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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

After completing the thirty observations to fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, it was demonstrated that teachers in this school employed – as a group - 66.67% of the materials that were proposed in the research project. Visual material such as flash cards, power point presentations, maps, pictures, handouts, posters, word cards and the white board were included the research. Also, audio and audiovisual materials such as songs and movies were employed in the learning process. Moreover, realia and online tools were included in activity planning. Teachers also manifested that they used the other materials suggested in chart number five such as charts, dialogues, stories, tales, documentaries, videos but in different times throughout the school year, and that the use of supplementary material in EFL classes is imperative so that students feel more confident and motivated in this learning process.
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

After that, the field research was carried out. The design utilized throughout this research was based on the qualitative and quantitative methods. The data collection was accomplished through observations during the EFL classes in a public and a private high school. Regarding this aspect, fifteen observations were performed in each high school during the EFL classes in order to identify how supplementary materials are being used in these educational institutions.

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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

Teaching English as a foreign language has always been a continuous challenge for teachers. Therefore, in the search for adequate resources for teaching, the use of supplementary materials in English classes has become an effective way to solve this issue. Supplementary materials have facilitated the language learning process because they have allowed teachers to use another material different from common textbooks. In this way, classes may become interactive preventing students from getting bored with typical textbooks and losing interest in the class. In addition, students evolve different skills such as thinking, making inferences and giving opinions about the material presented in class. Hence the use of these materials has increased through the last several years in EFL classes.
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The use of different genres of literature in efl classes

The use of different genres of literature in efl classes

The use of drama in EFL classes gives students the opportunity to work as a team, develops and express their ideas freely and become more confident in foreign language learning. While using drama, students actively participate and become more motivated to learn. The class becomes more fun and relaxed and students are more prone to overcoming the fear of interacting in another language and become more fluent in speaking. The use of drama also helps students develop and enhance organizational and presentation skills. More importantly, it helps them to build self- esteem and the sense of responsibility they will be using throughout their life in different real life situations. Drama and other literary genres bring the real world situations and create opportunities to students to run away from reality and hide in some other place as a different person.
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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

Teachers always have to be careful with losing control, when they do not know how to manage a lesson because the students do not like the subject or the teacher is not well prepared; they have a variable attention span, which the teacher has to be careful with. Adults are a kind of learners who are totally different to children, since at a higher age they are more analytical and tend to use translation to connect ideas and express themselves, as Wang (1999, p.13) claims. “They are likely to translate what they want to say in their L1 into an L2 that they are still struggling with”. In addition adults are good learners because they bring their experiences to the class, and they do not cause disciplinary problems like adolescents, but sometimes they do not like to do homework or tend to arrive late because of their daily activities. With them it is not necessary to play or sing songs all the time to get their cooperation. Nevertheless, Harmer (2003) explained that when adults get bored for any reason it is not necessary to treat them like children, thus some of them could respond well in classes if they are involved with
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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The general approach of this study is Qualitative and Quantitative. The qualitative data was collected in the observation sheets in which we ticked the supplementary material variables used by the teacher. In the description of the used material sheet, it was registered if the ticked material was used appropriately in relation to the topic and objectives of the class, to the student´s age and level; and if it was elaborated and applied with creativity and originality. In order to register the qualitative data on charts two, three and four, and determine if the used supplementary materials were pertinent and appropriate, we checked the observation and description sheet (annex 5) employed during the ten observed classes in each group of children. The quantitative data was based on the information of the observation sheets to determine the frequency of use of supplementary material. For the purpose of making the quantitative tabulation and establishing the frequency of use of supplementary material on chart five, we needed to go back to the observation and description sheet (annex 5) to define how many times each material was used in each group of children.
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The methodological component, which is shaped by the methods, resources, and techniques applied by teachers, is considered the most important one because if these aspects are successfully applied, the teaching-learning process will be of great importance to achieve effective results. That is why this research refers to the additional materials that teachers use in class, which play a very important role in English classes as a tool to facilitate the EFL learning process in private and public high schools.

