Prepared and structured environment: where everything is provided for the needs ofchildren. It should be organized carefully for the child to learn. It consists of two factors; the environment and material. It has to be clean and neat; the materials have to be next tothechildren and designed to their needs, learning from sensory experiences. Furthermore, the environment must promote constant movement activities encouraging independence and freedom. In this way, the environment and materials have to facilitate the motor, sensory, social, intellectual and emotional development. Materials: They are very important in this methodology and they play an important role in children´s learning. Maria Montessori designed materials attending to all children´s needs and with a learning aim. There are lots of materials, attractive, natural, and progressive; they must have their own error control. Children have free access to them and they can choose the activity to carry out, they help them to progress in an appropriate pace with increasingly complicated exercises. They can be made of glass, metal or wood.
Abstract: This paper focuses onthe history ofthe reception ofMontessoriEducation, and sheds light onthe development of childhood education in Japan. From its first adoption in the 1910s until today, theMontessori style ofEducation has been both praised and criticised. Nevertheless, this period has seen three distinct phases of theory and practice. The first stage (1910s-1930s) saw, from its initial adoption, a rapid acceptance ofMontessoriEducation, due to its promise of early education and new teaching methods promoting freedom for children. However, themethod soon lost popularity because some educators criticized the weakness of Montessori’s theory. In the second stage (1930s-post-World War II), interest in themethod continued to grow, albeit gradually, and several books published ontheMontessoriMethod in Europe and America were translated into Japanese. The third stage (1950s-present) saw the so-called «Montessori revival», in which themethod caught on again with many educators. Many original works were translated, numerous studies onMontessori appeared, and the number of kindergartens and nursery schools using theMontessoriMethod increased. Much has been said both for and against Montessori’s concept of «freedom for children». Recently, however «learning from the environment» has become an important topic in early childhood education in Japan. Montessori attaches importance to children’s freedom to interact with each other and their environment, leading to a renewed interest in theMontessorimethod and the theory behind it. This paper seeks to clarify the transitions in the popularity ofMontessoriEducation and analyse its value to Japan.
Emotional competence is a fundamental part of children’s social development and determines their ability to interact and form relationships with others (Denham, Bassett, Zinsser, 2012; Dehham & Burton 2003; Saarni, 1990). As a construct, emotional competence is relatively new so there are still some debates in relation to sharing characteristics with other concepts such as emotional literacy and emotional intelligence. A comprehensive definition that also includes elements of both emotional intelligence, and emotional literacy describes emotional competence as “the ability to understand, manage, and express the social and emotional aspects of one’s life in ways that enable the successful management of life tasks such a learning, forming relationships, solving everyday problems, and adapting tothe complex demands of growth and development” (Elias, Zins, Weissberg, Fre, Greenberg & Haynes, 1997, p. 2). Children’s ability to integrate in their life these three core aspects of emotional competence (regulation, expression, and understanding) is highly dependable on adult’s intervention and this influence determines in great measure their success during social interactions (Halberstadt, Denham & Dunsmore, 2001). How adults manage, coach and engage with children through emotional communications has become an increasing area of interest in research (Kitzmann & Howard, 2011). While parents play a fundamental role in the development of children’s emotional competence, teachers also play a fundamental role in this task. Although their functions differ in principle from the parental role, teachers utilise similar emotional socialization processes to foster children’s emotion competence. Teachers in early childhood education often give children direct instruction on emotional skills via curricular activities, but also by building secure attachment relationships, modelling culturally appropriate emotional expressions
The instrument employed to measure our dependent variable was an English spelling test consisting of a very clear-cut and well-established taxonomy of spelling dimensions and aspects which we believed should be mastered at the end ofPrimaryEducation (five were the layers taken into consideration: the visual/auditory, morphological, orthographic, and semantic realms and capitalization and punctuation). In order to test these aspects, we employed three basic testing facets: dictation (of a short text and of isolated words), free composition, and a proofreading text for spelling error recognition and correction. With dictation in general, we aimed to test spelling productively and auditorily, both with a text, where weak forms, linking, or assimilation come into play, and with isolated words with orthographic difficulty. A necessary complement to dictation in testing spelling productively was free writing, of great value as it is the means through which children evince their ability to use their knowledge of spelling to generate text. Finally, the proofreading section enabled us to test English orthography receptively and visually, as well as to encourage the learner to see, experience, rethink, and reflect upon spelling misconceptions. In addition, we attempted to endow all three methods with a communicative character that would hopefully help the students realize the significance of English writing and spelling outside the confines ofthe classroom, and thus to motivate them in the completion ofthe test. In this sense, we made the text dictation a note from the students’ mother, asking them to do some food shopping; the free writing, a description of their best friend, required by the Interpol as (s)he had gone missing; and the proofreading, an e-mail from a Welsh pen pal (or rather, keypal). We drew up the test ourselves, as there were no published standardized tests suitable for Spanish EFL learners at the level in which we were interested (cf. Appendix II for teacher’s version ofthe test).
