requirements under the Community Development Act of 1974 and the National Affordable Housing Act of 1990, as amended. The final approved plan will be submitted to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) by August 16, 2017 to meet application and regulatory requirements for the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG), and the HOME Investment Partnership Program Funds. The full draft Action Plan will be available on the City of Waco’s website and at libraries listed below.
The ‘economic control’ is concerned with social responsibility, ethical conduct, as well as with ‘evidence’, ‘proof’, opinions and judgments. The credibility of a hypothesis depends on the associated evidence, so it is not independent from the strength of the entire argument, ‘evidence plus hypothesis’. The ‘degree of confidence’ implies probability, specifically the bayesian approach for modifying early prior valuations in the light of further information, obtaining revised posterior probabilities. The essential requirement of a proof is that it is ‘psychologically satisfying’; the problem of the controller’s independence stresses the controlling ethical standards. The code of ethics and rules of conduct should serve to identify responsibilities and aims involved – greater accountability through better information about ends and means – and to underline the need for a theoretical foundation about ethics of accounting and economic controlling. Of particular interest is the dichotomy ‘subjective-objective’ related also to economic reality, every kind of reality, included physical as well as cultural ones. This brings directly in the field of accounting and ‘entity economics’ metaphors. The economic controlling process is tightly connected to interpersonal analogy and to the ‘social agreement approach’ to ‘objectivity’ and scientific methodology. There is often no possible control through ‘correspondence’ with definite aspects of reality, economic-financial events themselves. System theorists employ many concepts that correspond to ‘independent reality’ only through ‘indicator hypotheses’ such as ‘business income’ magnitude, the best proxy of the economic efficiency of the ‘business entity’.
Developing countries have three general ap- proaches to RTAs. Some have adopted an ag- gressive approach and pursued a serial RTA strategy; that is, they negotiate a string of agreements and use the sequence to demon- strate their commitment to trade reforms by locking these in and increasing the incentive for excluded countries to negotiate. Harrison, Rutherford, and Tarr (2002) have labeled this negotiating dynamic “additive regionalism.” Its most prolific proponents include Chile, Mexico, and Singapore, which have pursued RTAs with most of their geographic neigh- bors, as well as with many of the other major players (Schott 2004). The idea is that negoti- ating additional RTAs will progressively lower the effective average tariff (reducing potential trade diversion costs) and assure stability of market access for partner countries. A second, much larger group of countries has pursued a strategy more explicitly regional in focus, which seeks to deepen ties with neighboring countries; examples include ASEAN, the GCC, MERCOSUR, and SADC. A third group has focused on negotiating North- South RTAs, often in parallel with their re- gional integration efforts with neighbors; examples are the southern Mediterranean countries with the EU and the US-CAFTA agreement. The ACP-EU Economic Partner- ship Agreements are another example.
The City of Waco is providing a thirty-day public comment period regarding the submission of its proposed Draft Annual Action Plan for the 2018-2019 program year. This proposed plan meets federal requirements under the Community Development Act of 1974 and the National Affordable Housing Act of 1990, as amended. The final approved plan will be submitted to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) by August 16, 2018 to meet application and regulatory requirements for the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG), and the HOME Investment Partnership Program Funds. The full draft Action Plan will be available on the City of Waco’s website and at libraries listed below.
Promoting New York banks in their quest to become more competitive with British Banks in global business was also associated with promoting the U.S. dollar as an international currency. Despite the fact that the U.S. had accumulated massive amounts of foreign assets and had been turning into the world’s largest creditor, the U.S. dollar was still not widely used in international finance. The Federal Reserve Act was also intended to rectify that situation. This too was seen by New York bankers as enhancing their profits (Broz, ch. 2). To some extent, this promotion of the international aspects of the Federal Reserve Act in order to help New York bankers compete with London was simply a matter of “rent seeking”: the bankers were well organized and they had the economic and political muscle to push through the Act in Congress, despite opposition from other sectors. Still this act of targeted policy to subsidize and promote a particular financial sector in its quest to become more internationally competitive came at a time of major increase in the U.S. economic and political role in the world economy, and further developed that role.
