The context concept is ambiguous and multifunctional, therefore, it is possible to replace it with a significant number of various special terms, which often happens in scientific texts. In particular, Kasavin (2008) proposed a line for the development of contextualism as a methodological program of research in philosophy. A number of Western scholars developed this philosophical approach in their works: Dewey, Lewis, Cohen, Morris, Unger, Pepper et al. They considered the context as a situation or process that determine understanding and interpretation one or another phenomenon. Kasavin (2008) considered the context in its broad meaning, as a set of conditions for interpreting various cultural phenomena and solving cognitive problems on this basis, i.e. as a methodological term. To achieve the goal, it is necessary to conduct a comparative study, analyzing the origin or formation of vocational education systems, the functioning and development of vocational education systems, the effectiveness of the vocational education system. Therefore, in order to conduct a comparison of vocational education systems formation in Germany and Turkey, the main context elements were used, i.e. the formation of vocational education history; the influence of religion on human attitudes to work; the role of national traditions in the work culture formation; the state role in educational and social policies formation, in economics and the labor market.
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This paper presents a component-based architecture for the development of web- based education systems. The architecture presents a component-based approach based in the separation of modeling concerns or perspectives. This approach has several advantages over traditional web-based educational systems. First, its simplicity makes it easier to understand the system. Second, each component encapsulates a design decision. This facilitates the customizing or replacing of individual components. For example, developers can extend the process component. Thirdly, it is possible to add advanced features by adding new components.
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Virtual reality also offers significant opportunity in the area of simulation. Laboratories completely simulated through this technology allow interaction between the student and the devices (Hoffmann, Meisen, & Jeschke, 2014). Obvious direct benefits include that measuring devices would be updated with only a new version of the environment. Students would have the opportunity to work with the latest technology without having to have the physical elements that would clearly represent a higher investment for the institutions. Taking this analysis further, the cost savings in spaces would be huge. The underutilized spaces within the centers would be significantly reduced and would be replaced by "multi-laboratory" rooms in which, according to the subject, one laboratory or another could be accessed (Lindgren, Tscholl, Wang, & Johnson, 2016). These products are already becoming available on the market. The development of these products, as it cannot be otherwise, will depend on the commitment that the traditional education sector makes for them.
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T his review and discussion focused on surveys and reports regarding the rate of foreign language acquisition and attainment within national compulsory education systems, academic analyses of the results obtained, and national programmes and initiatives designed to address the shortcomings revealed in them. The proposed reasons for lower-than-expected acquisition and attainment in foreign language learning within countries including the European Union, Colombia, Vietnam and Ecuador were reviewed in detail. These reasons, and the measures undertaken as a result to remedy these flaws, were evaluated through a comparison with recent academic research relating to these factors, and through com- parison between the different experiences revealed in the surveys and reports. These comparisons found that some of the measures undertaken were fit for purpose and were likely to yield some improvements in acquisition rate, although to a lesser extent than those projected by some of the national programmes, while identifying some aspects which have been overlooked. The conclusion highlighted in which aspects of the teaching and learning of foreign languages requires greater focus is needed in order to effect the desired changes.
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Collaborative teaching and learning in higher education is certainly the secret for the academic success of students, academic staff, curriculum and institutions . But the big question is how to effectively mobilize the actors of the process for contributing to the new teaching and learning paradigm. In fact, recent trends and meta-trends in educational theory and practice in higher education emphasise collaborative teaching and learning for students and academic staff construction or co-construction of knowledge and pedagogical and technological innovations in teacher education systems . This point is very important for different actors, mainly to the students and academic staff. One important issue that we should focus our attention on deals with the following question: how do lecturers and students manage the different problems these learning situations pose and what do they actually do and must they do in the future? In this context, the learning communities assume a relevant importance. Recently, there is a growing attention to the development of on-line learning environments, which easily allow “partnerships between academics across faculties and disciplines; partnerships across multiple campuses; and partnerships online regardless of location” .