always looked like a mess and that he was lost in his room. Later he felt uncomfortable with the situation and began to tidy his room. Kerem began to talk about the mistake he made in the classroom that day: “When my friends went to wash their hands I stayed in the classroom and said that my hands were clean. Then I colored the model house and wanted to put it into the cabinet. When I wanted to open the cabinet, it was covered in paint. It seemed that I was coveredin paint, too. Then I tried to wipe the cabinet but I dropped my model house and some pieces of it came off. From now on I will not get ahead of myself and I will wash my hands after coloring”. It was Elif’s turn. She bashfully began to talk: “Today after coloring I washed my hands. Then I came back tothe room. When I came back I saw that Kerem’s model house was spoiled. Then I put the model onthe desk to repair it. I took the glue but I could not take glue out ofthe tube. I squeezed the tube too strongly and the glue came out suddenly and poured onthe chair. Then Teacher, when you came tothe class, I could not find time to wipe the chair. Teacher, you are sitting on that chair right now. From this case, I learned that I should not squeeze glue too strongly”.
The non-monetary effectsofeducation are reﬂ ected in a broad spectrum of elements, such as health habits, consumer behaviour and patterns of decision-mak- ing in the family and social domains. According tothe estimations of Haveman and Wolfe (1984), the magnitude ofthe non-monetary effectsofeducation is no smaller than that of its monetary effects. As a result, the analysis of these effects is of great importance in fully evaluating the individual and social beneﬁ ts of educa- tion and, therefore, in designing educational policies. Among the analyses ofthe non-monetary effectsofeducation, most ofthe studies have focused on individuals’ consumption decisions and expenditure (Fernández-Gutiérrez and Calero, 2011). Fewer studies have focused on another quite different dimension, but one which is particularly important for this purpose: the use of time. Education is closely related tothe diversity of activities that individuals carry out in their free time, in turn having a positive impact on them, promoting beneﬁ cial personal outcomes and enhanced social integration (Stalker, 2011). For this reason, understanding and measuring the inﬂ uence ofeducationonthe use of time is critical for an in-depth analysis of its individual and social effects.
Based on these considerations, and apart from attempting to verify gender differences, theprimary purpose of this study is to analyze the possible differential impact ofthe variables used to explore mathematical motivation onthe academic achievement of boys and girls in primaryeducation. Firstly, we hypothesize that there will be statistically significant differences in mathematical motivation between boys and girls. We expect the boys’ motivational pattern, in terms of perceived competence and intrinsic motivation for mathematics, to be more positive than the girls’ (Fredricks and Eccles, 2002; Jacobs et al., 2002; Preckel et al., 2008; Else-Quest et al., 2010; Frenzel et al., 2010; Guo et al., 2015; Ganley and Lubienski, 2016), and the girls to exhibit more negative feelings and greater anxiety toward mathematics than do the boys (Hyde et al., 1990; Nagy et al., 2008; Goetz et al., 2013; Bieg et al., 2015). We will examine the explanatory potential and differential incidence of competency beliefs and intrinsic motivation, along with negative feelings and anxiety over mathematics performance in boys and girls, assuming that perceived competence will have an impact on academic achievement in both cases (Randhawa et al., 1993; Pajares and Graham, 1999; Stevens et al., 2006; Fast et al., 2010; Williams and Williams, 2010; Parker et al., 2014). We will also explore the possibility that the impact of intrinsic motivation on performance will be more significant when it comes to explaining girls’ achievement rather than boys’ (e.g., Yoon et al., 1996; Ganley and Lubienski, 2016). Finally, we will also look at whether anxiety is more important when explaining boys,’ compared with girls,’ mathematics achievement (e.g., Goetz et al., 2013).
