The effect of mind mapping in teaching and learning history in secondary schools

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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Harfit (2012 ) conducted a study to examine whether, and how, class size reduction might help to alleviate language learning anxiety, which has long been seen as an obstacle to second language acquisition. In the study the researcher use mainly questionnaires , class observations and interviews, this study employed multiple case studies in four Hong Kong secondary schools. Each case constituted one teacher teaching English language to first language Chinese students in a reduced-size class (where class size was between 21 and 25 students) and a large class (where class size was between 38 and 41 students) of the same year grade, and of similar academic ability. In conclusion this study suggests that the student voice can provide insights into language learning classrooms. Data from the case studies reveal that students‟ sense of anxiety can be reduced in smaller classes and that class
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

In the second study, Harfitt (2012) talks about an examination of teacher´s perceptions and practice when teaching large and reduced-sized classes. He says, do teachers really teach them in the same way? In order to develop the study, the author examines three experience English language teachers. They were female with more than 6 years of experience, with Master Degree in education, from the Hong Kong secondary schools. The data was collected in 22 semi-structured interviews, as well as 48 lesson observations. A baseline interview was done with each teacher before the observation began. With this information, the researcher obtained teacher´s personal ways of thinking and experiences of teaching.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

There are also other relevant findings that were found in the two research phases. The first observations carried out in four classes at the initial stage revealed that the amount of communicative chances might be influenced by the kind of activity which the teachers implemented in their lessons and not by the amount of pupils (Kumar, 1992). In the second phase, the teaching- learning activities benefit students’ interaction in non - traditional classes possibly by providing more time to communicate; in contrast, the traditional activities seemed to have the opposite effect (Kumar, 1992).
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The second study conducted by Bahanshal (2013) had the purpose to investigate the effect of large classes in the English learning and teaching process. This research took place in two public secondary schools in the city of Jaddah. Six Saudi Secondary English teachers were interviewed to express their point of view and discuss their solutions to the effective teaching and learning in the class. The results showed that there is a negative impact to working with large classes due to the large domain with many aspects that cannot be undertaken in one class. The study concluded that it is possible for teachers to teach English in large classes by using various strategies and methods.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The Ecuadorian government has acknowledged there are issues hindering the growth of English as a foreign language amongst high school students in the public sector. The average pupil leaving a public secondary school graduates with an average of 65% in English according to the National Secretariat for Higher Education, Science and Technology (SENESCYT). The government is acting proactively in fighting the low level of English found throughout the public school system. Some recent examples of this are the mandatory B2 level, according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Language, of all English teachers where Ecuador has teamed up with the world renowned nonprofit organization English Testing Service (ETS) to ensure English teachers have the appropriate level to be instructors. Also there has been the implementation of the program "Go Teacher" assisted by the University of Mississippi in the United States of America where Ecuadorian teachers receive training and scholarships to become better at their profession.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Regarding the Content – Based Instruction (CBI), Brown (2002, p.234) claims that “content- based language teaching integrates the learning of some specific subject- matter content with the learning of a second language”. According to the author, learners acquire knowledge not only about the language but also about the contents being taught such as geography, culture, history, or math; in integrated skills. In the same way, Larsen (2000) describes that during the language class, the language teacher focuses on helping students process the language in order to understand the academic content presented by the subject teacher; in fact, teachers help students to complete academic tasks such as writing term papers, improving their note-taking abilities, and reading academic textbooks assigned by the teacher.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The purpose of the study is to determine what instructional, psychological and social effects do large classes have on the learning of English as a foreign language. In order to achieve this objective, a questionnaire was given to the students to know their opinions about the different statements presented in the survey. The research was conducted in Paute, in two of the biggest and most popular public high schools. The sample for this study included one hundred eighty six students. The classrooms selected were those having thirty five students or more; from eight of basic education to third of bachelor. For the quantitative analysis, the information from those students who agree and totally agree, in the survey, was compiled in order to be contrasted with the information of those who partially agree and disagree. The findings of the qualitative and quantitative research revealed that the instructional effects: lack of regular feedback and activities like competitions, debates or games, have the highest percentage over the not good enough relationship between students and the teacher which is the major social effect and the stress during the class as the major psychological effect on the English language teaching-learning process.
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The Influence of Large Classes in the English Language Teaching Learning Process in Ecuadorian High Schools

The Influence of Large Classes in the English Language Teaching Learning Process in Ecuadorian High Schools

At last, the implications related to how feedback is dealt to the students will also be a matter of discussion of this work. Assisting every students’ requirement may turn to be impossible in big classes. Feedback is important for both, students and teacher; however, it has to be planned in a way that saves time and unnecessary work. This study puts forth that a little more than half of the students, 51.60%, show disagreement with the fact that they cannot benefit from a good feedback, though the difference with the ones who feel that the class lacks this benefit, is not big. The reason for this little margin between the ones who agree and the ones who disagree is simple to explain, the teacher can only answer so many questions due to the lack of time common in large classes, so the students who have questions with no answers, feel as if they were left aside, growing a negative feeling towards the teacher’s way to work out the students’ doubts. Truscott (1999) and Krashen (1994) have discussed the effect of feedback in students. It must be given out the appropriate way to avoid the students’ self-limitation in their participation because of possible public embarrassment, but it cannot be left on the side.
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Experiences from virtual learning in upper secondary schools in Finland

