Secondly, students can do some tasks for the educational center or institution. For example, students of computer science could do maintenance of computers, any student could help at the library or paint a wall. There are particular tasks, for each institution, that add value to it at the same time that allow it to save some money. With this added value, the institution gains prestige because it is able to provide more services and better installations, attracting more students in future. At this point it is very difficult that all money can be recovered, but the global institution is strengthen with more students. Note that money discount to student debts should be equal to or greater than savings from the job. It is the way for avoiding to start a situation of exploitation of students.
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where the sustainable development is reached. The environmental sustainability pursues a respectful growth with the environment. On the other hand, the social sustainability is based on the strategies of social justice in the world at the present time, with a view to the future generations. Finally, the economic sustainability deals with searching an economic development more balanced and stable at long-term, ie, the Economy intends to maximize the human well-being within the limitations of the capital and the existent technologies. The Ecology insists specially on preserving the integrity of the ecological subsystems with the purpose of securing the stability of the worldwide ecosystem, its units of account being physical, not monetary. Finally, the Sociology stresses that the human beings are the key agents, their sketch of social organisation being essential for finding feasible solutions in order to achieve the sustainable development. All things considered, the interaction among the economic, ecologic and social sustainability means arising the searching of a balance among the economic efficiency (the most favourable allocation), the social equity (the most favourable distribution) and the respect for the environment.
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CENTRO is an urban model for higher education in design, architecture, digital media and film in Mexico City. It focuses on the critical role of creativity in analyzing and resolving problems of varied complexity in diverse contexts, using a human centered and system-oriented approach. Through a specialized and personalized educational model, CENTRO forms creative experts with a socially conscious, sustainable, and entrepreneurial perspective. It offers 7 undergraduate and 20 graduate degree programs to future generations of creative leaders in Mexico and beyond.
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For this reason, we have to implement this trans- disciplinary and biomimetic vision in all pedagogical contexts of schools and universities to strengthen the links between education and sustainability. This cosmodern mindset promotes the creation of new socio-economic models with planetary character to feel-think-act in harmony with co-evolutionary pro- cesses of nature. Biomimicry is a meeting point between the societies called “primitive” and the so- called “hyper-technological” because it has a spiri- tual and ecological corpus playing the symbiogenetic role between nature and human culture. Thus, the past and the future are present in the spiritual and scientific research process, complementing a common reality shaped by the undivided wholeness of con- sciousness, matter, and energy . “Just like trans- disciplinarity, biomimicry-inspired problem solving, with a deep emphasis on how humans from all walks of life can learn from nature, focuses on the pro- cesses and energy flows inherent in deep, complex interactions among people’s internal world and their external world, mediated by such factors as culture, art, religion, and spirituality”, said McGregor [7: 63]. Transdisciplinarians refer to the latter as the Hid- den Third, the place full of potential where people’s experiences, interpretations, descriptions, represen- tations, images, and formulas meet. Then, we have to combine a framework of convergence between sci- entific knowledge that our outer physical universe offers us, with the spiritual wisdom of the inner emotional universe of mankind . According to N´ u˜ nez , the ancient philosophical traditions of indigenous peoples show us that psychosomatic ex-
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The integration of knowledge, skills, and values in the plans and programs of each academic degree is also a basic feature (within the education area). Wiek, Withycombe, and Redman, (2011) conducted a thorough review of the competences used in ESD and methods for their development. The five key competencies proposed were: systems-thinking, anticipatory, normative, strategic, and interpersonal competences. Nonetheless, other authors, such as Roorda (2010), proposed six areas of competence: responsibility, emotional intelligence, system orientation, future orientation, personal involvement, and action skills, highly valued and used (Lambrecths, Mulà Pons de Vall, & Van den Haute, 2013). According to Ségalas et al. (2009), there is some consensus on the primary meaning of the competencies to be developed but not in the description, level of acquisition, teaching, and learning processes. It is, therefore, necessary to a certain homogeneity criteria permitting greater harmoniousness, comparison and transferability.