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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

2 It is widely believed that starting the study of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) before the critical period -12 or 13 years old – will build more proficient speakers of English. However, there is no empirical evidence supporting the idea that an early start in English language learning in foreign language contexts produces better English speakers (Nunan 1999). Levels of proficiency seem to be dependent on other factors –type of program and curriculum, number of hours spent in English class, and techniques and activities used (Rixon 2000). If an early starts alone is not the solution, then what can EFL teachers of young learners do to take advantage of the flexibility of young minds and the malleability of young tongues to grow better speakers of English? As the age for English education lowers in classrooms across the globe, EFL teachers of young learners struggle to keep up with this trend and seek effective ways of teaching.
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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of Supplementary Materials for teaching languages in second and foreign language classes has brought enormous advantages to students as well as to teachers. Since English is the language which has spread all around the world it is important to consider the way these materials are being used in order to enhance teachers’ work. The core content of this research is given by Physiologists and educators who have widely investigated about this educational fact. For a better understanding of this work, some important definitions like: teaching a foreign language, learners, learning styles, teaching techniques, different context for teaching, and supplementary materials have been provided.
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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

construction of knowledge through inquiry. Teachers need to learn new methods and content to enact reform-based curriculum. Educative curriculum material designed to address teacher learning as well as student, is one potential vehicle. As part of this effort, science curriculum materials were developed that were consistent with constructivist ideas, addressed national and local goals for student learning and educative for teachers. The writers affirm that basically, teachers point put to technological means such as audio, audiovisual, visual, object, and online. In their criterion, videotaped classes are in vogue and they are part of the teachers and students preferences, given that these resources meet with learners‟ needs and
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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

addition, Cross suggests some techniques to use songs or rhymes: the ostensive way, where teachers use gestures or mimes to show the story; the translation way, which means that the used materials will be tr anslated to students‟ mother tongue; cloze tests where the key words are deleted and lastly the use of true/false statements in more difficult texts. Adding more information to this topic, Gerngross and Puchta (1996) point out the importance of audio materials to support grammar learning, listening comprehension, understanding other culture, teaching vocabulary and, obviously, having fun. They suggest being careful with the age and English level of class, and determining what it is that teachers want to teach; in the same way it is recommended to use repetitive songs in young learners‟ classes; for teenagers it is
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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

As stated before this research ’s goal is to facilitate and to improve English teaching in Ecuadorian elementary schools. It is important to outline some limitations. First of all, the sample used for the investigation is limited. The study is enclosed to Quito city and to one single school, which was private. In the school the teachers did not have supplementary material available to teach, they had to get it for themselves. The unique thing that they had was a cd player that each teacher should take to each classroom. The number of participants was just three grades (fourth, fifth, and sixth grades). The numbers of observations were few (10 classes), and they were done weekly. Also, some teachers were not friendly to the investigation. They did not allow anybody to observe their classes.
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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

6 The general approach of this study is the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis was conducted through the evaluation of the different supplementary materials used for teaching children in EFL classes in terms of pertinence, which means the importance of the material used in relation to the content, appropriateness that refers to the students´ level and understanding, and quality which refers to the design and elaboration of the supplementary materials. The quantitative analysis was focused to the variety of supplementary materials used in the three grades with regard to all the variables presented for this investigation. At this point, the frequency in which those variables were used in the different grades was also described.
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The use of supplementary material for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of supplementary material for teaching children in EFL classes

In the fourth level, the teacher took into account the visual, audio and kinesthetic style in the development of these classes. Extra visual materials such flashcards, posters, and whiteboard specially in order to learn a new vocabulary helped the students feel motivated through the observation of drawings as the repetition of the new words in the class for example, in relation to names of animals, body parts, kind of food and more. At the same time, these kinds of materials awoke students´ attention and curiosity to learn each one of the different topics in class. However, it was seen that most students learned better the topic through the audio style, that it, there was a song for example was related to the body parts and the students could pronounce a word or an certain expression listening to the song instead of just repeating that word looking at the whiteboard with the teacher or after the teacher. And finally, a lot of the students were skilled in the kinesthetic style for example, when the teacher taught the body parts. While the students sang the song related to the body parts, they moved their body, too and this style made easier the students´ understanding and learning, concerning this topic.
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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The fourth study was made by Kelsen (2009) with the help of sixty-nine participants at a private University in northern Taiwan, using You Tube as supplementary material to state if the incorporation of online material into traditional classroom situations improves teaching and learning meaningfully. The material used was the same textbook, materials science, supplement of textbook world link, computer, projector, internet, questionnaire in relation to the access to computers and experience using You Tube as well as others materials. You Tube videos included 18 clips related to different topics of the textbook. For example names of people, places, events, song, and music; each one selected for its relevance to the class. Furthermore the students were engaged in activities, as completing various cloze worksheets, split viewing watch and tell the story, and viewing to answer specific questions and spark discussions. Kelsen concludes saying that is important to give clear explanations about how to use this learning tool effectively and obtain outcomes through the use of You Tube as a source of supplementary material in EFL classroom. On the other hand he also explains that there were found positive results in some college students survey regarding their use of internet to study as well as the use of website in class outside of the classroom.
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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

