This paper aims to report a research carried out within ninth graders at Silvano Caicedo Giron School in the Rural Zone of Buenaventura – Valle del Cauca. The main objective of this research was to detemine how EFLstudents‟ interaction occur when implementing Task-Based learning in English lessons. To conduct the study, the type of design chosen was the action research due to it allowed to identify the problem of students‟ interaction in English class and describe a way of how to improve it through implementing TBL. The instruments to collect the data were students‟ intervews, observacion of video-recordings and journal,as they are useful sources to gather and analyze the data about students‟ interaction. as final results it is found that when the students get engaged in communicative tasks in which they have to communicate each another to fullfill communicative goals they increase their oral interaction progressively. Finally, it is worth to say that this research was also a way to show the school that students‟ interaction in class is possible to enhance rove it by working with task-based learning.
effective method of teaching English and to improve their own English language communicative skills in order to be acknowledgeable in their English teaching. Also, their standard to teach and evaluate English is taking from the European context, unlike of teachers from other areas who are trained no just in a specific area like math or science but in all aspects related to education such as education laws, didactics, pedagogic, curriculum, student’s context. The last one is the most unknown aspect for EFL teachers, this research paper considered the elementary and secondary EFLstudents in Colombian schools where there is a diversity of students in the classroom, students from different socio-cultural backgrounds, dysfunctional families or students with learning disabilities. There are other aspects which can affect the learning process and these should be known in so some way by the EFL teachers in order to understand their students in a holistic way.
“Reading is one of the four skills which is very important to gain knowledge and very essential for academic life” (Shabani, 2017, p. 548). As graphic organizers assist students in the comprehension of a text (Öztürk, 2012), this study reports a classroom-based action research project which describes the effects of graphic organizers as a reading strategy to identify the main idea and text organization for EFLstudents from a computer systems technician program in Cali. The study was conducted taking into account some social factors and individual factors that interfere in the learning process of the beginner EFL student participants. This study involved two implementation groups and two reference groups. The effects of graphic organizers were studied in the implementation groups through rubrics and semi-structured interviews. The reference groups were given the same material and activities but without the instruction of graphic organizers. After analyzing the collected data, it was found that graphic organizers helped students from the implementation groups improve their reading comprehension skill to a great extent. Also, it could be observed that students’ motivation increases and levels of anxiety decreased when using graphic organizers for reading comprehension. Additionally, findings also reported that the use of graphic organizers helped students to recall information and improve their oral skill at a very basic level. The results also showed that female students performed better than male students when reporting their understanding of the readings. Finally, it was observed that older women showed the greatest progress in their reading comprehension.
It is common knowledge that most EFLstudents tend to feel anxious when they have to communicate orally in their target language. The present study applied an action research technique using cooperative work to conduct the research to analyze the EFLstudents’ speaking skills. It is thought that this type of task could help them improve their spoken skills in English since it involves classroom interaction. This dissertation also tackled some difficulties which EFLstudents encountered when communicating in their L2, such as speaking anxiety, fear of failure, lack of L2 exposure and classroom environment among others. Students were divided into two groups according to their level of English. The main research material used in this study was an oral presentation in groups of three people which they prepared beforehand and then delivered to the rest of the class. Their oral performance was analyzed taking into account specific criteria such as pauses, speech rate, repetitions, self-corrections, pronunciation, memorization and their body language. The findings revealed that these EFL learners had great difficulties to express themselves in their L2; hence, different speaking activities are included at the end of the study to enhance and improve Spanish EFL secondary-school students’ speaking skills.
The results obtained in our research coincide with our initial predictions. As it has been reflected in the previous section, Spanish EFLstudents tended to make more substitution, elimination and addition errors than other error categories in their English spelling. They made a higher quantity of the errors that, according to our assumption, imply an interference of the Spanish orthography (L1). The fact that 78,4% of the detected errors were of substitution, elimination and addition reflects that the Spanish language actually intervenes decisively in the English spelling of Spanish EFLstudents. The cognates we incorporated to the study presented a high L1 orthographic interference, since only a minority of the errors belonged to other error categories. Thus we considered that L1 interference is a bigger cause of orthographic error than other factors such as L2 lack of knowledge or L1 phonetic interference. Additionally, the participants’ degree of familiarity was higher with words that had substitution,
This last aspect was included in the PF because it involved students’ emotions and expressed the way in which they felt at the time of being asked to demonstrate what they could say in English or even address to the teacher in the foreign language. Anxiety emerged as the result of the lack of English instruction regarding speaking as this student stated “Yo por ejemplo me estreso cada vez que pienso que me puede tocar participar… Si me dijeran que pronunciara como yo puedo pues sí, pero nos piden que sepamos pronunciar lo que nunca hemos escuchado (S13)”. This is a very valid point due to many English teachers force students tread small paragraphs when they have not had any previous input. Another student made reference to the permissions they have to ask in English and how she felt everytime she needed to go to the restroom, “Yo me escribo la pronunciación en la mano y ya cuando llego al escritorio para pedir permiso voy hasta con las manos sudadas y todo se me borra… Eso me frustra y más si realmente necesito salir (S15)”.
