Also, a focus on economic efficiency have been made by other authors for different utility ser- vices. Passey et.al. (2017) present a method to visualize how cost-reflective a tariff scheme is. This with the aim of providing policy recommendations so households with a higher consumption during peak hours, raising the price due to the congestion costs, face a higher economic burden. His results suggest that this approach facilitate the allocation of the costs faced by power companies in Australia, including marginal costs in the short and long term. Borenstein (2013) analyses the impact of a dynamic pricing scheme which considers marginal prices. As observed by the author, the proposed alternative would give incentives to consumers to reduce electricity consumption and to integrate alternative technologies such as wind and solar to the energy mix of a country. This provided that dynamic pricing allows to match demand with supply fluctuation in a more efficient way, reducing the cost related with the integration of those technologies.
61 Lee mas
Little work has been yet done to analyse if e-learning is an efficiency way in economic terms to produce higher education, especially because there are not available data in official statistics. Despite of these important constrains, this paper aims to contribute to the study of economic efficiency of e-learning through the analysis of a sample of e-learning universities during a period of time (1997-2002). We have wanted to obtain some empirical evidence to understand if e-learning is a feasible model of providing education for universities and which are the variables that allow for feasibility attainment. The main findings are: 1) that the rise of the number of students enrolled is consistent with increasing labour productivity rates; 2) that cost labour savings are explained by the improvement of universities’ economic efficiency (or total factor productivity); and 3) that improvement of total factor productivity in e-learning production is due to the attainment of scale economies, but also to two organisational innovations: outsourcing processes that leads to the increase of variable costs consistent with decreasing marginal costs, and the sharing of assets’ control and use that allow for a rise in assets rotation.
21 Lee mas
As shown in Figure 5, group 1 is comprised of PAs considered marginally efficient (A Coruña and Las Palmas) and marginally inefficient (Avilés, Ferrol-San Cibrao, Gijón and Tarragona). Group 2 is comprised of efficient PAs (Bahía de Algeciras, Barcelona, Cartagena, Ceuta, Motril and Valencia) and includes one marginally efficient PA (Balearic Islands) due to highest efficiency score in its category (94,83%). Group 3 is comprised of marginally inefficient PAs with lowest efficiency scores (Bilbao, Melilla, Huelva and S Cruz de Tenerife). Group 4 is comprised of the most inefficient PAs (Castellón, Vigo and Santander).
36 Lee mas
The food security of a rural family and of a country is linked to agricultural and livestock activities, and these must be carried out in equilibrium to reach sustainable development; this includes an adequate management of the energetic, economic and environmental resource within the Agroecosystem (AES). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between efficient use of energy, economic efficiency, productivity of agroecosystems, auto-consumption, and the line of minimum family welfare in the municipality of Paso de Ovejas. The production costs and income were calculated for each agricultural/livestock activity in the AES and then the indexes of economic efficiency and energy use were determined. The cultivation of sugar cane showed low productivity; however, this crop contributes 0.61±0.42 of the coverage proportion of the line of minimum welfare, as a result from the incentives that the sugar plant offers sugar cane producers. Of maize production in the hill zone, 15 % is used for human auto- consumption and 16 % for animals. Only the milk in liquid or transformed (cheese) form participates in auto-consumption, for which 4 % of the production in the irrigation zone and 5 % in the hill zone are destined. The agroecosystems with greater surface and with irrigation capacity are directed at crop sowing of high energetic yields, such as sugar cane in combination with cattle breeding to improve economic efficiency. This productive activity allows the rural family to afford temporary financial situations, since it functions as family saving, concluding that the producers implement combinations of productive activities in their agroecosystems, according to the availability of natural and financial resources, achieving differentiated coverages with regards to the line of minimum welfare.
