Between 1950 and 1990, an analogous process, the Green Revolution, brought unprecedented rises in food production, falls in poverty, and humandevelopment (including better health and education) to much of South and East Asia and Central America. These outcomes then fuelled more farm growth. However, this virtuous circle has become a crawl since 1990. Farm yield growth and poverty reduction have slowed right down — before even reaching most of Africa, uplands, and drylands. The farm changes of 1950– 1990 were based on the adoption of mainly public sector research by smallholders, employment intensively and with irrigation or fairly secure rainfall. But agricultural research has shifted to the private sector; its results have become less smallholder friendly and less employment intensive; poverty has concentrated in rural areas with little water control; and rural water shortages are intensifying. The positive connections between agricultural research and humandevelopment have sharply weakened. This paper explores those connections, and how to revive them.
Humandevelopment (HD) is dened as the improvement of the human condition so that people live longer, healthier and fuller lives. In the development of the concept of HD under the leadership of Mahbub ul Haq, some aspects of HD were related to people’s physical well-being, such as health, nutrition and education, and others to the widening of choice and enhanced empowerment, including participation, political freedoms and cultural aspects. While we recognize the importance of both dimensions, this paper will be restricted to the physical aspects of HD. As a review of any of the United Nations Development Programme HumanDevelopment Reports (HDRs) indicates, country performance has differed considerably across both developed and developing countries. Our analysis will be concerned with explaining such divergence among developing countries. The focus is on developing countries partly because of the concentration on the material aspects, which weigh more heavily there, and partly because we believe somewhat different considerations apply in developed countries. The paper aims to identify the main elements of successful developing country performance in HD and arrive at some conclusions for policy, in the light of 10 years of experience in analyzing HD in the HDRs.
A crucial purpose of the preparation of the HDRs, Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and MDGRs is to sensitize policy-makers to humandevelopment issues. This requires ownership of the HDRs by a variety of stakeholders — governments, civil society and academics, to name a few. The issue of the data used is crucial here. The Global HDRs use global sets of data that are compiled from official statistics reported by various countries. These global data sets are often inadequate in bringing to the fore the types of issues that are more central to people’s concerns. The very compilation of data is an issue that needs to be addressed more squarely. Who collects the data? What is the purpose for which such data are collected? Who gains access to such data? For people-centred development to have meaning, the data collected should be relevant to them and be accessible to them. However, the demands of reporting on uniform indicators at the national and international levels imply that there have to be standardized formats for reporting and compilation of data. The demands that these seemingly contrary requirements make is a challenge that has yet to be addressed, which is only a necessary step for it to be resolved. The question is whether the NSS are geared to transform the way in which they function in order to meet this challenge.
There is a tendency for people to modify a new term, and to stretch it to an extent that can damage its integrity. Thus the term ‘informal’ was extended beyond employment to ‘informal housing’, ‘informal finance’, and so on; and the term ‘sustainable’ has become grossly over-used. As I have argued elsewhere, the fact that a new term is flexible and its constituency diverse has considerable advantages in terms of its gaining wide acceptance; but this may be achieved at the cost of the clarity and focus of its content. ‘Social capital’ can mean all things to all people (McNeill, 2004). By contrast, the concept humandevelopment, being more explicitly opposed to another — arguably the dominant — perspective, is less susceptible to distortion. And the specific words matter. The fact that the word ‘human’ cannot be regarded as a neologism is an asset in this context. Simply adding the word ‘sustainable’ to a text sometimes gives the appearance that concern for the environment is taken care of; but the effect is rather different in the case of the word ‘human’. It is important, I suggest, that humandevelopment did not merely add to, but explicitly opposed, the dominant neo-liberal paradigm. In this respect it differs from other ideas I have studied that have tended to be less confrontational. The idea of ‘sustainable development’, for example, sought to extend and supplement — rather than directly confront — the established wisdom; as did the idea of ‘social capital’. This contrasts with the case of the informal sector, and of women in development/gender and development. In each of these examples, the more radical interpretation represented quite a fundamental challenge; but it was the reformist version that generally prevailled. This, I suggest, was an important factor
The main data set is Gray and Purser’s (2009) extended quinquenial database on human the development index components, per capita income, life expectancy, literacy and gross enrolment ratios. This panel ranges over 111 countries over the period 1970-2005. This database is complemented with data from the World Development Indicators (2008) 2 and Polity IV (2009) 3 . The explanatory variables cover the following categories: institutions, trade, physical geography and economic geography. The first three categories are regarded by researchers seeking exogenous determinants of economic growth as the ultimate causes of economic growth. Researchers studying path dependence mainly study dynamics in humandevelopment (including the demographic transition), economic geography and technology. Humandevelopment indices are already included in the study. The only quinquennial indicator in economic geography found in the World Development Indicators is urbanization. There is unfortunately no suitable indicator for technology adoption.