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To generate sustainability plans from the diagnosis, based on dif- ferent tools and approaches, and the prioritization focused on a sus- tainability score, potential improvement and in cost-effectiveness is a contribution in itself. It can be replicated in different contexts in any other institution. Measures proposed in this paper have served to demonstrate that, if properly prioritized, increasing the sustainability of universities does not have to come with a high economic cost but quite the opposite. Of course, these measures are theoretical proposals that will have to be carried out, checked and then evaluated regard- ing effectiveness and efficiency provided herein. This line of research, with a precise economic quantification, and following the implemen- tation, and it's end result will be interesting for future knowledge in this research area. Based on this assessment, a strategic plan is easier to develop towards a sustainable university. The results demonstrate that it is not necessary to make a great financial effort to achieve a sub- stantial improvement on sustainability; it “only” requires a previous evaluation and planning of sustainability issues according to each SAT and to prioritize those measures towards a more sustainable university. For the proposed measures in this case study, absolute improvements between 20 and 40% in the overall sustainable score can be reached. To begin understanding one's own institution better and to have a more accurate diagnosis of the current situation of the university is essential towards an ESD. This descriptive study is an example that any HEI could follow as a first step towards a more sustainable university.
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One of the many concrete manifestations of the CELL is emerging in Argentina in the shape of a doctoral program that seeks to prepare societal change leaders with an understanding of and appreciation for the complexities of truly integral systemic innovation. The Doctoral Program in Leadership and Systemic Innova- tion (LaSI) at the Buenos Aires Institute of Technology (ITBA) is grounded in the study of how sociocultural change is linked to the dynamics of innovation (https://www.itba.edu.ar/doctoradoinnovacion/en.html). This program is designed to incorporate the learning frames of systems thinking, collective intelligence, dis- ruptive innovation, design thinking, biomimicry, and experimental prototyping in both course content as well as the structure and function of the evolutionary learn- ing community that constitutes the interactive student/faculty base of the program itself. Such an operational framework of coherence, consonance, and connection expresses the goal of LaSI learners to “be the systems you wish to see in the world.” A solid grounding in the applied epistemology of systems thinking and the sciences of complexity, along with a core didactic axiology of empathy-based learning, make it possible for students in this program to explain what they see and experience as well as to work with each other on collective meaning-making frames for shared decision taking. As a result, decisions and actions regarding social and technological innovations that help cope with and address the chal- lenges of change are taken from positions that are informed by feasible and desir- able visions for emerging futures—ones that are not only sustainable, but also desirable and even thrivable, as well.
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Abstract: This paper studies the process that led to the Argentine crisis. The crisis is understood as a major disappointment of previous expectations, indicated by widespread insolvencies and abrupt declines in consumption. The analysis concentrates on the sequence of public and private decisions, and the varying perceptions and policy incentives that motivated them. In the nineties Argentina searched for a new growth trend. During much of the period, the behavior of agents seemed to be based on the anticipation that current and future incomes could sustain a value of domestic spending much higher than in the past. The government was motivated to reinforce those expectations, for signaling and political economy reasons. The convertibility monetary regime not only provided a very visible nominal anchor, but also operated as a basic framework for financial contracts, mostly denominated in dollars. Dollar contracting implicitly presumed that the dollar value of incomes would support the servicing of debts. Despite precautionary measures, the reliance on the sustainability of the real exchange rate increased over time. In the late nineties exports stopped rising and the foreign supply of credit tightened. Facing these contraints, the economy contracted and the solvency of the government was put into question. The financial system was vulnerable both in the event of devaluation and that of a (large) deflation-cum-adjustment. As was implicit in its design and management, convertibility proved to have very large exit costs.
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graders´ Environmental Education for Sustainable Development through the teaching-learning process of the English subject The proposal is derived from the analysis of the syllabus, the contents of the units and their potentialities in favor of environmental education. The systems consist of 11 activities, one per unit, conceived from the simplest to the most complex ones. All the exercises were designed for controlled practice in which the students have to reproduce the communicative functions taught in the lessons and to practice the pronunciation of the vocabulary related to these communicative functions. Besides, at the end of almost all the activities designed the teacher leads his students to reflect on specific environmental issues and how they should show awareness, concern, skills, and action towards them.