Experiences from virtual learning in upper secondary schools in Finland

One of the main ideas in the theoretical background of the information society processes is the importance of the student’s own initiative in the learning process. The students should develop their ideas by their own thinking, testing their mental structures and conceptions of reality and creating at the same time a correct mental construction of the reality. Learning cannot be effective without the student actively conducting studies [2]. Teaching might be important in a classroom but learning is the core activity in education. The ICT is considered an important tool for moving the emphasis in the classroom situation from teaching to studying, practicing and learning. The Internet provides a huge source of facts and learning material, but the teachers are hesitating to use the Internet because of the abundance of incorrect material that might confuse the students.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The data for the questionnaire was collected according to feedback from the students at An-Najah. The researcher asked the students an open – ended question about the effect of large classes on them. After gathering the data, the answers were classified into three major areas: instructional, psychological and social which were considered as the study instrument by the researcher in the form of a questionnaire. The researcher distributed the questionnaire to the sample study students (230 students). The questionnaire included two versions (Arabic and English). The subjects responded to the questionnaire in Arabic on a 5-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree; 2= disagree; 3=undecided; 4=agree; 5=strongly agree).The questionnaire contained 46 items and was divided into the following sections:1-Items (1-19) showed the instructional effects of large classes on non- English major EFL students. 2-Items (20-32) showed the psychological effects of large classes on non- English major EFL students. 3-Items (33-46) showed the social effects of large classes on non-English major EFL students.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Aduwa-Ogiegbaen & Iyamu (2006) based their study on three questions (a) Do secondary school teachers use instructional resources frequently in teaching English language? (b) Do the English Language teachers use appropriate methods in teaching English Language frequently? (c) Do secondary school students in Nigeria learn English language in an environment conducive to learning? The main instruments used for this study were a questionnaire and observation schedules. The researchers designed the questionnaire by generating a list of items, which solicited students' responses on teaching strategies, instructional resources/media used by the teachers and the teaching-learning environment. The specifications for each of the two data collection instruments used in the study were as follows: (a) Questionnaire: This instrument had four sections dealing with demographic. (b) Observation: Research assistants were trained to observe each classroom and some classroom proceedings during administration of the questionnaire noting the features or characteristics of the learning environment. Based on their results they claimed that the public secondary schools in Nigeria were far behind time in offering multiple pathways to the teaching and learning English as a second language. Public secondary schools in Nigeria should be provided with adequate and a variety of instructional media, technologies such as audio and video recordings, language laboratories and computers. These instructional media can be more effective teaching tools for English Language lessons as they offer an authentic learning experience when interwoven with existing curriculum.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching – learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching – learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

Additionally, Li Wai- Shing (2008), has targeted his focus from a different perspective, but oriented to an effective management learning as an essential aspect that contributes to a positive classroom environment. Within this premise, effort and attention make the most relevant elements with teaching and instructional roles. This means that knowledge and skills to maintain the desirable discipline have been given a secondary importance. The writer rather focuses on the motivation as a parallel element to achieve effective management learning. This process and its results, basically depend on the setting and the culture and idiosyncrasy in which they perform their teaching activity. Thus, classroom management is closely linked to socio cultural and moral values of both teachers and learners.
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Cross curricular teaching in foreign language classroom of Jaen and Newcastle secondary schools

Cross curricular teaching in foreign language classroom of Jaen and Newcastle secondary schools

On the other hand, teachers provided quantitative and qualitative information by means of their questionnaires, which they kept for some days. Those in Jaén had around a month to fill them in while the ones in Newcastle were asked to answer them in one or two weeks only. It does not seem the different amount of time that was given to teachers in both cities could have an effect on the results. It helps to confirm this idea the fact that some of the Jaén and Newcastle teachers to which copies had been handed in the first meetings (usually, so that they could approve of the research based on their content and on that of the student’s questionnaire) gave them back as soon as the day their class was sampled and, apart from that, that the vast majority of them said it had not taken them more than an hour/an hour and a half to fill them in.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Regarding this method Richards says that CBI is used at different educational level in different program adaptations especially because the goal of CBI is for learners to become autonomous and independent along the learning process. On the contrary, Spratt, Pulverness & Williams consider CBI to be preferably used in primary and secondary levels in which language is presented through interesting topics related to school subjects that help learners to increase knowledge about the world. For that purpose, many common activities are to be related to current topics such as environment, education, science, etc. and additionally they imply the usage of material such as realia within the syllabus to make tasks meaningful.
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History teaching in the soviet school of the 1920s - 1930s: (for example, schools in the city of kazan)