Abstract: The history ofthe curriculum is a window to observe the changes and permanences ofthe school and ofthe educational system as a whole and for understanding social transformations. The aim of this article is to explain how the curriculum oftheprimary school (Mexico ofthe nineteenth century) was changed from one centred on Catholic formation towards a secular curriculum. The school curriculum was one ofthe spearheads to build the state and society projects imagined by the different groups fighting for the control of power. I described how religious education was officially promoted, notwithstanding the political ups and downs that led to differentiate educational policies in federal systems and centralist regimes. Later, I explain how religious education was omitted from the official curriculum, replacing the space with courses of laic morals, with the consequent difficulty of introducing a new subject. Then I analyse how political circumstances led to a radicalization of liberal positions and tothe prohibition not only of religious content, but also of symbols, rites and persons linked with religious vows. Finally, secular education, understood in a complex way, began to be demanded not only in public schools but also in private schools. Due tothe nature of this article and the spatial limitations I have privileged the follow-up ofthe legislative history ofeducation, based onprimary sources and secondary sources for the understanding ofthe different contexts that determine this long journey.
The present work tries to give information tothe teacher of Infantile Educationonthe benefits that the Physical Education has to work the social skills with children with Down Syndrome (DS). The advantages or benefits of sports activity onchildren with disabilities are very varied, from the correct psychomotor development tothe learning and control of emotional skills. The pedagogical method used is essential to achieve Inclusive Education, since the work done with children between the ages of 3 and 6 is vital for their proper integral development. It is here, in this stage, where knowledge is integrated in a simple way from the game, so Physical Education will be the means of transmission in this teaching / learning process, also we cannot forget that it has to be adapted to all thechildren.
In multilingual settings in Spain, studies analysing language attitudes towards the official languages and a foreign language are scarce (Lasagabaster, 2004); in the Basque Country, Cenoz (2001) investigated the perception of English in three groups of students of different ages. The most salient finding of her study reveals a decline in attitudes towards the foreign language associated with the age ofthe participants: Educational and psychological factors may lead to a decrease in students’ appreciation of English as they get older. Lasagabaster (2003) provides an extensive review on language attitudes in his study on students of higher education: relying on a sample of 1,087 participants, his research examines language attitudes towards Basque, Spanish, and English and their relation tothe language competence in the foreign language. Contrary to Cenoz (2001), the study does not report age-related differ- ences in attitudes towards English. Instead, Lasagabaster accentuates a strong instrumental component of attitudes of university students towards the L3.
As one ofthe four main components ofthe curriculum: learners, teachers, instructional materials and the context (Schwab, 1969: 287), preschool English teachers play an important role in the educational process within the whole school. Their place in the school is an im- portant factor in the delivery ofthe curriculum and undoubtedly influences the quality and efficiency of English education. Unlike other countries, from the 1970s and especially during the 1990s, preschools in Spain gradually became integrated with main primary schools and called Colegios de Educación Infantil y Primaria (CEIP) as a whole. In this sense, the role of English teachers in the CEIP is a little different from preschools in other countries. In China, for example, preschools and primary schools are totally independent. Teachers work in either one or the other, but not both and generally follow different teaching methods and timetables according tothe age ofthechildren. In Spain, we find 3 main teaching situations: M1= where there is only one English teacher for the whole age range in a school, including therefore preschool and primary aged children, M2= teachers who are specifically responsible for preschool only since other colleagues within the school teach EFL at primary level and M3= different teachers share responsibility for EFL in pre and primary schools. The latter refers to situations in which one teacher might teach the 3 and 4 year olds, while another teaches the 5 year old preschoolers as well as other classes at primary level.