15 Lee mas
Indicators of the economic condition of an economic entity act as the second element of a comprehensive as- sessment of the economic efficiency of investment projects. The formation of this element involves the selection of indicators of the economic state of the enterprise and their standardization. The number and composition of indicators of the economic state of an enterprise should be determined, on the one hand, by the full coverage of the features of the business entity, and, on the other hand, by the practical importance of the comprehensive assessment model for the economic efficiency of investment projects. Our recommendation is to use two or three indicators of the economic condition of an enterprise, such as profitability, labor productivity, capital productiv- ity, financial stability, solvency, etc. It should be noted that it is advisable to select the most significant of them as indicators of the economic condition of an economic entity. To assess the degree of implementation of the corpo- rate strategy of the enterprise. To describe all possible economic positions of an enterprise in the space of selected indicators of the economic state of an economic entity, a hypercube of the values of the considered indicators is constructed (Pic. 2). The positioning of an enterprise in a hypercube of values of indicators of the economic status of an economic entity provides for determining its real and prospective position in the space of selected indicators. The interaction of the two considered elements of a comprehensive assessment of the economic efficiency of investments allows us to establish which characteristics of investment projects need to be paid attention to when making management decisions about their implementation and what values they should take in the real econom- ic situation of an enterprise in order to achieve a prospective position. Given this, the assessment of the economic efficiency of investment projects should be considered comprehensive.
7 Lee mas
and have pointed to the need for economic studies that can serve as decisions-making tools at microeconomic level, and planning at the macroeconomic level. Such an economic analysis has to be made bearing in mind global economic efficiency, not merely technical or productive efficiency. Looking at irrigated productive systems from a global viewpoint, the use of costs analysis systems [5-8] is recommendable to evaluate the relative importance of given variables linked to production and their repercus- sion on economic indices that may serve to establish economic and environmental viability criteria. This is a question of rationalising the use of resources and, espe- cially, of reducing the use of scarce and limiting natural resources such as water, or diminishing the use of other, potentially contaminating resources. In this sense, many studies have been dedicated to evaluating water use effi- ciency (WUE) from a productive stance [7,9-12], but few
8 Lee mas
• In chapter 2, a definite definition of sustainable water use is employed. However, sustainability is regarded by some authors as a societal choice and not an absolute value. It would be an ideal to aim for, instead of a white/black definition. Several trade-offs appear in all human interventions in the environment, and the choice between different options can be regarded as a matter of social priorities. Moreover, balancing demands implies restructuring the frequently opposed interests of different users, which raises the question of how to do so in a fair way. Management of environmental resources necessarily involves managing human interventions and the varied interests of stakeholders and communities, intra- and inter-generational. In this regard, decisions, even when backed by scientific information, involve underlying value judgements and can be considered political. In this thesis, particular stress is laid on the concepts of physical and economic efficiency of water use and the relevance of such analyses has been argued. Nevertheless, some authors question such analyses with the argument that they do not consider the power relations and inequalities involved, or the different understandings of efficiency.
149 Lee mas
Nevertheless, this approach has never meant to state that consumers were left unprotected. Most common cartels do not require a verification of whether efficiency gains could surpass dead-weight losses or not; and few modes of exclusionary dominant behavior have become a real concern to the competition authority in the last decade. Moreover, considering that no merger control has been implemented other than for the electricity sector, Peruvian case law has not yet had the opportunity to apply the «total welfare» approach as the ultimate tool to decide a complex challenged behavior. It is economic efficiency that the competition authority has had in mind, and thus its decisions have followed this path.
34 Lee mas
The major difficulty in an outphasing RFPA is the design of the output combiner, which is in charge of connecting the two amplifiers together and summing the sine signals. The connection of the outputs of the RFPAs is not straightforward due to the fact that the output impedance of each RFPA changes over time according to the output voltage, leading to a undesirable influence between them . The outphasing technique can be implemented using linear RFPA (i.e. Class A and B), as it was first proposed, or switching RFPA (i.e Class D and Class E). The efficiency of the outphasing technique with linear RFPA can be increased up to the maximum of each class (50% for Class A and 78% for B), whereas in the case of switching RFPA the maximum is theoretically 100%. On the other hand, the cross-effect between the amplifiers due to the output combiner is especially critical when the RFPA is based on a resonant topology (i.e., Class E), in which the efficiency depends on proper tunning of the resonant circuit. Therefore, in the case of the outphasing technique, each resonant circuit is modified by the output impedance of the other amplifier. The analysis and design of the combiner has previously been carried out in –, leading to complex mathematical analysis and circuitry regarding the efficiency and bandwidth of the system.