Another study, which further shows the need of additional supplementary materials, provided by ShuDMei, Jonas, Tsai and Chuang (2010) suggested that in order to expand students’ learning capacity, more and diverse materials should be used to supplement the existing textbooks in the listening and speaking course. This was done by randomly choosing four Taiwanese college EFL learners sophomore listening and speaking classes from nonDEnglish major classes. They were students majoring in Childcare (CC), Environmental Engineering (EE), Nursing (NR) and Computer Technology (CT). The former two classes served as experimental groups (EG) while the latter served as control groups (CG). Childcare was taught by a local Taiwanese instructor and Environmental Engineering by a foreign instructor from an English speaking country.
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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

the learners’ interest in the lesson . As such, the good design and elaboration of this supplementary material offered the teacher a vivid and tangible way of teaching EFL. Dialogues During the third observed class, the lesson theme was language skills consolidation, and the objectives were as follows: to reinforce the students’ knowledge of the present tense, to practice listening, speaking, and pronunciation, and to consolidate vocabulary. In this class, using the dialogue, which was about ‘ Two F riends’ , was pertinent to the objectives of the lesson since it contained an interesting language input which was for the students a means of consolidating their language knowledge. That is to say, the dialogue, recorded on a CD, enabled the learners to get first involved in listening and at the same time initiate their involvement in practicing pronunciation of what they heard since the dialogue was played by parts. Second, the content of this supporting material offered the learners an opportunity to reinforce the language forms and vocabulary already known by them. Finally, the use of the dialogue was for the pupils a starting point to talk a little about friendship (what the dialogue was about) so that they could practice their speaking. As such, this teaching aid helped the teacher accomplish the objectives of the lesson.
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The se of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes.

The se of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes.

The teacher used the white board to write the topic of the tenth class and to write the grammar structures reviewed in the last classes. He divided the area of the white board in three parts; the first column for simple past / affirmative sentences, the second column for simple past /negative sentences, and the third column for simple past/question sentences. Then, the teacher organized the students in three groups for a competition game; a student from each group came out to the board to write examples on each column. All students participated on the activity and they were motivated because, as Ur (2006) explains, they were involved in the learning process in an enjoyable way ; for this reason the material was appropriate to students’ age and level. The material was also pertinent to the lesson because the teacher used it to review concepts that students have already learned; however, other types of materials that students would prefer were: flash cards, charts, handouts, maps, songs, tales, movies, documentaries and websites.
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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes

Another study about the effects of audio visual materials was done by Mekheimer in 2008 to know the impact of videos on whole language learning in EFL context; its objective was to measure improvements in students‟ four language skills. This study was designed as a longitudinal experiment and took place during one academic year; the sample was structured as follows: thirty three students were part of the experimental group and thirty one students were part of the control group. Both groups were pre and post tested to evaluate their performance in their language skills, the experimental group received instruction with videos and the control group was taught using only the course textbooks. The results of the pre test did not show significant results but results from the post test demonstrated that students performed better and they improved their language skills. Then, the author of this study concluded that videos were effective materials that improve language skills and the more authentic is the material the more it is pedagogically useful. However, this study was constrained by the fact that motivation, attitude, and interest level were not measured.
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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes.

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes.

Holmes (2008) pointed out that English is a language learnt and taught in many different contexts and class arrangements. Harmer (2007) keeps saying that we have to discriminate the contexts of EFL teachers versus ESL teachers. In the first case teachers are working with students whose purpose is to travel to another country to put into practice what they are learning. On the other hand, ESL teachers are interacting with students who live in the target-language country. So, the second group has an advantage over the first group because their context lets them be exposed to the language in a vivid way.
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