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Sustainable development has an imperative value. It is not associated with a mere raise in the purchasing capacity. Human values help sustenance of life lived in quality terms. These are the values people respected and observed from generations by historical persons, families, and nations. Values like dharma (justice), satya (truth), karuna (kindness), dana (charity), samapatti (sharing of one’s prosperity), dhairya (bravery), swatantra (liberty), and swarajya (self-rule) are some eternal human values which really help people’s lives and sustenance of human societies. History evinced how certain people adhered to these values and saved nations from hunger and slavery. Mother Theresa, Mahatma Gandhi, Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King, and Nelson Mandela not simply remained in history but inspire even today. Yet, we live in a world of economic development departing ourselves to value-linked culture. Children are also being taught and brought up in this world of corporate education and consumerism, so they will suffer tomorrow with the way we up bring them. Gandhi’s idea of education rather helps the child and youth grow healthy and confidently. But Gandhi’s Nai Talim or new education is actually preceded by Gandhi’s insights on self-reliant youth, self-sufficient villages, respect for nature in view of the adverse effects of undue industrialization, urbanization, unemployment and moral decay of societies. Hence this paper attempts to show the intricate relation of child’ education with Gandhi’s moral precepts, protection of village life and environment to provide sustainable development.
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We recommend additional research examining the less-studied stakeholder groups, such as faculty, parents, and the general public, whose viewpoints traditionally have been less likely to be considered when defining quality in undergraduate education. Research could focus not only on how each group defines quality but also on how each group contributes to a quality undergraduate education experience. One group, faculty, has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers interested in quality in education, but clearly this is a group with high potential to influence the student experience. Future research could examine ways to work with current faculty members and doctoral students (future faculty) to improve the quality of undergraduate education, an area that could yield immense practical implications. Within each major stakeholder group, there are also countless subgroups that might emerge as worthy of attention. For example, when looking at students, future research could focus on students from underrepresented groups.
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Despite considerable economic and educational progress in several develop- ing regions, youth and children continue to face challenges in positive develop- ment. In Latin America, violence and exclusion continue to increase (Rivas, 2016). Something similar happens in Sub-Saharan African region, where youth devel- opmental challenges include low human capital investment outside of school, fe- male segregation, etc. (García and Fares, 2008). “Youth in Africa struggle with poor health conditions, including diseases …, unhealthy behavior, violence and substance abuse” (Gyimah-Brempong and Kimenyi, 2013, p. 13). Character edu- cation, deﬁ ned as “the deliberate effort to develop the virtues that enable us to lead fulﬁ lling lives and build a better world” (Lickona, 2004, p. 228), is an effective al- ternative to tackle some of those challenges. It promotes core ethical values (Sma- gorinsky and Taxel, 2005), builds prosocial skills (Lassiter and Perry, 2009, pp. 54; 73), fosters higher levels of educational outcomes and higher levels of expressions of love, integrity, compassion, and self-discipline (Jeynes, 2019). However, char- acter development programs are effective if include program evaluation and staff development that facilitate educators to adapt the programs to students’ needs and contexts (Berkowitz and Bier, 2004; Lickona, 1996). Character education programs should be tailored for the population they serve: “one-size-ﬁ ts-all approach does not meet the many diverse needs of schools and communities, and can potentially exacerbate problems” (Lewis, Robinson and Hayes, 2011, p. 229).
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Through the implementation of this project, the Argentina National Academy of Science prepared university level teaching materials on the management and conservation of wetland ecosystems and produced a book on the ecology, conservation and sustainable management of Lake Mar Chiquita, a Ramsar site. The book, titled “Bañados del Río Dulce y Laguna Mar Chiquita”, is a compilation of current knowledge about this Ramsar site and the result of the collaboration of 34 authors who synthesized the existing knowledge on this ecosystem, providing a detailed evaluation of the environmental risk in the region, with particular reference to current projects for water extraction from the rivers feeding Mar Chiquita. The publication presents a wide range of information, including issues related to the conservation and sus- tainable use of the wetland, as well as historical infor- mation, physical and biological descriptions and human interactions with the site (past and present). The book was launched in April 2007 at the headquarters of the National Academy of Science located in Miramar, the largest city within the Ramsar site. It was then distribu- ted in schools, museums, libraries and other public insti- tutions in Mar Chiquita.
