Worldwide, strategic initiatives include national awareness pro- grams (Rwanda), cyber hygiene campaigns, and national cybersecur- ity awareness week (South Africa). To be effective, such initiatives need to identify the audience, topics, and means to deliver awareness and education. Some suggest that audience must include children, adults, and the elderly ; and also consider several areas of soci- ety: business, decision makers, and justice. Topics should address current cyber threats facing the domestic environment but should not ignore global trends. They should include basic information about the methods or techniques of attack (e.g., malware infection, social engineering), consequences (e.g., fraud and personal privacy invasion), and strategies for protection (e.g., patches & passwords good practices). Depending on the audience, strategies to deliver education already being used in developing countries include school curricula, radio (in Cameroon), TV, and web resources. As with for- mal education, the methods used to deliver awareness material are important to achieve the goals. Some candidate vehicles include: vid- eos, cartoons (in Brazil), and analogies taking advantage of existing mental models on the physical world to improve understanding of cybersecurity .
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Meanwhile, we have also been pursuing more specifically targeted social efforts. For instance, Eau de Paris has doubled its contribution to the Housing Solidarity Fund (Fonds de Solidarité pour le Logement), providing € 500,000 from now on for this fund that allocates aid to help disadvantaged families with their housing expenses, particularly concerning their water bill payments. Also, based on the assumption that the most socially responsible water is the water we do not waste, we will be installing 15,000 water-saving kits in social housing rental units, with support from Paris-Habitat. This measure has both social and environmental benefits, because it should lead to an average 15% drop in water consumption and savings of about € 100 a year per household in water and energy bills. Lastly, we are working on a large number of efforts to provide access to water in the streets, such as distributing jerry cans, cups, and maps for locating public fountains to homeless people through the associations; more recently, we handed out 4,000 water flasks in the summer. The 1,200 drinking water fountains located all around Paris provide access to free, high-quality water for everyone.
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The Performance Indicators of the fourth column in Table 3, above, are specific, measurable statements which serve to identifying the performance required to demonstrate attainment of a learning outcome. They also serve to describe what students can be expected to do, learn and engage in during the course. Evidence of performance level also needs to be described, commonly on a four-point scale equivalent to terms such as ‘Exemplary’, ‘Effective’, ‘Developing’, and ‘Ineffective,’ and are usually presented in the form of a rubric. Normally, two or three indicators are used at different points on the course to assess performance on each learning outcome. Rubrics or performance descriptors serve not only for evaluation guidance but also help provide clear task descriptions for learners, and useful feedback about their strengths and weaknesses.
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Within the curricular design of the course, these topics make up content units that are then practised with respect to different areas of specialization (health, media, sports, technological advances, politics…). Thus, the introduction of vocabulary or of certain aspects related to the environment is perfectly suited as an area of possible specialization to be practised in class over the course of several sessions. In terms of the assessment of these activities, since this assessment is continuous, the professor may assign a relative grade depending on how much time is devoted to the block during the course. With respect to student profiles, the first activities – specialized vocabulary and technology – are meant for intermediate level SLA students or beginning translators, while the final activities are better directed at advanced SLA and translation students. In terms of methodology, the model followed is that proposed by specialists in translator and interpreter training from the project financed by the European Union – a project in which I have been an active member – Building Mutual Trust, Framework project for Implementing EU Common standards in Legal Interpreting and Translation (JLS/2007/JLS/219) (www.lr.mdx.ac.uk/mutual-trust/mtdocs/antwerp-report.pdf).
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The knowledge and expertise made available by the IOC to the cities is reflected in the projects put forward by the 2016 Candidate Cities which are all of an extremely high level and demonstrate detailed planning and comprehensive strategies in technical and operational matters, as well as many other areas including sustainability, the environment, accessibility and integrated city development. It has been clearly demonstrated that investments in Olympic bids will
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Most of the models that have guided the educational processes since the development of education in the United States, have been thought from the standpoint of uniformity; with the guiding principal that states that there must be a single common culture and to develop it, there must be a process of assimilation into this culture. School has forced students to adopt cultural patterns often alien to their own (Banks, 2002). Those belonging to ethnic origin, have been forced to fit into the dominant society, leaving aside, their customs, their ways of learning, their dress and their language, being all these vital aspects of their culture, causing a disorientation with negative consequences, such as stress, cultural uprooting and low self-esteem, among other social problems (Ommi, 2000).