Some recent and influential literature has focused on the importance of initial condi- tions linked with history and geography —and independent from structural production, preferences or policy parameters— in determining the subsequent development path (e.g. Acemoglu et al., 2001, Easterly and Levine, 2003, Galor, 2010). This literature views the evolution of the economy as predetermined by factors that cannot be influenced by policy. According to this, the relative factor endowments alone could determine whether it is more profitable to start investing in education or in R&D, without the need to resorting to different preferences or production structures to explain it. Hence, we ask whether initial conditions alone can determine the stages of development that an economy passes through; i.e., whether innovation precedes education or vice versa. In this paper, we show that the extended AFS model can replicate a situation in which two identical economies, aside from their factor endowments, can follow different sequences of development phases. Alternatively said, we show that parameter differences are not really necessary to explain different sequences of development phases as previous works suggest.
El análisis del impacto distributivo y sobre el empleo del Programa de Recuperación Económica y Social del Plan Colombia requiere un modelo adecuado para captar dichos efectos. Esto significa la utilización de un modelo y de una base contable que desagreguen suficientemente la formación de los ingresos factoriales y su distribución institucional. Dado el alto componente de inversión rural del Plan, y particularmente del Programa de Recuperación Económica y Social, es crucial la distinción entre actividades y mercados de factores rurales y urbanos. El modelo debe también incorporar la posibilidad de migración rural-urbana, o entre segmentos del mercado laboral urbano.
The fact remains, however, that the vast majority of the population of these countries is not in conditions to 'spontaneously' obtain an enlightenment (much less a clairvoyance) that would explicitly induce the formulation of the idea of 'exit' as a solution, rather on the contrary. One of the regrettable side- effects of this state of things has been, in various European countries, the irruption of ultra-nationalistic, xenophobic political tendencies (usually designated under the very ambiguous expression of "populism"), that tend themselves to be mostly a 'part of the problem', but above all must be considered a consequence of mainstream Europeanism and European integration, although simultaneously configuring an equivocated, misguided response to it. In other cases, and more specifically in the Portuguese case, the majority of the population remains captive of a 'dependency’ vis-à-vis the EU that seems to reside in the collective psyche as much as in the economic and political structures; which is at least as much a mental or psychological condition (and of course also a sociological one, at least in the sense that it configures a generalized trait) as it is an economic and political one: somehow a variety of the celebrated 'Stockholm syndrome' that arguably would be more aptly designated in this case as 'Lisbon syndrome'. The way ahead in order to obtain popular information/education constitutes thus a rather long, and presumably also a very rugged trail. The main purpose of this text is, however, to start treading it.
This section of the paper presents the some of the determinants of population density in the Colombian municipalities 22 . Population density reflects in part settlement decisions made in the past and historical demographic trends. Settlement decisions must have been influenced by quality of soil, proximity to rivers, seaports and main roads and quality of climate etc. Equally, once a settlement had been sited, it determined the future economic growth of the region through the creation of an economy of agglomeration, and goods and factor markets. Additionally, changes to production structure, demographic trends and access to social services can influence population density. Just thirty years ago, more than 70% of the Colombian population lived in poverty (measured by unsatisfied basic needs), largely in rural areas. By 1995 this figure had decreased to less than 30%, and the urban population had increased to 70% - with greater access to public and social services.
Medellin, Colombia’s second largest city, offers a remarkable case of socially progressive investment in transport infrastructure and physical upgrading of low-income areas that has helped compensate for growing income inequalities and deeply entrenched violence and social dislocation. At the centre of this are three cable-car lines that connect an overground rapid transit system with hitherto partially isolated dense and hilly neighbourhoods marked by high levels of unemployment and violence. Launched in the early 2000s, this was the first time this fast, low- emission mode of transport adapted from ski-lifts was used to help reduce the high levels of spatial segregation so pervasive in many Latin American cities. In financial terms, public investment in creating or upgrading public spaces and small parks, roads, education and leisure facilities, and building capacity for the local population, dwarfed investments in the cable-car lines. Crucial to these interventions in this city of 3.5 million inhabitants was a stable revenue base, an updated cadastral system, and a sophisticated betterment tax system. Also important was a decision to employ local inhabitants in all public works done in the neighbourhoods. Investments were made possible by the coordinated action of strong, highly respected publicly owned local institutions, including the utilities company, Empresas Públicas de Medellin (EPM). EPM is in effect a multinational public company with assets in excess of US$10 billion that between 2010 and 2012 transferred close to US$1.4 billion in surplus to the municipal government, providing much-needed cash for projects, particularly for the city’s troubled low- income settlements.
