Abstract: A number of historical anthologies and monographs have been published recently that give priority to the social approach in the history of science of the educational sciences – using Stichweh’s concept of discipline – as discipline formation and discipline development. The study to date indicates that four phases in the academic discipline development of the educational sciences in Hungary can be distinguished. In the first phase we find the institutional formation of pedagogy, as it was then understood, as a disciplinary field. This development proceeded most rapidly in the last third of the nineteenth century. It took on two overlapping forms, following the general institutionalization of teacher education. On the one hand, broad-based theory formation regarding educational practice took place, reaching its peak in Herbartianism. On the other hand, university courses were introduced and academic chairs created, often closely tied to philosophy, that were dedicated to pedagogy and represented the academic foundations of the discipline. The second phase, which is the focus of the present contribution continued into the twentieth century. In this period an educational movement arose that centered on the empirical paradigms of research in the social sciences. But the various lines of the movement (reform pedagogy, experimental pedagogy, child study) did not always succeed at becoming established at the universities. The third phase is the phase of lasting institutionalization of the educational sciences, which in most places began already in the first half of the twentieth century. Here the German «Geisteswissenschaft» played a role. After the 2 nd World War was Hungary included in the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union and began
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Scientific talks, like scientific papers, are an important part of the scientific communication process. Good oral presentation skills, are vital to educational sciences, as well as to many other fields. In the engineering community, such presentations offer, a quick outline of project proposals and progress reports. In the academic community, the ability to clearly transmit scientific information, in an oral presen- tation, is critical to both teaching and research. Over the last years, it has become apparent, to many educational researchers, that represent- ing knowledge, in a visual format, allows one to better recognize and understand, incoming information. Since Novak, placed concept map- ping on the educational agenda, it has become an increasingly popular advanced teaching and learning tool. Due mainly to the innovation of visual design software like CmapTool, the production and modification of Concept Maps is straightforward. While there are no strict rules about how to give a motivating and compelling presentation, there are some guiding principles which are easy to grasp and apply. The modern scientist must be able to create well organized, well delivered scientific talks. In this context, Concept Maps harness the power of our vision to understand complex information “at-a-glance”. We propose some ideas and resources based, on the use of concept maps to make the process of preparing and organizing good talks easier. In essence, good scientific talks must satisfy the following three goals: to connect with the audience, to direct and hold attention, and to promote under- standing and memory. To accomplish these goals talk material must be elaborated carefully and logically. The plan to achieve them should have four parts: preparation, structure, design, and exposition. We fo- cus our work on the first two parts of the plan, and supply some helpful
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For Dr. Bernardo Gargallo López, who holds the Chair of Theory of Education Department, at the Faculty of Philosophy and Educational Sciences at the University of Valencia, in Valencia, Spain, programs such as the PCPI are able to offer an effective response to those students who could end up failing or dropping out if one considers particular factors that are discussed here (personal communication, November 2, 2010). In general, noticed Gargallo López, students find the opportunity for more individualized attention without being labeled as differentiated or being special in the negative way (Gargallo López). However, for the program to work aspects of cognitive learning such as student motivation, self-esteem, self-regulation, and emotional support need to be present. Other factors include the different educational methodologies being used, which could be focused on learning or on teaching. Those methods could, in turn, include different pedagogic skills and evaluation approaches (Gargallo López). Gargallo, Sánchez, Ros, and Ferreras (2010) have categorized and described those teaching methodologies; although, the research context was on teaching done by university professors. Gargallo López concluded that, once particular factors are taken into consideration, the PCPI is an effective tool for students at risk of failing or abandoning school (personal communication, December 15, 2010).
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Regarding education-skills mismatch, results show that crisis forced many graduates in educational sciences to take on jobs that do not require a university degree. This increase in overqualification could have very negative consequences for young people and employers (Planas, 2011; Nieto & Ramos, 2011; Alba-Ramirez, 1993). As García-Montalvo (2005) suggests, graduates may begin taking unsuitable work, but due to promotions and improvements in their workplace, the level of mismatch between their training and their current job position may improve. But it is also likely that graduates adapt their professional expectations over time, while obsolescence depreciates their knowledge, thereby extenuating the phenomenon of overqualification over time. This situation seems more consistent with the current economic context, as there are few opportunities for promotion for young people and the general trend is towards precarious temporary contracts and alternating periods of unemployment. More research is needed to distinguish between these two hypotheses. But if the prevailing trend is the latter, an increase in overqualification in graduates in educational sciences would imply a significant drop in cost-effectiveness in public and private investment in higher education, which the administration should identify and address with new education and employment policies.