Environmental Education is based on relating man to his environment, his environment and seeks a change of attitude as well as awareness ofthe importance of conserving the environment for the future as well as to improve the quality of life ofthe human being. The adoption of a conscious attitude about the environment that surrounds us, and of which we are an indisputable part, depends in a high percentage oftheeducation and education received in childhood and youth. For this reason, it is up tothe school to play a key and fundamental role in this process.
Abstract: The main objectives of this study were frstly, to know the opinions ofthe families ofthechildren belonging to Early Childhood Education and PrimaryEducation in the Region of Murcia about the usage of WhatsApp groups for families and teachers; and secondly, to analyze their opinions based on these socio-demographic variables: relationship, age, level ofeducation, school degree, employment status and number ofchildren at the school. To that end, a questionnaire was created consisting of 26 items based on six dimensions (usage, shared content, regulations, permissiveness, involvement/participation and educational re- sources) and measured against a 1 to 5 scale. The full sample was composed of 134 subjects selected through a convenient nonprobability sampling, since it was applied to those fami - lies we had access to. The results indicate that it is not useful in promoting family involve- ment or as an educational resource to support education, but as a place for parents and tea - chers to stay connected.
The current educational system is that students are able to develop their own knowledge-centric and this calls for new procedures for devising teaching and learning (Pecharromán et al., 2006). The present intervention is intended to link new knowledge will acquire along the proposed teaching with which they already have due to her students the methodology that will be developed is based on constructivism. Through this there will be activities that involve students in challenging mental processes, problem solving and project tasks (Tharp et al. 2002; Wells, 2001).
Briefly, the curl-up and push-up tests were used to assess abdominal and upper body strength/endurance, respectively. The cadence ofthe curl-up test was set with a metronome (1 curl-up/3 s) and the push-up test required participants to lower their chest to a rubber square until their elbows were at 90° and then return tothe starting position with back flat, legs extended and feet positioned wider than shoulders. Lower body power was evaluated by the standing long jump and single leg hop tests. Participants were required to hold the landing of each jump and maintain body control until the distance was measured. Test-retest reliability for the single leg hop test in children from our laboratory is R = .82. Each jump test was performed three times and the best score was recorded tothe nearest whole cm. Lower back and hamstring flexibility were evaluated by the sit and reach test. Balance was assessed with the stork stand which required participants to maintain a stable body position while standing (without sneakers) on one plantar-flexed foot with hands on hips and eyes open. Participants were required to hold this position for as long as possible, and the best time of three trials was recorded tothe nearest 0.1 s
Exercise prescription is a simple and beneficial methodto improve the mental health of left-behind children; however, exercise prescription influences people’s psychology in the long run. In this study, exercise prescription intervention was conducted for 12 weeks because of time constraints. In the future, this study will allot more experimental observation time. Second, adolescent children can regularly per- form physical exercise as a result ofthe cooperation and synergy of school, society, and family. In this study, the school provided unilateral support, whe- reas the family and the society almost did not provi- de contributions. In the implementation, teachers of other courses did not participate in the study. Thus, resistance and interference were introduced tothe experiment. The types of sports adopted in this stu- dy were also limited and not varied enough. Thus, the curiosity and enthusiasm of students waned after a particular period. This study discussed the effect of exercise prescription onthe improvement ofthe psychological health of left-behind middle school students. The exercise prescription consists of four elements: sports event, exercise duration, frequency, and exercise intensity. Our future studies aim to investigate theeffectsof changing one ele- ment onthe effectivity of exercise prescription.