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After the conquest of Greece by Rome in 146 BC, a period of decline began which ended with the Games being abolished. In 393 AD, Emperor Theodosius I, who had converted to Christianity, decided to abolish all pagan cults and centres. And thus the ancient Olympic Games were abolished after more than 1,000 years of existence. After the the Games were abolished, Olympia suffered acts of vandalism. The site disappeared little by little through earthquakes and floods; it sank into oblivion. In 1766, the site was rediscovered by Englishman Richard Chandler, but it was only in 1875 that archaeological digs were carried out by the Germans (with the approval of the Greek authorities), thus allowing the ruins of Olympia to be rediscovered. Later, these discoveries contributed to inspiring Pierre de Coubertin, who created the Games of the modern era.
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In the process of learning, foreign students build their own strategy of behavior differently. Some are more passive, they want more attention. In the process of adaptation, individual characteristics are inherent in the national character - patience, the ability to endure life’s difficulties, enterprise, striving for the goal. However, due to the peculiarities of division into “one’s own” and “others”, the value hierarchy of a sense of national pride, superiority complicates entry into the foreign culture environment. This predisposes rather to accommodation or pseudo-adaptation. Some are more independent, efficient, cautious, persevering; they are characterized by cognitive practicality, conscientiousness, punctuality, accuracy, diligence, technical mentality.
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Therefore, it would be more accurate to state that different socioecological regimes vary just relatively from one another. As much as an anti-‐‑essentialist view of nature is pertinent, lest we overlook meaningful differences between separate sociohistorical contexts, it can also make us forget how useful an species viewpoint can be when making sense of the human habitation of the world. However, a neutral viewpoint should be adopted when considering the history of humanity as an species, a front in which survival and population increase over time are enough indications of success. Needless to say, a different perspective is opened when normative criteria are introduced, so that the point of view of the species is replaced by that of a moral being that considers the effect of her behavior on other, nonhuman, creatures. This perspective enables us to moralize the socionatural relationship, thus giving a different meaning to animal extinction or suffering. One species' success is another's catastrophe. On his part, in an important work published last year, Erle Ellis (2015) argues that ecological patterns or processes across the Earth cannot be explained anymore without considering human role in them, so that we should start devising an “anthroecology” that fully integrates humanity into ecology. Moreover, he adds that
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Some research perspectives on entrepreneurship education A considerable number of varieties of topics approaches and directions are refl ected in the papers published around the thematic of entrepreneurship education, both conceptual and empirical. An interesting survey of entrepreneurship education research published between 1985 and 1994, based in leading academic journals, was conducted by Gormon, Hanlon and King (1997). They suggested that the central theme in the research they reviewed was the extent to which formal education can contribute to entrepreneurship. They argued that the existing empirical research published, during the time period of their review seems to suggest a consensus among researchers that entrepreneurship can be taught and that entrepreneurial attributes can be positively infl uenced by educational programmes.
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In 1904, Besant wrote a pamphlet on The Education of Indian Girls to serve as «the basis of a national movement for education of girls» (Besant, 1904, p. 1). In this pamphlet she gave a detailed outline of the content of «Indian’ girls» education. Annie Besant’s Ideas on education of girls were highly gendered. Her views on girls’ education echoed the prevalent patriarchal hegemony of the orthodox Hindu society. Though she advocated for the education of girls «but there was a lack of real commitment» (Taylor, 1992, p. 331). Of hundreds of lectures which she delivered in India on education only two to three lectures were dedicated to the girls’ education. Even these lectures were heavily laden with gendered notion with regard to the nature of education «suitable» for girls. She favoured such an education for «Indian girls» that would prepare her for her future role as a housewife. She was completely against that education of girls which would make her competent for getting a job in Government department. Besant presumed the future life of an Indian girl within the confines of household therefore she advocated for a brief period of school life for Indian girls with no exposure to western field of knowledge. She outright rejected the education of «Indian girls» on western lines because it would unsex woman (Besant quoted in Forbes, 2012, p. 44). She argued,
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Introduction: Emotional intelligence is a very important issue in education that is separated by cognitive intelligence in the primary education classrooms of the Spanish educational system. A lot of studies show that being emotionally competent makes students acquire greater self-esteem and greater cognitive development. Moreover, the current Educational law focuses exclusively on cognitive intelligence, obviating any type of emotion. Aim: What is intended is to expand the vocabulary in the students, which is experienced in the benefit of cooperation and work intragroup and intergroup relations, as well as development and empathy, work life and well-being. Methods: In the present study, it has been decided to work on the development of the emotional intelligence through two activities which have a playful nature. Conclusions: Given the studies that we have done so far on emotional intelligence, we believe that educating emotionally in all areas is important for the complete and integral development of the student body.