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The release of volume 6 of the magazine finds us at a very eventful moment. First, the publication “Orientation and Society”, which used to be a production by the Psychology Department of the School of Humanities and Educational Sciences of the Universidad Nacional de La Plata, has come to be part of the new School of Psychology since September 2006. This constitutes a milestone in our discipline since, after almost 50 years, we have become an independent Academic Unit, accredited by a long period of high teaching standards, research and community outreach programs. Such an event has caused changes, readjustments and re-dimensions within several academic and management areas, which delayed this publication. These issues were connected with the shortage of economic resources for the implementation of this publishing project. But we’ve made an effort, hoping to continue this undertaking and we’ve reached this new volume.
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M.D.: The fact that the historical approach is no longer at the centre of re- search and/or education in educational sciences does not mean that the historical research of pedagogical processes and phenomena itself has not increased. On the contrary. The supply of research through books, journal articles and internet contributions - both good and not so good - appear to be growing with some consistency. This may seem paradoxical, but of course it isn’t. On the one hand, the number of professional researchers in humanities has increased immensely in the past fifty years. On the other hand, there has been noticeable interest in the educational past during recent decades, both from the side of history (finally, some will say) and from other social sciences. Globally this has led to more atten- tion for history of educational realities, in which, as we have tried to demonstrate through our own research, both the everyday and the material must play a prom- inent role. In part due to the large normativity of the sources, for far too long attention has been paid exclusively to the question of how eduction ‘should’ be instead of how effective it ‘was’. But in my opinion, it would be just as wrong to conclude that we should have no more interest whatsoever in the philosophical or ethical side of the matter. On the contrary. That is exactly why I, together with my colleague Paul Smeyers – an international leading philosopher of education – started a working group in Leuven to reignite the dialogue between historians and philosophers, each from their own identity and discipline (though without aiming for a new historical-systematic synthesis, like the German general peda- gogy!). So far this has yielded some fantastic results, also regarding the material conditions of school (which even sparked interest from Germany in a recent is- sue of the prominent Zeitschrift für Pädagogik).
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Another important moment at the beginning of his trajectory was his relationship with the School of Journalism. once his studies at the Medical Sciences School were advanced, he looked for other areas in the university where he could channel interests and questions outside the reach of medical knowledge. according to the interview with one of his fellow students at that time, García formally enrolled in the School of Journalism, although he did not finish this course of study (14). However, while studying in this re- cently created school, he was one of the advocates of the Student Union statute and of the library, and had considerable influence in the proposals which would result in the transfer of this school to the jurisdiction of the Unlp. García’s enterprising nature, as well as his interest in cultural debates, was also reflected in the creation of the newspaper Edición (Figure 2), which was produced with other fellow students from the School of Journalism and in 1955 published two issues. Far from focusing on one specific area of culture, the newspaper in- cluded articles about science and art as well as various essays and interviews. This social network also facilitated book exchanges among students; authors as diverse as Borges, Sábato, Estrada, Macedonio Fernández, Sartre and the French existentialists provided Juan César with readings that fascinated him and which he would often rec- ommend to those around him.
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Examining school systems through the lens of complexity is of interest as general systems’ characteristics can be identified within specific systems and, thus, subsequently described. Consider the changing environment of a school system. Economic forces affect available funding, which affect school budgets for salaries, school supplies, and building maintenance. Hardware technology advances such as personal computers, tablets, and smart phones; communication technologies such as the Internet and wireless networks; and software products such as search engines, word processors, statistical packages, simulation packages, and academic courses; among other digital advances such as eBooks, offer new challenges to schools in terms of educational tools, techniques, and even the physical location. Emerging technologies such as robotics; 3D printing; virtual labs; and the digitization of biology, chemistry, and physics; simulation; and artificial intelligence will bring even more changes. Societal changes such as changing demographics; attitudes toward women, immigration, and sexual orientation; along with increased potential mobility affect school systems in various ways as well. Government tinkering with policy changes affects schools in having to adapt to a new policy flavor every few years. Finally, physical environmental changes affect school systems directly or indirectly given various societal responses. For example, Hoffman (2012) noted, while there is scientific consensus on climate change, there is little public consensus that the climate is changing. This notion of a culture war may well lead to some controversy over teaching methods in schools, not to mention the current conflicting discussion in public forums. Increasing traffic congestion and busing within major cities are other physical environmental changes affecting schools systems. Taken together, these changes could appear to be more than challenging to a school system.