Regarding the causes that contribute to foreign language anxiety in learners, Al- Saraj (2014) explains that they are not fully understood. This means that there are not specific causes that lead to foreign language anxiety in learners. The author mentioned before also states that “foreign language anxiety can be provoked by many situations, such as not knowing the meaning of a word and speaking in front of peers ” this cause is the one that affects most of the foreign language learners. This is due to the fact that they do not have a wide knowledge of the foreign language so they might not be able to express in the same way as in their mother tongue. This fear to say something bad in front of the class makes students reluctant to participate in most of the activities that involve speaking. Horwitz, et al (1986) indicate that the beliefs of some students might make them become anxious. These students believe that they do not have to talk until they have learned everything about the foreign language. This might create frustration in them because they are afraid to make mistakes in class or in public.
Furthermore, as it was stated in the justification, Corder (1967) claims that errors are significant in several ways. First, errors serve as a way for the teacher to evidence how much the learner has progressed in achieving proficiency in the target language and also how much he or she still needs to learn. Second, errors are useful for researchers as they give insights on how the language is acquired, as for example the strategies students use in their learning process. Third, errors are useful for the learner himself as he/ she can “learn from his/her own mistakes” (Corder, 1967); also the learner can use errors as a way to test his/ her hypothesis of the target language (p.161). “At the level of pragmatic classroom experience, error analysis will continue to provide a method by which the teacher assesses learning and teaching and determines priorities for future effort.” (Richards, 1974, p.15).
pedagogical and research process that can be improved. This is a systematic process that allows planning, acting, observing, reflecting; and then evaluating, refining and improving the following cycle until the end of the process. In the planning step, I defined the story students were going to read as well as the pre, while and post reading activities that most fitted within the story. For instance, the first story was “Ali and the Magic Carpet,” aspects such as vocabulary, easy grammar structures, extension, and easy understanding were taken into account. After that, I started to propose motivating activities in order to encourage students to pay attention to the storyteller and then to read the story. Besides, a video and a Power Point presentation were used to make the story understandable.
Connelly and Clandinin (2000) pose that when we talk to other people about ourselves we are telling life stories. In other words, when people narrate their experiences, are using language as a means to show their personality and identity. Narratives, in words of Norton and Early (2011), have a close relation to language because it is as a social practice in which people negotiate their identities and tell their experiences. Narrating is also a way through which humans explore their own feelings, thoughts and intentions to be aware of their social behavior (McEwan & Egan, 1995). Everybody has many experiences in their lives and might be of different types; social, subjective, objective among others, but in this study learning experiences acquire importance since it is pretended to understand EFL university students’ academic life stories regarding their experiences in the transition from traditional learning environments to a blended one.
he second limitation we faced relates to the fact that this study emerged from a major study. he objective of that study was to research the efect of face-to-face and web-based English reading comprehension courses in graduate students at the Universidad de Antioquia. Accordingly, the data collection techniques were addressed to explore students’ interaction, motivation, perceptions and strategies used in these two modalities of in- struction. Although the focus of the major study was not only to search the students’ perceptions about this modality, we decided to conduct this minor study because we observed and could infer the dif- ferent perceptions the participants had when we collected and analyzed the data. For further research, we considered it necessary to design data collec- tion instruments that directly addressed the subject matter and that could deeply explore students’ per- ceptions about web-based distance courses and how these perceptions change throughout the course.
The main category “Social identities in relation to gender” has its name because its relation to the main question is crucial. To remind the reader, the present research project intends to identify the different identities that are discursively constructed by EFL learners when facing gendered short stories. Also, Taylor and Spencer (2004) once stated, “we have a collection of social selves, and our identities are influenced by such things as class, gender, sexuality, race, nationality, religion and the media” (p. 1). The various social identities that were constructed during the process of data collection were related to gender topics, as the different short stories participants read worked as an excuse to unveil them in the classroom through conversations and debates they built. Besides, during this construction process, students could share, relate, and negotiate their own social identities through the dialogues they sustained with their own classmates or what Hogg and Tindale (2005) call in-group members.