The new government strategy was characterized by the creation of a plan for de- velopment where the consultation process was very broad. Eight working groups he- aded by union leaders, business organizations, academics, public and voluntary sec- tors were established to decide policies for each of the main important economic areas of the city. The major theme of the policy was based on the assumption that job creation in Rennes could be achieved by the mobilization and development of scien- tific research capabilities (Le Gales 1990:78-79). Important institutional arrange- ments were in place to make it possible for the government to implement such strate- gies. For example, the political consensus and the broad participation of actors that was achieved allowed the new Mayor to mobilize national financial support and the interest of the locals for economicdevelopment (Le Gales, 1990:83-84). Important development and planning agencies were developed in Rennes (for example, CO- DESPAR) which allowed representatives of the business sector, the unions, and local authorities to work together and create partnerships (Le Gales, 1990).
yan crop, cacao. A decade ago, a local produc- er organization, the Toledo Cacao Growers’ Association (TCGA), signed a commercial agreement with a British organic chocolate company, Green & Black’s, to export or- ganic, Fair Trade-certiﬁed cacao to Europe. Funding from the British Government has enabled the rapid expansion in cacao farm- ing over the past few years. Since cacao de- pends upon shade to ﬂourish, Mayans are voluntarily reducing the amount of forest be- ing cleared for milpa cultivation, and growing cacao trees (within the natural forest cano- py) instead. Their incentive to grow cacao is strengthened by the fact that milpa rotations have been gradually reduced, leading to de- creased soil fertility, yields, and economic re- turns. The cultivation of cacao is a potential win-win situation: it is culturally compat- ible, economically viable, and helps rehabili- tate natural forest ecosystems. In the search for other socially appropriate, economically viable options, Mayans are also becoming involved in cultural eco-tourism, and addi- tional non-timber forest product industries. That said, Mayans are also being engaged in equal numbers in less eco-friendly industries, such as logging, roadwork projects and inten- sive agricultural plantations. Clearly, both the sustainable or non-sustainable options before them have concomitant impacts on the integrity of their common property systems;
India’s economic reforms refer to the set of policies introduced in 1991 that marked a radical shift in political-economic thinking. Pre-1991 policies pursued import-substi- tuting industrialisation and a mixed economy. A severe macroeconomic crisis caused by external debt tripling to USD 69,3 billion, a rising fiscal deficit, and a steep rise in oil prices due to the Gulf crisis in 1990 prompted the government of India approach the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for assistance. In return the government agreed to undertake reforms. These reforms included fiscal consolidation and limited tax reforms, the removal of controls on industrial invest- ments and on imports, the reduction of import tariffs, allowing market forces to play a major role in exchange rate movements and making the rupee convertible on current account. The reforms brought about a decline in public expenditure for social servic- es, leading to a deterioration in quantity and quality of public health and educational services, and to an accelerated pace of privatisation in these sectors. After the gov- ernment of India passed the Patents Act granting monopoly rights on drugs, the climbing price of medicines and the privatisation of health services made them less accessible and affordable for the vast majority of poor people. Presently, around 80 per cent of the aggregate expenditure on health is private spending. 14
Palabras clave: encuesta social europea, estudios comparados, trabajo de campo, no
From a scientificic point of view, surveys are undoubtedly a valuable tool for the knowledge of the social and political reality. They are widely used in the social sciences research. However, the researcher’s task is often disturbed by a series of deficiencies related to some technical aspects that make difficult both, the inference and the comparison. The main aim of the present paper is to report and justify the European Social Survey’s technical specifications addressed to avoid and/or minimize such deficiencies. The article also gives a characterization of the non-respondents in Spain obtained from the analysis of the 2002 fieldwork data file.
• By 2025, our utility company aims to produce so much green energy, that the entire demand of the city can be met. That requires enormous investments around 9 billion euros by 2025 and can only be successful if the long-term goal is sustainable economic success rather than short- term profit maximization