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When the EPRDF came to power after the overthrow of the Derg régime in Ethiopia, it brought with it a strong political commitment to ensuring the food security of the country. This commitment was born out of the experience of famine during the civil war, but also reflected the ideological emphasis of the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), the dominant component of the EPRDF, on rural development in general and smallholder agriculture in particular. The new government also needed to respond to pressure from the international financial institutions, who were calling for policies which reflected their own emphasis on export-led growth and encouragement of the private sector. At the same time, an influential actor-network led by agricultural economists and technologists from the World Bank and consultants linked to the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) was seeking an opportunity to promote its vision of a technology-led ‘African Green Revolution’. This combination of factors resulted in the adoption of ‘Agricultural development-led industrialisation’, or ADLI, as the government’s overall development strategy. ADLI emphasises capital-led agricultural intensification and its potential spin-offs for the urban economy, and ensures that policy initiatives which promote ‘Green Revolution’ approaches receive a much higher priority than those emphasising sustainable agriculture or rural livelihood diversification. The link with ADLI has helped to maintain a high level of political support for the national agricultural extension strategy of ‘aggressive technology transfer’ which has now been developed under the influence of the NGO Sasakawa Global 2000 (see Box A8). This, in turn, limits the scope for outsiders to attempt to promote policy change. A donor agency representative interviewed by IDS researchers summed up the implications of this situation by describing the agricultural extension programme as ‘the one policy we can’t do anything about’.
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Assuming a progressive, rather than aggressive evolution towards Future Internet, the Future Content Networks (FCN)  group has proposed the EFIA architecture that consists of different virtual hierarchies of nodes (overlays, clouds or virtual groups of nodes), with different functionality (Figure 3). This model may be easily scaled to multiple levels of hierarchy (even mesh instantiations, where nodes may belong in more than one layers) and multiple variations, based on the available level of information and service delivery requirements and constrains.
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and that systematisation results would not influence future funding since none would be available for the projects. Most participants understood that the benefits of participation lay in the potential to create broader impacts based on their project experiences. However, a few had hoped that partici- pation might bring future funding, approaching the exercise as a necessary additional burden rather than an opportunity to generate learning for their own ends. This is an unfortu- nate consequence of the inequitable power relations between funders and NGOs.
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2.14. The overall thrusts for educational development in Malaysia is based upon increasing access to education, increasing equity in educa- tion, increasing quality in education and improving efficiency and effec- tiveness of education management. The purpose of this paper is to share the implementation of educational development in Malaysia and its implications to national development. It discussed the phases of educational development in Malaysia to enable the readers to gain insight into the multifaceted role of education vis-à-vis the many fac- tors that influence change and Malaysia’s recent initiatives in educa- tion. The discussion will stem from Malaysia’s National Vision and the role of education in attaining this vision. This paper will also focus on the interrelation of the strategies with the overall education development thrusts so that every dimension of an individual’s development potential is taken into consideration.
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The primary raw material used in this study was a Colombian granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) from the factory Acerías Paz del Río, and metakaolin produced in the laboratory by calcination of Colombian kaolin containing minor traces of quartz and dickite. Chemical composition along with physical properties of these raw materials are given elsewhere (Bernal et al. 2012e). The alkaline activating solutions were formulated by blending a commercial sodium silicate solution with 32.4 wt.% SiO 2 , 13.5 wt.% Na 2 O and 54.1 wt.% H 2 O, and 50 wt.% NaOH solution, to reach the desired activation conditions, which are specified throughout the paper. Binders were prepared at activator concentrations of 4 wt.% Na 2 O and 5 wt.% Na 2 O, expressed relative to the mass of slag. For the production of concrete, crushed gravel and river sand were used as coarse and fine aggregates. Detailed formulation information for the concretes can be found in Rodríguez et al. (2008), Bernal et al. (2011c), Bernal et al. (2012e).
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This article presents partial research results in seeking to answer - how to constitute the formation of the Paraná’s Environmental Education Watershed Research Network. It is intended to search and analyze the articulatory elements of environmental education and social-environmental practice, in the public teaching universities of the State of Paraná located in these watersheds. The environmental education organization is based on seven cores, each core is related with the seven Higher Education Institutions of the State, from mobilization to integrate the actions of academicals environmental education. This network has been active in environmental education research organization and public policies within the watershed, focusing in the environmental impacts and risks in cities and the countryside, aiming the shaping of the culture of environmental preservation and global sustainability commitment citizenship. The methodological reference organization is built in the action research approach. It sought to articulate research and extension, integrated with teaching. Partial results of this research show that Paraná’s Higher Education Institutions are building
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Several studies have determined that the impact of environmental damage on our environment is increasing. The use of fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides are negatively affecting the health and welfare of consumers. For the above, it is necessary to promote an agriculture according to the benefit of the human being and without harming the environment. Is here that the concept of urban and peri-urban agriculture is born, where the use of nutrients and micronutrients is encouraged through the Extensive use of organic manure "Building an organic matter base is essential for improving poor soils. It contains nutrients in more complex forms, which are released for plant use after the organic material decomposes (Cofie, et al. 2010).
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