This research project, developed at Uniminuto University, emerged from the difficulties that the lexical category of prepositions causes to EFL learners in general. The researchers were interested in analyzing how a group of students used prepositions in a written task taken from one of their exams. In order to approach the understanding of this phenomenon, the researchers based the analysis on the interlanguage hypothesis, which states that second language learner’s errors are a key to understand their interlanguage (linguistic system) in terms of prepositional usage. As for the methodology of analysis, researchers decided to use the method known as Error Analysis, which is a systematic procedure for analyzing linguistic samples by using taxonomies. 55 EFL learners participated in this research, the group belonged to the course Anglophone Language and Culture VI and the students came from four different groups. After completing the analysis, the conclusion is that prepositions presented a difficult challenge for all the levels of proficiency within the selected courses, and intralingual strategies of learners mainly produced such errors.
Most of these students do not attend this TSW apparently because they are obliged to do so. Most of them come to this school because they expect to learn, they have specific learning outcomes, defined by Watson (2002:208, in Maher 2004:1) as “being something that students can do now and that they could not do previously … a change in people as a result of a learning experience”. These learning outcomes are strongly related to their needs and goals. These students showed interest in professional development and improving their competence. Regarding the EFL courses at this TSW, students expect that learning English will be beneficial to them. Some of them study the language because they want to obtain a diploma which may give them a higher status in the Educational system so that they can get a better salary or payment, and of course a different kind of life. Some others, although they are not English teachers, think that some time in the future they will teach the language, that is why they are preparing themselves for facing this challenge when they need it. Others enrolled in this school for personal development.
EDUARDO CORTÉS SÁNCHEZ 2015 In this model, the role of student is centered, which is the result of a partnership among schools, families and communities working collaboratively in order to increase motivation in students to achieve their goals. The role of parents is fostering success in their home setting through communicative activities such as school activities, homework, parent- teacher meetings and other school activities. This model supports a well-planned parental involvement program that integrates school and communities but according to Epstein (2009), cited in Benn (2011), a balanced communication is only fostered when positive partnerships are implemented in those schools.
This paper analyzes the benefits of using film, literature, and theater to promote students authoring texts on critical social issues through inquiry-based learning as an action model for an English as a Foreign Language Class (EFL). The goal of the project is to give students the opportunity to make connections between texts and develop a social - critical written text. Currently, it becomes evident the need to make a change in the educational field, in other words, to open the possibility to transform educational practice focused on the transmission of knowledge and the standardized models to allow students to investigate, ask, search and analyze real social problems they are concerned or have curiosity about. Short (2009) states “[c]hildren need to be able to think conceptually in order to identify critical issues of our society and be able to apply their understanding and knowledge in future contexts” (p. 14). However, education generates a deprived thought of questioning separating the broad possibilities to reinforce the ability to create new ideas through significant inquiry, social literacie and literary criticism in the
Unlike Truscott (1999), who argued that teachers are responsible for changing student attitudes towards the benefits of error correction by taking a “correction-free approach” in their classrooms, most researchers consider teacher correction a central practice in EFL and ESL contexts and have proved its effectiveness. In his study, Zhang (1985) found out that teacher feedback was more effective for improving grammatical errors than peer or self-correction. Affective factors are also important in the success of feedback and studies suggest that students have a preference for teacher feedback over other types (Saito, 1994; Sengupta, 1998; Zhang, 1995).
Self-Directed Learning (SDL) refers to the process in which students develop the ability/need/motivation to learn by themselves. This concept was first approached in works conducted in the United States by Tough (1967; 1971) whose purpose was to understand how adults learn. According to Merriam in 2001, SDL emerged from researchers’ tries to seek for a method that enabled them to distinguish the ways children and adults learnt. This process works individually and in groups, but the main point is that students take control of their learning process. The teacher works mainly as a guide, letting students make their own choices when studying, this helps them because they are able to choose how they want to study, and what to study, based on their personal interests and strengths. Students identify their learning goals, think about the resources they need and collaborate with their classmates working as a community in order to obtain experience and knowledge due to the variety of opinions (Garland, 1993).
This study is based on implementing backward design to improve students’ academic assessment, so public high school students can take part of meaningful contexts where they show what they learned at the end of a class term. Taking in consideration, backward design is a great tool to be applied for public high schools where most of the classes are textbooks centered, provoking students’ frustration due to the lack of English knowledge from schools. There is a high rate of students failing courses because students are placed in English levels where they do not belong to or they come from other institutions where they did not learn English. Backward design lets teachers be creative and use skills and methodologies according to students’ needs and be very reflexive in the way of designing it. In this study, pairedT_Test is applied to compare scores from the same level, but using different ways of testing. In conclusion, the experimental group (G2), in which backward design was applied, got better results than the controlled group (G1), who did not apply it. In this case the independent variable which mean and scores are high. Results show backward design is very meaningful not only for students, but also for teachers. It is true that running appropriate action plans, selecting the best resources and conducting a final assessment through a performance task, gave the opportunity for students to gain more confidence on the language and apply it in a real context.