8 Lee mas
As a result, we believe that good software must have certain conditions: contain more useful methods for sample size and analysis of data, a nice user interface, flexibility for being used in other kind of studies (e.g. industrial or psychological), and accessibility for most researchers and biomedical professionals. The purpose of this paper is to present LADES (Longitudinal Analysis and Design of Experiments Software) for longitudinal data analysis, and construction of efficient longitudinal designs. LADES provides tools for the construction and analysis of longitudinal experiments using a user-friendly interface. LADES is a free and good alternative for biomedical and medical researchers who are not familiar with specialized statistical methods. In addition, it has been created on the basis that there are not many computer programs whose scope is the creation of longitudinal designs with necessary and appropriate cost efficiency. LADES capacity to build cost-efficient designs is demonstrated by analyzing a study of the European eel in which the response of interest was generated sperm volume.
6 Lee mas
challenge of improving water and sewerage services can learn important lessons from the Chilean case. Actually, recent studies (Molinos-Senante et al. 2015, 2016; Molinos-Senante and Sala-Garrido, 2016, 2017) have evaluated the performance of Chilean water utilities. However, none of these previous studies identify the fac- tors influencing the efficiency of WaSCs using a reliable approach such as bootstrap method. From a policy perspective, the methodology and results of this study pro- vide evidences that are of great interest both for WaSCs’ managers and regulators. On the one hand, the estimation of bias-corrected efficiency scores provides a more reliable performance comparison of the WaSCs. This issue is essential for the water regulator to promote competition between WaSCs contributing to reduce monopoly problems and also to set suitable water tariffs. On the other hand, the identification of factors affecting efficiency scores is essential to support decisions, contributing to the improvement of longterm sustainability of the urban water cycle. This paper il- lustrates that implementing a consistent and reliable methodology is vital to increase the relevance of benchmarking tools. Moreover, it provides evidence of the linkages between environmental, social, and economic issues in the framework of water com- panies’ performance.
116 Lee mas
Muro (1982), Muro and Vera (1983) have introduced measures of efficiency in the normalized price space and have shown the duality between these measures and the Farrell and Forsund-Hjalmarsson measures defined in the quantity space. Both set of measures are presented in Table 1.
17 Lee mas
The "New Economy" allows additional increases in demand that, to find proper response in the supply, do not translate into inflationary tensions. This same idea can be expressed more technically by saying that technological innovation and increased efficiency and productivity which would still reduce unemployment including the "NAIRU" (the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment, or may also be reasonable to say that the increased productivity resulting from technological innovation allows additional increases in wages without risk to stability, as new technologies and the subsequent higher productivity help keep unit labor costs under control even if wages increase.
61 Lee mas
It is important to note, however, that potential increase in size in co- operative MFIs may come from either expanding their membership or by increasing in business with non-members, which is likely to affect the gov- ernance structure as well as the objectives that the MFI members value. That is why the ceteris paribus (all else equal) assumption is strong in this context and the optimal size results should be interpreted with this in mind. Results from an identical specification except that outputs are meas- ured by the number of active borrowers to capture the outreach mission of the cooperative MFIs are presented in Table 3. These results are very similar to results in Table 2 because we also find increasing returns to scale indicating that larger cooperative MFIs are more cost efficient. One interesting difference is that the marginal impact of the two outputs is now reversed. Specifically, it is more expensive to reach one more bor- rower than it is to get one additional depositor and the wedge here is larger than that in Table 2. This suggests that, for cooperative MFIs, at- tracting depositors from the target clientele is easier than reaching more borrowers. It is important to note, however, that our method and results do not account for possible the poverty level of both types of clients – ac- tive borrower or active savers. The results are consistent with Hartarska et al (2011) who study efficiency gains from offering services to both bor- rowers and depositors (scope economies) and argue that borrowers and savers in MFIs are likely to be at different level of poverty.