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It is instructive to note that, according to biomimicry supporters, the best (but most often the only) way to imitate living systems is to measure and enforce their monetary value. “Give a price to nature!” was, in fact, one of the slogans of Grenelle de l’environne- ment, an ambitious, world-wide celebrated and eventually failing program – launched in 2007 by newly elected French President Nicolas Sarkozy – whose main goal was to make environmental policies the cornerstone of a new model of economic develop- ment, no longer based on a quantitative increase of the volume of exchanges but rather based on a valorisation of the quality of life. One of the most interesting aspects of the debates surrounding the event was the argument according to which by considering raw materials “gratuitous”, what is obtained is a series of “deliberate distortions in the marketplace.” 30 Here we find ourselves in the very core of neoliberal governmentality:
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In terzo luogo, rivolgendosi alle pagine deweyane ed in particolare alle loro più o meno esplicite suggestioni educative, è lenta a morire la tendenza a cercare in esse più che strumenti di riflessione in generale, strumenti fecondi per la vita pratica della scuola o per la sua riorganizzazione e il suo rinnovamento. E Democracy and Education pare, in certi passaggi, prestarsi a questa operazione, che certo, però, non può prescindere da una lettura comparata con il precedente School and Society e soprattutto con il saggio più tardo Experience and Education. In questo numero, troveremo testimonianza anche di questa abitudine, che pure ha dato nel tempo interessanti frutti nel campo dei modelli educativi, con i contributi di Suzana Miovska-Spaseva e di Erika Natacha Fernandes de Andrade e Marcus Vinicius da Cunha.
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On the other hand, we have seen some student teachers plan how they are going to control a class without considering the appropriateness, quality and progression of content. If a student teacher has not planned how to organise and manage the lesson, the pupils may not be clear about what they are to do and what is expected of them; therefore the teacher has to spend considerable time organising and managing and cannot deliver the lesson in the way intended. On the other hand, if the student teacher concentrates on organising and managing the class, the pupils are likely to achieve little and what they do achieve is likely to be of low quality.
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With regard to district heating boilers, which are typically located within or close to populated areas, the very beneficial effect of district heating on the local air quality should be pointed out. A few large and well maintained boilers with flue-gas cleaning and with high stacks can replace a large number of individual heating installations with low stacks and often poorly controlled combustion. As a result, the total emissions of particulates, CO and unburned hydrocarbons can be considerably reduced. With modern technology, there does not need to be any appreciable increase in SO2 and NO2 emissions either, even if the fuel quality in the district heating boilers is lower than that of the fuels it replaces in individual heating. With the same quantity of total emissions, the high stacks result in a higher degree of dilution before the pollutants reach the ground surface. The effect of this is that local air quality in the cities, towns and villages heated with district heating boilers is far better than it would have been if individual heating alone is used.