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In the Educational Institution «Domingo Savio» of Florence (Department of Caquetá, Colombia), with students in grades sixth through eleven and teachers, was the investigation of how it has been the teaching of Natural Science and Environmental Education under the quality Management process under the international standard ISO 9001:2008 standard that the institution is implementing in pursuit of improving the quality of education at this school. The methodological approach was the historical-hermeneutic and the type of research, systematization of experience. The data were obtained using the techniques of interview, survey of open questions and the review of documents of the Quality Management System (QMS). The research was conducted in three stages: the first, correspond to the time when the process begins Quality Management; the second, concerns to the implementation of the QMS, and the third, incumbent to the actuality time. The categories of analysis or systematic axes were: teaching and learning processes, the role of teacher, the role of the student, learning environments and evaluation applied by teachers of Science, during and after the implementation period. The results show that
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a prerequisite for the development of educational trajectories is the developed and implemented in practice monitoring system, which is based on the following principles: purposefulness, continuity, integrity and diversity, consistency of actions of its subjects, targeting and publicity of the extracted information. a necessary condition for the development of educational trajectories is continuity, which provides: the unity of goals and objectives of the educational process; the content and methods of work of the teacher and students at all stages of their development; common understanding of the development laws, which reveal the relationship of learning, education and personal development. analysis of the forms of joint activities of different educational institutions found that multi-level integrated training of specialists is carried out on the basis of the interaction of different types of professional educational institutions that retain legal independence, and meaningful one – on the basis of successive curricula and optimization of the content of academic disciplines. There are a number of problems that are being slowly solved: training of professional personnel lags behind the pace of structural adjustment of high- tech industries, there is a “washing out” of high-tech expensive specialties, the demand of national production is significantly ahead of the supply of educational institutions in terms of volumes and structure of personnel training, etc.
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Cuando se habla de CLIL como modo de aprendizaje se habla de un término definido por sus propios autores como “paraguas” pues cubre bajo su definición un conjunto de enfoques de los más variados, considerándose por lo tanto un modelo flexible donde diferentes metodologías tienen cabida (Mehisto P., Marsh D., Frigols MJ., 2008). Aunque desde este trabajo se trate su significación en la etapa de Educación Primaria y en el aula de Natural Sciences, las actividades CLIL pueden ser de lo más variadas (Inmersión total, inmersión parcial, campamentos, intercambios de estudiantes, proyectos locales, proyectos internacionales, módulos o trabajo-estudio en el extranjero).
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This article describes an audit in the IT field, namely the audit of software using the example of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University. The most significant goal of the audit is to discover the full list of programs installed on the enterprise's machines. This list should include all software products without exception: both used by employees to solve their daily questions, and those programs that were not used at all, but simply downloaded for interest. It is noted, including incorrectly deleted software that has retained its fingerprints in the system. In the work, a comparison was made of the most well-known and used products of Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager and Kaspersky Security Center and a comparative integration of all the information that collects these funds was performed. Collecting and processing data on the software installed on the machines of an educational institution is a time-consuming task. The system of automated software audit connects remotely to computers on the local network and accumulates data about the software installed on them. To improve this process, a program with the necessary interface has been written, which allows obtaining a database that contains data about all computers with the software installed on them. This will further make it possible to formulate recommendations for the further development of the computer park on the example of KPU.
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In the framework of the different debate fora that took place during the I Workshop on e-learning in Economics and Business, the question of what the main challenges in the near future of higher education would be was tackled. Special attention was given to how they might affect not only distance universities but also face-to-face institutions. There was a degree of consensus on two main challenges: the first one is to consolidate the adaptation of university studies to the EHEA. The process has led to a thorough modification of curricula, which places “competencies” at the core of the educational model. Such a situation is particularly remarkable because of the close and important implication it should have, at least at three different levels: the drafting of degrees; the use of methods, activities and learning resources; and evaluation (Riesco, 2008, p. 80).
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Now we are entering the realm of explicit and tacit knowledge. As you have noticed by now, types of knowledge tend to come in pairs and are often antitheses of each other. Explicit knowledge is similar to a priori knowledge in that it is more formal or perhaps more reliable. Explicit knowledge is knowledge that is recorded and communicated through mediums. It is our libraries and databases. The specifics of what is contained is less important than how it is contained. Anything from the sciences to the arts can have elements that can be expressed in explicit knowledge. Get a taste of explicit knowledge for yourself with this top- rated course on learning how to learn and knowing how to tap into your inner genius.