If we consider alternative synthetic indicators from the international literature such as the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) produced within the World Economic Forum (WEF) or the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare proposed by Cobb and Daly (1989), reformulated by Cobb and Cobb (1994) and calculated for a few selected countries by the Friends of the Earth association, it is clear that the HDI methodology is easier to implement if the scope of the analysis is not only to build a ranking among countries for a specific year, but also to compare the historical trends of sustainable development within a complex area such as the European region. The ESI methodology requires a large number of indicators (68) in order to represent the environmental aspect of development, and omits some key information on the human dimension of development. The Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare methodology has been criticized for arbitrary variable definitions from one country to another, producing results that are not directly comparable (Neumayer, 2000). The HDI methodology, on the other hand, requires few variables and guarantees longer time series and a full comparison among countries. The Generalized HumanDevelopment Index described in Chakravarty (2003) for k attributes of well-being gives us the theoretical framework within which the HDI could be extended with the environ- mental components. Four of the five properties suggested by the author (normalization, monotonicity, translation invariance, and homogeneity) guarantee that the HDI methodology including other factors (environ- ment, natural resources, or social stability) does not fail to achieve the original measurement goal of an ‘attainment index’.
the present politico-administrative design was defined; the firm commitment of the Cuban Government to the PDHLs in the second half of the 1990s; the adoption in state companies, following the Vth Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba, of policies to improve entrepreneurial capacities; or, the firm commitment by the government to confront gender discrimination and achieve greater equity between men and women (A ´ lvarez, 1997, pp. 119-20; Oficina Nacional de Estadı´sticas de Cuba, 2009, pp. 9-12; Guzo´n, 2004, p. 10; PDHL, 2007, p. 3; PNUD, HEGOA, 2008, p. 24; de la Cruz, 2009, pp. 4-5; CEDAW, 2004). With respect to development results, in general terms, throughout the process of sugar reconversion there has been an improvement in the levels of training and qualification of both men and women, although not in the same fields, thanks to the training initiatives contained in the PDHLs. Attention should be drawn to the different editions of the training diploma of managers for the process of agro-industrial reconversion in the context of local humandevelopment, because it has introduced the content of the new approaches to development (humandevelopment, on the one hand, and content referring to sustainable development, endogenous development, regional development and local development, on the other). This has been a fundamental tool for understanding the conceptual foundations on which the PDHLs applied to the reconversion of Holguı´n rest. On the other hand, it has made possible the acquisition of specific technical tools for planning and managing the new initiatives of economic and productive development, both local initiatives and those proceeding from international collaboration.
However, Costa Rica’s poverty level is comparatively low in the Latin American context. In perspective, one in three Latin Americans (180 million people in the region) still lives below the poverty line. In spite of scant progress in abating current levels of poverty, the country continues to stand out as an example of a middle- income country with comparatively high levels of humandevelopment. The profile of the poor population also shows little change in the last twenty years, a situation signaling the lack of effectiveness by a wide range of public policies and programs aimed at improving schooling and the quality of jobs. Poverty is mainly concentrated in people under 18 years of age, jobless, with incomplete primary education or low education levels in general, smallholders, and agricultural workers. It also has an increasingly urban face and persistently occurs in female-headed households. In between 1990 and 2012 the gap in the average schooling of the poor and the non-poor has widened.