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work in the better way they can (Klassen & Chiu, 2010). This satisfaction has received little attention in the previous literature and it has been considered as part of the education systems’ output, following the arguments of many authors as Kumar (2014), who found a positive relationship between teaching effectiveness at primary level and job satisfaction, meaning that teachers who were highly satisfied with their jobs were the most effective ones in teaching. Allinder (1994) highlighted that those teachers with high levels of planning and organization were open to new ideas and more willing to experiment with new methods, in order to better meet the needs of their students (Cousins & Walker, 1995). They also exhibit enthusiasm for teaching (Allinder, 1994), what can have a positive influence on students’ academic achievement and their own sense of efficacy (Podell & Soodak, 1993; Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001). As it has been highlighted, students’ academic achievement is not the only relevant output of education systems, but also their capacity to make teachers to be satisfied with their work. In addition, as previously highlighted, the distribution of Spanish students’ academic achievement is skewed to the left, something which denotes that Spanish students are poor achievers on average – as they there is a high proportion who does not get basic levels of academic achievement OECD (2016). Therefore, in the second line of research of this teachers’ chapter, alternative ways of measuring education outputs, different from academic achievement, are defined and studied simultaneously to academic achievement, i.e., the percentage of students who did not reach basic learning standards and teachers’ working satisfaction. Hence, these two outputs, together with students’ academic achievement, are going to be analysed for the Spanish education system, in order to get a balance between them, as requiring a maximum amount for all of them – minimum in the case of students not reaching a basic level of academic achievement – would be rather unrealistic.
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Abstract: The paper will describe the development of universities in Latvia from 1950’s to nowadays. The higher education system experienced changes along with the political transformations of the country. Latvia was incorporated in the Soviet Union in 1940, regained its independence in 1991 and joined EU in 2004. Since 2012 Latvia is a fully fledged participant of the European Higher Education Area. The paper will describe the transformations of universities in Latvia from the perspective of a cultural learning theory and transfer of knowledge defined by Gita Steiner-Khamsi. It will provide the reference to an external education model, its modification and metamorphosis into a local educational model. Latvia as a small country and relatively new culture had found itself in the situation to learn from the cultural experiences of countries that have longer experience of democracy and had to overtake the ideas of the education systems from other countries and adopt them to the local needs.
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In short, transnational studies carried out in the History of Education are essential to understand the construction of national education systems from their creation and subsequent development (Bachi, Fuchs & Rousmariene, 2014; Duedhal, 2016; Fuchs & Roldan Vera, 2019; Martín García & Delgado Gómez-Escalonilla, 2020; McCulloch, Goodson & González-Delgado, 2020). The significance of the Cold War, the Theory of Modernization, Progress and Development, international organizations or diplomatic relations constitute central elements from which to understand why countries with such diverse political processes developed similar educational and curricular projects in different historical epochs, at least in terms of their theoretical approaches and experimental designs. To a certain extent, this framework also allows us to understand the conceptual logic on which these educational systems operated and to understand how and why certain «normalizing» educational policies have been produced since the Second World War. In other words, it can be a good way to identify and build a new mosaic in local educational-historical relations from interdependence, capturing and analyzing complexities, exchanges and influences, to enrich the important singularities of each of the territorial units that until now we have studied autonomously.
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More recent solutions have employed distributed systems in their mobile learning activities through software agents in order to strengthen the individual and group tasks (Khan et al., 2011), (Garcia et al., 2012). These platforms receive the name of multiagent systems, also known as MAS (Wooldridge, 2002). The agents in a MAS are autonomous, which allow them to complete tasks individually, but also possess the necessary mechanisms to enable communication among agents, thus facilitating group activities (Haesevoets et al., 2013). The agent autonomy provides a chance to offer some levels of adaptation to fit the learning activities into environment context and users’ settings (Andronico et al., 2003). Even though resources are distributed among the MAS platform, the current approaches are focused on sharing static resources (like multimedia content, documents, etc.), and not on sharing other more complex resources (e.g. hardware resources like camera, GPS sensors, processing capabilities, etc.). This still becomes a limitation to use specific hardware components that are not locally present in a device, and restricts the selection of mobile devices.