History teaching in the soviet school of the 1920s - 1930s: (for example, schools in the city of kazan)

the scientific materialistic understanding of civil history. The government, accepting this document, took into account not only the in- ternal causes, the need to raise the level of education and upbringing the successful so- cialist construction, but also the internatio- nal situation caused by the world economic crisis. All this together required knowledge of the heroic past of the Motherland and the most important events in the world history. According to the resolution, the teachers had to express the discipline taught, to teach the students how to work with the textbook. Also, the need to increase the responsibility of stu- dents and the observance of school discipline was stressed [11]. According to M.M. Gibatd- inov, there were no significant changes with the restoration of history as an independent subject in the secondary school in the situa- tion with teaching the history of the Tatar people. The restored systematic course of history was a simplified mold of the univer- sity course in the history of social forms. The history of russia, and not the history of the peoples of the USSr, was given in the section of the russian history program; there was no material describing the conditions for the de- velopment of individual nationalities, etc. The material on the history of nationalities com- pletely “dropped out” of the program [3].
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Learning ecological concepts in Secondary Schools of the Northeast of Spain

Learning ecological concepts in Secondary Schools of the Northeast of Spain

Environmental education is comprehensively analyzed in Spain and all over the world. In Spain, some studies analyze the initial background of secondary education professors [17], others detect the beliefs and limitations of primary school teachers regarding environmental education as a critical point to be implemented in the syllabus [18] or the evolution on the teacher’s work, method and background over time [19]. Some studies focused on the students and their knowledge of nature such as the study proposed by Jaén and Barbudo [20] where they studied the evolution or changes in the perceptions regarding the environment in an academic year based on the ENV scale—which measures the environmental perceptions, both in attitude and behavior, as proposed by Bogner and Wilhelm in 1996 [21]—where no differences were detected; other work studies the evolution in the students’ attitudes towards the environment as a result of working on a monographic assignment [22]. Other work compares the different strategies in order to have a wide view of socio-scientific issues (SSI) in science education [23] and others study the decision making in sustainable development and improves the strategies for decision making [24]. Some studies analyze the teaching model and suggest a proposal for environmental education [25], whereas other works compile different strategies for environmental education [26] and other studies examine the motivation of students—from 14 to 16 years of age—to learn science and how the Advanced Placement Program (AP) and collaborative-learning science can change the student’s motivation to do so [27]. In addition, other documents analyzed include the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) reports, where the attitudes and responsibility of the teenagers towards the environment were tested (Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico [OECD], [28,29], as well as others where the data of the PISA reports were used in order to quantify the engagement in science of 15-year-olds [30].
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The Influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The Influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Various studies have already been carried out on the influence of large class sizes on the teaching learning process. One such study was conducted by Senekane (2010) who aimed to find out what was the classroom management and instructional challenges that teachers in large EAL classrooms faced and what strategies teachers employed in dealing with these classrooms management and instruction challenges in achieving specific outcomes of EAL lesson. Learners from a secondary school in Lesotho, Africa were interviewed and recorded by their teachers to avoid external intrusion. The findings of this limited exploration showed that Noise interference, inability to remember and use students’ names, difficulty in managing students’ behavioral problems, and the use of cellphones are in fact not only slowing down the flow of learning but also generating unneeded downtime and as a consequence decreasing the attention span and academic performance of learners. The author concludes that these challenges call for collaborating teaching to be implemented as an instructional paradigm so as to be able to achieve the desired level of leaner`s
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Different levels of proficiency are related with the degree that each learner has from beginner to advance levels; it refers to the use of different strategies and the use of visual material resources according to the level and the age of the students. Saville (2006) states that demands learners’ attention, and thus involves controlled processing, for example if there are some students with a lower level and, other with an upper level, teachers should give extra activities to increase the level of the student who need to reach the achievement throughout extra classes, extra materials, and academic support in the school. Some schools have the levels of English
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in ecuadorian high schools

Harmer (2000) states that the different seating arrangements are seen under different approaches that show the advantages and disadvantages in the teaching learning process, and their influence on the different activities like group or individual work, debates, etc., therefore, the author mentions that classrooms with orderly rows make possible a clear view of the students from the teacher and vice versa, if there are aisles between rows, this will help the teacher to make personal contact with individual students and thus reinforce the pupils´ learning. By the same way, Harmer says that orderly rows allow teachers work with the whole class in suited activities to this kind of classroom arrangement like grammar explanations, audiovisual activities, board tasks, practice of language under controlled conditions (i.e. repetitions), it is important that teachers involve the whole class when they asks questions even students at the back, and even more the quiet students. Also, the author recommends that teachers should ask learners from all parts of the room in a randomly way, that is, to avoid that students know when they are going to be asked, so they will be attentive all the time. In conclusion, orderly rows have their
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching- learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching- learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Another important study is the one conducted by Chowdhury and Shaila (2013), whose purpose was to know how the English language teachers deal with large classes at the tertiary level, particularly when they need to evaluate speaking proficiencies of learners. This study took place in Bangladesh, where English is a foreign language and the phenomenon of large classes is common. The instruments used for the research methodology were a survey and a questionnaire. The survey was conducted to 52 language teachers teaching in different private universities, both, teachers and universities were selected randomly; and the questionnaire was made to the teachers who participate in this study with open ended questions and fixed alternative questions.
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