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The Conservative government, in power from 1979-97, introduced internal markets in health and welfare services, including social services. Though never comprehensively applied, market principles were established in health and welfare and their influence persisted through the change of government to New Labour in 1997, apparently with tacit approval of the new regime. The original rationale for this radical shift in the organisation of welfare was that it would achieve better value for money and increase transparency and accountability (Great Britain, Department of Health, 1989, paragraph 1.11). In particular, services for vulnerable adults were based on the notion of the ‘purchaser-provider split’. The intention was that, in a new, mixed economy of welfare, local authorities would cease to both assess individual need and provide services in response. Instead, as purchasers, they would commission services from voluntary and private sector organisations to meet the needs of individuals. They would retain responsibility for assessment of need, but act as enablers of service provision and development rather than providing the services themselves. More clearly than ever before the social worker’s task was either as purchaser - assessing need and negotiating provision - or, as provider, working with individuals according to the service contract negotiated. The established pattern of through-care, from assessment to intervention, in social work practice was dramatically challenged. The long term consequence has been that the task of local authority social work, where most newly qualified social workers are employed, has focussed on assessment of need and contracting for appropriate services. Contact is usually limited to initial assessment of need and subsequent reviews. Sustained intervention for support, change or ongoing care is delivered by the service provider according to contract. The consequent potential for professional discontinuity concerns many social workers. These changes have increased emphasis on budgetary issues in social work practice, including in direct work with service users ( see, for example, Corby 2003). An emphasis on assessment of risk has also been encouraged in an increasingly risk averse society.
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In the proposed architecture (see Figure 1) the orches- tration service exposes a single entry point to the DNSE3. This service itself offers a REST API that can be called using any HTTP client (as a web browser, for example). Therefore, any third party can build a text or graphics based client that suits their needs and, in fact, during the development of the prototype, we have written our own command line clients. However, for the educational purposes that motivated the design of DNSE3, a visual web interface has been designed and implemented, as illustrated in Figure 6. After the user has logged in, he or she can see all the simulation projects, select one to see more details or edit it, start simulations, follow their progress, pause and resume then, analyze simple results or retrieve data files to be used with external visualiza- tion tools, etc. This web application has been developed with the Bootstrap framework , in the search of com- patibility with different browsers and devices, particu- larly smartphones and tables, which are popular among students.
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Financial implications of college dropout are broad, but so too are the potential psychological and emotional consequences of failure to complete one’s degree. Smith (1982) further explored Campbell’s dropout-psychological strain hypothesis that posits that even after two decades have passed after such an educational setback, there are still lingering negative effects on psychological well-being primarily due to the gap between expected and actual personal success. While the original dropout-psychological strain hypothesis did not distinguish significant differences in psychological consequences of failure to complete a degree, Smith’s research found more support for Campbell’s hypothesis among graduate than undergraduate dropouts. This is somewhat expected given that graduate students presumably have a much more specific, defined career path in mind than undergraduates who may be exploring career options as they seek to earn a bachelor’s degree.
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To some, radical environmental consciousness is thus linked to cosmology, instead of just to biology, constituting a form of alternative, emergent spirituality, a proposition as rich in possibilities as in dangers—both Taylor and Gottlieb do not see the sacralisation of nature as immune from the dangers of fundamentalism that may beset any other type of religious persuasion (Gottlieb 24-25; Taylor 217-220). To others, however, the problems of dark green ecospirituality range even further. As already mentioned earlier, the Deep Ecological holism pervading much dark green religion has been attacked for its erasure of "the concrete world of particulars and relationships" (Barnhill, "Relational Holism" 80) and its privileging of an undifferentiated self that identifies with a biotic community more than it engages with invidual beings (Marti Kheel, qtd. in Barnhill, "Relational Holism" 79). A far more unforgiving criticism sees dark green ecospirituality as automatically synonymous with fundamentalism and antirationality per se, a position most recently voiced again in France by the philosopher (and novelist) Pascal Bruckner. Le fanatisme de l'Apocalypse. Sauver la Terre, punir l'Homme (2011) has little to say about the danger of recuperation and commodification of ecospirituality; by contrast, though, this polemic essay has much to assert about what it considers to be "apocalyptic fanaticism" informed by the fear of climate change combined with a naive, idealised "New Age" vision of the non-human world as more benign in relation to the human one than it actually is. In short, Bruckner sees dark green ecospirituality and its—in his eyes, undue—reverence for nature as a form of asceticism that substitutes one oppressive, personal god for another, more impersonal deity, while surreptitiously maintaining the patterns of penitence and punishment of conventional religion (Bruckner 201-238 ).
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