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We believe this dilemma of choosing the ‘ lesser evil ’ is false, because a third option has begun to manifest as both a desirable and feasible alterna- tive. This option is premised on the notion that the ‘ complexity barrier ’ can only be crossed with a collective breakthrough where a signi ﬁ cant pro- portion (a critical mass) of the human population shifts to a new state of proactive co-evolution within the technosphere. The main precondition of this scenario is that such a society would be, in the words of Buckminster Fuller, ‘ working for 100% of humanity … without ecological damage or disadvantage of anyone ’ . This is the ‘ wisdom- based society ’ scenario (as it will only occur through cultivation of collective wisdom) or ‘ thrivability ’ scenario (achieving the state of ‘ thriving ’ or ‘ﬂ ourishing ’ for all life — human and other — and the life support systems of the biosphere as a whole). It is this scenario that pro- vides the greatest hope for humanity, although it will require a ‘ revolution of consciousness ’ . Technological advancement is necessary but not suf ﬁ cient to the development of individual and collective potential. The main risk that this sce- nario aims to prevent is one of the ‘ dehumaniza- tion ’ of people, relying more on (digitalized) protocols, processes and structures, than on our collective humanistic drive to evolve, connect and thrive. (See Figure 1 for the outline of the four dominant scenarios. 2 )
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The administration of IPRs involves receiving applications for patents, trade- marks, industrial designs, utility models, integrated circuits and plant varieties, their formal examination, granting or reg- istration of the IPRs, publication, and pro- cessing of possible oppositions. As IPRs expire after specified periods of time, fur- ther steps are required to renew them and document the decision. While all the pro- cedures require properly trained staff and modern automated information systems, by far the most challenging aspect is the examination of patent applications. Some patent applications run to thousands of pages of technical data, in a wide array of technology fields, and substantive exami- nation involves both professional/techni- cal competence and access to sophisti- cated international patent information computer databases. Such institutional capacity requirements are way beyond the reach of most IPR administration agencies in the developing world (though China, for example, has world class patent exam- ination capabilities). Developing coun- tries can and often do instead opt for a patent registration regime or join a system of regional or international cooperation.
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The syllabi do not tranversalize the language and the content, yet the teacher of first grade gives all the classes in Embera: this causes that the institution does not reach to an IBE approach since Ministry of Education demands to the school to work on Estándares Básicos de Competencia in the fundamental areas. Therefore, all the syllabi are planned according to the guidelines and the standards provided by MEN, so the possibilities to mediate the content is limited due to the fact that ICFES measures what the institutions achieve. Thus, despite the fact that MEN seeks educational quality by standardizing the competences, this is not actually aligned to what Ley 115 prioritizes for ethnoeducation inasmuch as it must dialogue with the standard canon of knowledge and the ancestral knowledge.
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Two recent efforts at comprehensive innovation in engineering edu- cation are those launched by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Engineering Education Coalitions (EECs; SRI International, 2000) and the revision of the Engineering Accreditation Criteria by ABET, Inc. (ABET, 2004b). The EECs addressed program structure, curricular con- tent, and pedagogy. Formal evaluations of the various coalitions have been mixed to negative in their judgments of their impact and effective- ness, noting in particular the difficulty of achieving large-scale adoption of the new educational materials developed by the EECs. In a sobering observation, given the desire to impact the education of the engineer of 2020, Froyd (see paper in Appendix A) suggests that it might take several decades for an EEC approach to succeed. On the other hand, comments from many participants in the EECs have been much more positive regarding their impact, noting that the EECs catalyzed a number of systemic changes including the early introduction of engineering and engineering design into the freshman/sophomore curriculum at many institutions and the adoption of continual assessment programs at the course, department, and college levels. They also lead to increased involvement of engineering faculty in the education of freshman and sophomore students; the use, for engineering faculty, of new pedagogical modes; and the introduction of programs such as reverse engineering or dissection.
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Abstract— The paper proposes lab-work for learning fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) in mechatronic systems. These skills are important for engineering education because FDD is a key capability of competitive processes and products. The intended outcome of the lab-work is that students become aware of the importance of faulty conditions and learn to design FDD strategies for a real system. To this end, the paper proposes a lab project where students are requested to develop discrete event dynamic system (DEDS) diagnosis to cope with two faulty conditions in an autonomous mobile robot task. An example solution is discussed for Lego Mindstorms NXT robots with LabVIEW. This innovative practice can be signiﬁcant for higher education engineering courses related to mechatronics, robotics, or DEDS. Results are offered from the application of this strategy as part of a postgraduate course on fault tolerant mechatronic systems.