Several authors have tried to identify which factors play an important role in explaining the differences in the level of humandevelopment between countries. Ranis et al. (2000) show that economic growth is one of the most important features. Fields (1989), Deninger and Squire (1996) and Bruno et al. (1995) arrive at similar conclusions, adding that the reduction of poverty and human underdevelopment is dramatically linked to the level of income inequality. Lipton (1977), Ranis (1979) and Stewart (1977) show that the type of economic growth is important as well, since a growth process associated with unemployment reduction and increasing rural income is much more efficient in reducing poverty than a growth process based on intensive capital and urban development. As far as government spending is concerned, Strauss and Thomas (1995) show how government spending on social security 4 and welfare affects humandevelopment positively, using recently available micro-level data. It is thus extremely important to understand which factors determine the breakdown of government expenditures in order to be able to enforce clear poverty reduction strategies.
Or consider the words reportedly spoken by Vising Rathod, a Hindu and notary public, about his action during an episode of cult violence in the Indian state of Gujarat. Leaving the safety of his house and pushing through a crowd of rioters, he had helped pull 25 Muslims from a burning mosque. ‘I did it out of humanity, because in my heart I knew it was the right thing to do’, he said. ‘There is much affection between the Hindus and Muslims here, and I could not just stand by and let them die. What has happened is shameful’ (quoted in Duff-Brown, 2002, p. A12). He speaks of connection, heart, affection, shame. More broadly-based skillful use of reason and emo- tion, it is true, could have led to a society in which Rathod’s Hindu neighbors would not have set the fire. But the world that Rathod, and we, live in today is not that world. Could anything less than ‘heart’ have moved him to action? Will anything less than heart actively promote humandevelopment, on a global scale?
development reporting a decade ago, some countries were doing astonish- ingly well despite low income, through concentration on particular types of social interventions, such as educational expansion, basic health care and epidemiology, and so on. The HumanDevelopment Reports duly recorded their success. However, it emerged that some of these economies also had basic problems which had not been adequately addressed, in the form of lack of transparency in business transactions which made them rather fragile. Perhaps more importantly, there was also the extreme vulnerability in a downturn of those whose economic viability depended entirely on a buoyant market — without any social safety net. While people were united on the way up, they were often very divided as they fell. The importance of this phenomenon, that of human security in general, requires a reorientation of factual concentration and of proper reection in development accounting. Fourth, there is the issue of democracy — its acceptance, and its working and practice. This also needs to be more fully taken up in the broad picture of humandevelopment. There is, related to this, the issue of accountability and the sharing of social responsibility.
Abstract This paper uses cross-national data to investigate the extent to which the adoption of humandevelopment strategies has resulted in a reduction of poverty in Africa. Inter-country variations in income and human poverty reinforce the established patterns of well-being within the continent, as countries in Northern and Southern Africa have the lowest levels of poverty. The empirical analysis reveals that inter-country differences in poverty levels can be accounted for by variables indicative of the different facets of humandevelopment. These include public expenditure on education, primary school enrolment, female educational enrolment, expenditure on health, and good governance. Other significant variables apart from those pertaining to humandevelopment are economic growth, high external debt, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the geographical disadvantage of being a landlocked country. The paper also shows that foreign aid has had a limited effect on poverty reduction in Africa.
Led by the pioneering work of the United Nations Development Pro- gramme (UNDP), the United Nations (UN) system has presented a significant challenge to mainstream development perspectives focusing purely on eco- nomic growth. A central contribution to the process has been the UN’s advocacy of a sustainable humandevelopment perspective (SHD) as an essential strat- egy for the future of human existence. For South Africa, SHD implies a rapid process of redress, social reconciliation, nation building, economic growth and humandevelopment alongside the sus- tainable utilisation of natural resources. The process of enlarging people’s choices is central to human develop- ment. Such choices are related, not only to goods and services, but to expanding human capabilities. The human devel- opment index measures a person’s capability to lead a healthy life, to have access to resources and opportunities and to be knowledgeable. Humandevelopment is also about political, social, economic and cultural freedom, a sense of community and opportunities to be creative and productive. In short, humandevelopment is about what people do and can do in their lives 6 .