24 Lee mas
In the Figure the ray through the origin has a slope determined by the observed price vector w*. All firms will lie on that ray; firms with lower average costs will be placed outwards and the efficient point D on the efficiency frontier (the geometric locus of all points where the elasticity of scale is unity). Then a descriptive view of the above measures is given in the Figure. They are radial measures that explain the aspects of inefficiency in which we are interested:
44 Lee mas
Following deficits of 3.3% in both 2003 and 2004, the general government defi- cit increased to over 5% of GDP in the first half of 2005, though the government has committed to limiting the full year deficit to 4.3%. The government’s budget pro- posal for 2006 foresees a reduction in the deficit to 3.8% of GDP, under an agree- ment with the European Union to bring it back to below 3% by 2007. As amended in late October 2005, the proposed deficit reduction plan amounts to around 1¾ per cent of GDP, the larger part of which is achieved by cuts in personnel expenditures and intermediate consumption at all levels of government, plus enhanced receipts from the fight against tax evasion. Implementing spending cuts and improving the rate of tax recovery by such a magnitude in a single year constitutes a daunting chal- lenge, all the more so as spending traditionally rises prior to national elections, which are scheduled for April 2006. Moreover, the deficit reduction measures are partly off- set by ¾ per cent of GDP in increased outlays (including tax expenditures) on social benefits and economic supports. The OECD projections are based on lower nominal GDP growth (by 0.8%) than in the budget proposal, so that even assuming that the savings measures in the proposed budget will largely be effective, the deficit declines only marginally to 4.2% of GDP in 2006. In the absence of significant corrective measures in 2007, the budget deficit could rise to 4¾ per cent of GDP. With these deficits, the public debt ratio is projected to increase in 2005, for the first time in a decade, and reach 110% of GDP by 2006, including the effect of planned privatisa- tion receipts of around 1% of GDP in that year.
237 Lee mas
The scope for reducing gross debt would widen if non-financial assets were taken into consideration as well. They usually include residential and non-residential buildings, machinery and equipment (classified as tangible fixed assets), copyrights, patents, computer software (intangible fixed assets) and land (tangible non-produced assets). Data coverage is however very patchy across countries and across specific asset categories, as many governments do not have an appropriate inventory and the valuation of these assets at market prices is challenging. For those countries which publish complete data on non-financial assets (including Australia, the Czech Republic, France and the United Kingdom), these assets are much larger than financial assets. Clearly, as with financial assets, not all of them could and should be for sale. However, continuing fiscal stress in many OECD countries should be taken as an opportunity to evaluate if such assets should be sold. Greece is an example in this regard. Under the financial aid agreement, the Greek government has committed to compile a fixed-asset inventory and implement a privatisation and real estate development programme worth 50 billion euro (22% of 2010 GDP). Beyond current needs to lower gross debt, a full account of government non-financial assets is desirable also for a comprehensive assessment of government asset holdings and the efficiency of public asset use.
411 Lee mas
Note that assumptions can be made on the error term U OR alternatively one can state the assumptions directly on the economic random variables (see Goldberger or Wooldridge). That is, to assume that E ( Y j Z ) = Z 0 β, say, instead of writing Y = Z 0 β + ε, and assume that E ( ε j Z ) = 0.
32 Lee mas
ABSTRACT: The existence of restrictions for small- and medium-sized enterpri- ses (SMEs) to access long-term credit has led governments to establish institutional systems to facilitate such access and reduce the cost of credit, with the condition that its feasibility is justified (and assessed) and there are no distortions as regards competition. Very few empirical in-depth studies exist regarding this field of aca- demic research, and scarce attention has been paid from a regional perspective. Due to the characteristics of the business structures in the different regions, as well as the existence of agglomeration economies and the regional dispersion of the en- trepreneurship rate, this paper analyses the effects of the productive financing sup- port model, provided by the Government of Spain, through the Instituto de Crédito Oficial (ICO) [Official Credit Institute], on the behaviours and performances of the beneficiary companies. In the last decade, this source of financing has assigned 30,000 million euro. The results show the general acceptance of this policy due to its adaptation to the interests of the companies and its contribution to the improve- ment of the economic-financial efficiency indicators. Regionally, no substantial differences have been observed, but the results of this research show a greater con- tribution to the dynamism of the more progressive regions.
21 Lee mas
The general drawback of the known criteria for the efficiency of mining technologies is that they do not fully consider the possibility of utilization of mining waste and ore enrichment. Therefore, progressive operation includes the direction of dumping the ore tailings in mined-out space without extracting their lost during the primary processing of valuable and scarce metals (Fig.1).
7 Lee mas