recognized by respondents, photographic stimuli of 22 ed- ible species that commonly grow in the Sierra Tarahumara plus two toxic species were used: 1. Amanita caesarea complex; 2. A. rubescens Pers; 3. Hypomyces lactifluorum Schwein. Tul & C.Tul; 4. Russula brevipes Peck; 5. Boletus chrysenteron Bull; 6. Laccaria laccata (Scop.) Cooke; 7. Boletus pinophilus Pilat & Dermek; 8. Boletus edulis Bull; 9. Cantharellus cibarius Fr; 10. Lactarius deliciosus (L.) Gray; 11. Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc; 12. Coprinus comatus O. F. (Müll.) Pers; 13. Ramaria aff. flava Quél; 14. Morchella vulgaris (Pers.) Boudier; 15. Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon; 16. Lactarius indigo (Schwein.) Fr; 17. Agaricus campestris L.: Fr.; 18. Boletellus russellii (Frost) Gilbert; 19. Helvella crispa Bull; 20. Schizophyllum com- mune Fr; 21. Ustilago maydis (DC.) Corda; 22. Helvella lacunosa Afzel; 23. Amanita muscaria (L:Fr.) Lam, and 24. Amanita virosa (Fr.) Bertill (Figures 4 and 5). These species were selected for references of records and abundant growth and for being common in these forest soils [10,36]. For the stimuli, the technique proposed by Thomas  was taken into account. Besides these photographic stimuli, in so far as possible, fresh mushrooms were used for cor- relation with the taxonomic fungi mentioned in the inter- views. The collected samples were described in terms of macroscopic characteristics and were photographed and classified according to the  proposed by Cifuentes et al. Subsequently the specimens were reviewed micro- scopically following conventional mycological techniques . Specialized taxonomic keys were used to determine the different specimens. Finally, these were deposited in the Biodiversity Herbarium of the Institute of Biomed- ical Sciences of the Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez. Qualitative analysis of the information obtained Table 1 Localities of the interviewed people of the Sierra
Limitations on study/implications: It is an exploratory case study that must be contrasted with the empirical evidence provided by other similar cases.
Findings/conclusions: Although there is a long tradition among indigenous communities of the use of dyeing plants, the use of mushrooms for wool dyeing is not known, its diffusion among textile producers would contribute to increasing its cultural heritage.
Palabras clave: producto forestal no maderable, bosque andino-patagónico, esporocarpos, manejo sustentable. Abstract. We assessed the environmental variables associated with fructification, phenology, abundance, frequency and relative productivity of lignicolous and terrestrial wild edible fungi from Nothofagus forests in the Andean- Patagonia region of Argentina. The study was carried out during autumn 2010, 2011 and 2012. The mycorrhizal species Cortinarius magellanicus and C. xiphidipus were associated with a deep litter layer, whereas the saprophytic Lycoperdon sp. showed lower litter depth values. All the terrestrial species developed under high canopy cover (above 75%). Lignicolous species such as Clitocybula dusenii and Aleurodiscus vitellinus were more frequently observed in open places, whereas Fistulina. antarctica, F. endoxantha and Grifola gargal seem to prefer high canopy cover. Fruiting of F. antarctica was associated with low wood degradation stage, vs. high wood degradation stage in the case of C. dusenii. F. antarctica, Ramaria patagonica, C. magellanicus and A. vitellinus were found to have longer fruiting periods, from mid-March to mid-April. The most productive species in terms of fresh weight were R. patagonica and F. antarctica. The information provided here is critical to establish guidelines for harvesting these species based on their availability, ensuring their sustainable use.
Macrocymectes have been part of the human culture for thousand years and have been reported as food in the most important civilizations in history. Many nutraceutical properties of the macromycetes have been described, for instead, anticancer, antitumor, hypocholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, immunomodulatory, among others. They have also described its nutritional properties, have a high content of protein, nearly equal to or higher than some vegetables, also have all the amino acids essential to human functions and high content of vitamins and minerals. Genera Pleurotus (oyster mushrooms) and Lentinula edodes (shiitake) are among the mushrooms with a higher rate of the production worldwide. In Colombia, the cultivation of these fungi is very widespread, and research and sources of information to carry out this type of crop as well. Various methodologies were developed to produce mycelia from fruiting bodies for the spawn production. Several synthetic media and cereal seeds were evaluated to define the best media to mycelia and spawn production. The best media was PDA (Potato dextrose, agar) and the best grain for spawn production was wheat.
Wild ediblemushrooms are a promising economic resource, since they are easily commercialized as a dehydrated product. In the present work, two species of mycorrhizal fungus associated to Pinus elliottii, cultivated in the NE of Argentina, are described and illustrated. Lactarius deliciosus is a new record from Misiones province whereas Suillus granulatus is a new record from provinces of Corrientes and Misiones.