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But let us return to Valencia. The appearance of Edetania in 1989 was not an isolated occurrence. Elsewhere, an analysis has been offered of how international events during that year affected education, and how these events interacted with the local context of Spanish education research (Jover, 2016). The decade of the 1980s had seen rapid ex- pansion and diversification of institutional channels of education research. This tenden- cy was spurred by, among other factors, the organization of university structure in areas of knowledge, and the distancing of some groups with respect to the Sociedad Española de Pedagogía, which was the official body representing the education profession during Franco’s dictatorship. Thus, the 1980s saw the emergence of a number of scientific as- sociations characterized by varying degrees of formality representing those areas. At the same time, numerous academic journals were launched. The database of the Center of Humanities and Social Sciences of the Council of Scientific Research includes 294 jour- nals dedicated to education, 86 of which are no longer published. The greatest explosion in this regard occurred during the 1980s, which saw the number of such publications more than triple, from 37 to 121. In the 1980s and 1990s combined, 164 publications were launched.
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Tras la aprobación de la LOMCE y del Real Decreto 126/2014, de 28 de febrero, por el que se establece el currículo básico de la Educación Primaria, se regula que para la Comunidad Autónoma de Castilla y León en el segundo curso se destinan 2 horas y media semanales de la asignatura específica de Natural Sciences. Además, según el artículo 13 establecido en la Ley Orgánica 2/2006, de 3 de mayo para el aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras, se indica que “las Administraciones educativas podrán establecer que una parte de las asignaturas del currículo se impartan en lenguas extranjeras sin que ello suponga modificación de los aspectos básicos del currículo regulados en el presente real decreto. En este caso, procurarán que a lo largo de la etapa el alumnado adquiera la terminología propia de las asignaturas en ambas lenguas”.
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Nonetheless, I have always believed that this success is not only of those who make up the teaching and management teams of the University, but also of the Catalan society from which the UOC derives, as this society has been able to understand and take up the advantages of a rigorous university education offer – one that is at the same time flexible and adequate to the necessary management of time and study space of those who have chosen us for the continuation of their education. A new proof of this understanding between Catalan society at large and our educational model is the @teneu universitari (University @thenaeum), which the UOC set in motion in the second semester of the 2004-2005 academic year. The @teneu is perhaps one of the proposals that most clearly shows our foundational identity and our condition and vocation as an open university. It is a question of making real what we imagine. This is the guiding thread that, almost imperceptibly, has vindicated the existence and the consistency of this University to which we began to give shape ten years ago. Making the imagined real is what is behind the @teneu: that citizens –any citizen at all– should be able to accede to the University without previously-established limitations, and to share the space, time, and knowledge at the disposal of students following the UOC’s recognised degree courses. The @teneu universitari is an opportunity for our society; it is a tool at the service of the capitalisation of Catalonia in a context based more and more on the economy of knowledge. It facilitates the possibility of succeeding in a world which, as some authors have well pointed out, has become and is now without frontiers. Now, when the UOC has been in existence for ten years, other universities in Catalonia and throughout the Spanish state are opting, logically, to introduce virtual learning modalities. Very soon, what will differentiate us will be not our methodology but rather the quality of that methodology. In December 2004 the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya received the gold medal for European excellence from the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), an award that takes into account the positive evolution of the integral management of an organisation. This gold medal is also an indicator of the effort that the UOC is making, and has made throughout this period of ten years, continually to improve. Gabriel Ferraté
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come out of this conception. First of all, Aristotle increases the value of phenomenal reality and concrete situation whose variety he leads back to the variety of being: in fact the concept/term “being” is “used in various senses”. From the epistemological point of view, this attitude helps interpret complexity: in fact, many sciences correspond to the variety of reality. Especially from the pedagogical standpoint, Aristotle’s mind is appreciable, because it justifies one fundamental science (pedagogy) connected to many specific sciences (sciences of education). It is important to emphasise that this formulation allows to conform to the most recent epistemological paradigm without renouncing to consider pedagogy as the basic science securing unity to education. In fact, the paradigm of “sciences of education” exposes pedagogy to the risk of fragmentation. From this point of view, Aristotle’s ontology helps recognise that pedagogy is a rational science, even if it differs from the kind of rationality peculiar to natural sciences. Pedagogy is a practical science: the Aristotelian metaphysics leads to appreciate the complexity of human action; the Aristotelian ethics and psychology lead to appreciate the complexity of voluntary decision and human conscience without yielding to irrationality. Aristotle analyses passions, classifies virtues, appreciates emotions but always aiming at human responsibility, because –as he says– the human being is the “rational animal”. What does it mean? To ancient Greek “rationality” is lógos and this word means at the same time:
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