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Describiendo el desarrollo de las políticas de los ochenta, Jones (2003: 131) destaca que en su trascurso se “destruyeron la cultura educativa desarrollada entre 1944 y 1979, y se puso en marcha la tarea de crear otra distinta, donde los antiguos ‘actores sociales’ quedaban marginados siendo reemplazaos por otros nuevos que pasan a ostentar el poder”. La “antigua” cultura educativa se vio como un acuerdo político fuertemente controlado con unas normas y relaciones fruto del régimen del liberalismo expansivo y defensor del bienestar que surgió en la década de los cuarenta. Esto incluyó la creación de nuevas “invenciones gubernamentales” (por ejemplo, la prestación médica, la planificación urbanística o la burocracia de estado expandida) (Miller y Rose 2008) pensadas con el objetivo de salvaguardar y apoyar los derechos de los individuos y las familias sobre la protección social (seguridad económica, cuidados, acceso a provisión de bienestar, etc.). En este período, se ofrece a cada niño y niña acceso a educación pública de carácter gratuito desde el punto de vista de la provisión. La Local Education Authority (un servicio gubernamental provincial) toma la función específica de coordinar la admisión escolar y garantizar una plaza escolar a cada niño y niña según su geografía y proximidad a las plazas disponibles. Sin embargo, debido al abrupto surgimiento de retóricas anti-estatales desde distintas posiciones del espectro político durante los setenta, se posibilita la creación de una nueva hegemonía político-cultural (lo que se ha dado en denominar como New Right [Nueva Derecha]), la cual arremetió contra el programa político del liberalismo del bienestar acusándolo por su supuesta insostenibilidad económica y su carácter excesivamente dominante, desmoralizador y opresivo (Hirschman 1991).
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Creating welfare is not a business — it is a human necessity. If the welfare of people is ignored, if caring, nurturing and education fail, if reproduction fails, everything else will collapse too. There- fore we need a new kind of Social Con- tract — of a global nature — between Capital and People, a contract which will ensure that a fair share of the gigan- tic profits of the corporations is allotted for the common good, for the welfare of people. We also need to redefine and renew the methods for the redistribution of wealth to the people in a way which reflects true human needs, and aims at global social justice and sustainable uti- lization of natural resources. ■
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Reusser, Kurt. Tutoring Systems an Pedagogical Theory: Representational Tools for Understanding, Planning and Reflection in Problem Solving. En Computers as Cognitive Tools. Lajoie and Derry, ed. 1993. Ritter, S. Communication, Cooperation and Competition Among Multiple Tutor Agents. AI-ED97. Eighth World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education - Workshop V: Pedagogical Agents. 1997.
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Serradell-Lopez, E.; Lara-Navarra, P.; Castillo-Merino, D.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, I. (2010). Confidence-Based Learning in Investment Analysis. A 1st International Conference on Reforming Education, Quality of Teaching and Technology-Enhanced Learning: Learning Technologies, Quality of Education, Educational Systems, Evaluation, Pedagogies, May 19-21, 2010, Athens, Greece; Technology Enhanced Learning: Quality of Teaching and Education Reform, Book Series: Communications in Computer and Information Science, 73, 28-35.
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Alvarez, I. M., Guasch, T., & Espasa, A. (2009). University teacher roles and competencies in online learning environments: a theoretical analysis of teaching and learning practices. European Journal of Teacher Education, 32(3), 321–336. doi:10.1080/02619760802624104 (De 9 a 11 cites)
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The expansion of e-learning in higher education has been well noted in the literature (Buzdar et al, 2016). The growing variety of Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) of- ferings (Salmon et al, 2015) and their ambition to obtain a credit-bearing status (Black- mon, 2016) denotes just that. So does the emergence of the “post-traditional learner,” who craves control over how, where, and when to acquire the knowledge (Bichsel, 2013). Maintaining academic integrity becomes an increasingly challenging exercise as physi- cal entities become represented by virtual aliases, when the class size increases, when students are geographically dispersed, and when the teaching and assessment roles be- come disaggregated. The traditional methods for ensuring the trust relationship stays intact are difficult to translate to learning environments where students and instructors are separated by the time and space gap, and use technology to communicate (Amigud, 2013). These methods stipulate how, when, and where the assessment activities take place and are, at least partly, responsible for the disparity in expectations and experiences of post-traditional learners. When applied to the e-learning context, the traditional strate- gies negate the very premise of openness and convenience, let alone administrative and economic efficiency. Hence emerges the need for a robust academic integrity strategy
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