Several ECMF have also great added value as a non-timber forest product due to their ed- ibility; and high price in the international markets (Yun & Hall 2004). The inoculated fungi were selected because they: belong to genera which contain pioneer species (Obase et al. 2007, 2012), are frequently associated with seedlings in greenhouse (Obase et al. 2012), tolerate low- fertility conditions (Trocha et al. 2007) and establish ectomycorrhizae with a wide range of host plants (Cairney & Chambers 2013). Additionally, Laccaria trichodermophora G. M. Muell. (Montoya et al. 2014) and Hebeloma alpinum (J. Favre) Bruchet (Carrasco-Hernández et al. 2011) are ediblemushrooms widely consumed in Central Mexico.
polysaccharides and lipids, which are used alone or combined (Vargas et al., 2008). Starch is an important polysaccharide used in the formulation of biodegradable films (Chiumarelli et al., 2010). Among starches, cassava starch has been widely used on the formulation of edible films thanks to its availability and relative low price (Souza et al., 2012; Chivrac et al., 2010). Bezerra de Aquino et al. (2015) studied the use of cassava starch together with chitosan on guavas whereas Chiumarelli and Hubinger (2012) worked with films based on cassava starch and carnauba wax on apple slices. However no studies of the use of edible films based on cassava starch for papaya (Carica papaya L.) preservation have been developed.
We present two cases of acute liver injury resulting from consumption of wild mushrooms. The first case was a male who developed acute hepatitis after ingestion of diverse mushrooms including Amanita spe- cies. His clinical course was favorable with complete recovery of liver function. The second case was a male who developed acute liver failure (ALF) after ingestion of Amanita bisporigera. He required MARS the- rapy as a bridge to liver transplantation but transplantation was not performed because he succumbed to multiorgan failure. There are few trials demonstrating the efficacy of the different treatments for mushro- om poisoning. These cases demonstrate that the consumption of wild mushrooms without proper knowled- ge of toxic species represents a serious and under recognized health problem.
avocado fruits and prolonging their shelf life compared with other treatments, this without even leaving aside that even the ECC sig- niﬁcantly improves the quality of the shelf life of fruits, that be- cause of the atmosphere which creates the application of this EF. These excellent results were obtained considering the extreme conditions of fungal contamination sued in this work. Finally, we conclude that the use of an edible ﬁlm based on candelilla wax with a potent antioxidant ellagic acid on whole fruits is a good alternative to conserve fresh avocados.
Results and discussion
For the State of Mexico 40 families, 83 genera and 138 species with edible fruits (Table 1) were recorded. The average number of species per genus was 1.6 and per family 3.4. The Cactaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Rutaceae, Sapotaceae and Anacardiaceae framily concentrated 68 species equivalent to 49% of the total (Table 2). Similar results to those reported for Michoacán (Segura et al., 2009) and Puebla (Martínez, 2007), this trend also coincided at the American Continent level, where Arecaceae, Myrtaceae, Rosaceae, Cactaceae, Fabaceae sensu lato, Sapotaceae, Passifloraceae and Melastomataceae ranked among the top 15 families with fruit species (Martínez, 2007) and González and del Amo (2012) indicated that Myrtaceae, Sapotaceae, Cactaceae, Annonaceae, Fabaceae, Passifloraceae, Solanaceae, Malvaceae, Anacardiaceae and Rosaceae predominated in Mesoamerica. This suggests that Cactaceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae can become a genetic resource for the production of edible fruits and seeds.
Several quantitative approaches have been used to evaluate the importance of wild edible plants for a community, but most of them are focused in anthropological/cultural information (e.g. cultural heritage, gender perspective, socioeconomics, and cooking of edible species) (Pieroni 2001, da Silva et al. 2006, do Nascimento et al. 2013, Alonso-Aguilar et al. 2014, Sujarwo et al. 2014). Moreover, few of these approaches include plant features more closely related with food security such as its role in diet, conversion into processed products, or post- harvest life (features from the perspective of the food science and technology). For example, the Pieroni’s index uses disproportionate rating scales, it favors green vegetables (1.5 points) or condiments (1.0 points) over the seeds (0.5) or those consumed in soups (0.75 points). The scale of da Silva et al. (2006) is inflexible (low value =1, high value = 2) in the measurement of preference or frequency of use. Joshi et al. (2015) include some good parameters related to food security, such as the commercial value and the existence of processed products; however, their scales are inflexible and the selection of the priority species takes into account only the value of the general index.
Due to the low presence of edible oil in hard-currency stores in 2006 and the need of knowing their actual demand in the Cuban market, it became necessary to undertake a study of the levels of availability of this product. This study was performed to measure the availability of this product in a phase of implementation of the Model. The study was divided into two stages, a first one that discusses the availability of oil in the country with all the commercial chains and a second one that focuses on Havana and Commercial Chain TRD Caribe. In the first stage the level of availability was high (90,8%), while in the second stage availability levels dropped significantly to 45,84%. The levels of availability are analyzed in various stages of the supply chain, showing that there are large differences in levels of availability in the same period of time for different actors in the supply chain, which leads to the conclusion that there are problems in the organization of the logistics of the edible oil supply chain, which generates low levels of availability meaning low levels at customers service.
During the industrial refining process of edible oils and the manufacture of oil- based foodstuff, contaminants such as 3- monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) fatty acid diesters can be produced. One hundred samples of different edible oils and related fatty food purchased from local Spanish markets were analyzed to evaluate the occurrence of these contaminants. Data of seven 3-MCPD diesters together with corresponding total 3-MCPD equivalents are presented. The procedure is based on a modified QuEChERS protocol followed by LC- MS/MS analysis. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and unrefined oils did not contain detectable levels of the target analytes. The highest levels of 3-MCPD diesters were found in palm oils, for 1,2-Dilinoleoyl-3-chloropropanediol (LILI) and 1-2- Bispalmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol (PAPA) with concentrations close to 10 mg kg -