high levels of one of the two elements neces- sarily translate into high levels of the other. A first conclusion that can be drawn is that the humandevelopment variable is not enough, on its own, to explain the complex phenomenon of migration. A greater level of humandevelopment is not always accompa- nied by lower emigration, nor is a low level of humandevelopment always a factor in emi- gration. Many variables —whose impact is also difficult to analyse— come together in terms of the origin and the persistence of mi- grations: economic inequalities and work and salary differences in the first instance, but also differences in politics (some places are more democratic than others or have higher levels of personal freedom); social issues (more widespread and consolidated protection systems); cultural aspects (some lifestyles are seen as more attractive than others); as well as the pressure on the coun- tries of origin of instability, insecurity, recu- rring crises and open conflicts, together with the availability of networks that allow migra- tion to exist and to be maintained.
What could be said though, is that professor Max-Neef represents part of a quite progressive generation of economist during the 1970s who pointed out on building a more equal world. Trying to bring about alternative ideas for different development models mostly in developing countries (see the Dag´s Hammarskjöld Foundation work). Yet, and despite of his successful empirical work, I believe, his decision of not giving more conceptual basis for the theories developed by him and his colleagues, discouraged further practical work and the broadening of many of their conceptual and philosophical sources. Latin American countries, very specifically: grassroots-based communities and groups, have followed on his work and indeed have benefited from its application. As he says, the H-SD methodology was perhaps the most photocopied document in the 1980s across the southern Latin-American hemisphere. He has been lately recovering his writing records and it is with enthusiasm that the academic community awaits new insights and debates in relevant development issues tackled on years before.
abstract: In the digital age, the Media are today, fortunately, affordable instru- ments that progressively allow all human beings –up to now confined and silent– to know what is happening anywhere in the world, being able, in addition, to express their own views and opinions. This article insists on the value of Communication to achieve the equality of the human being in all the senses. “The same dignity –writes the author– as the foundation of the world we long for.” Keywords: Communication; Equality; Development; Internatio- nal Cooperation; Citizenship.
On the relation between income and humandevelopment, Molina and Purser (2010), using a previous version of the database used here, with less countries, find that the income and non-income components of HDI change have a near-zero correlation, and that income is not a significant determinant of HDI change once urbanization, fertility and female schooling are included. They check their results using years of women’s suffrage as an instrument for changes in gender relations, and find that it is a significant predictor of HDI progress for the whole sample. For instance, McGuire (2010) shows that the introduction of a gender quota for the lower house of the provincial legislature in Argentina had a statistically significant and substantively strong association with lower infant mortality. Summarizing, Molina and Purser find that humandevelopment trends from 1970 to 2005 fit with the longer term trend of demographic and population change. As they cite, demographic transitions, urbanization and declining fertility rates have accelerated life- expectancy and literacy achievements over the past half-century (UNDESA, 2009a). The occupational aspect of the gender transition is important on its own and combines with the fertility transition (Galor and Weil, 1996).
Photonic crystals are periodic optical nanostructures that affect the motion of photons in much the same way that semiconductors affect electrons. Mathematically, the dynamics of the light in photonic crystals is described by a frst order differential Hamiltonian, called Maxwell operator. If the periodic structure of the photonic crystal is perturbed by an external slow varying feld an adiabatic expansion (in the spirit of the Spatial Adiabatic Perturbation Theory) is possible. As a frst step to deriving effective dynamics (more properly called ray optics), I proved in a preliminary work  in collaboration with M. Lein that the perturbed periodic Maxwell operator can be seen as a pseudodifferential operator. This result necessitates a better characterization of the behavior in frequency of the physical initial states at small crystal momenta and small frequencies. This frst work provided us the starting point for the development of the semiclassical analysis for the dynamic of the light inside an isotropic photonic crystal that is modulated on the macroscopic level. In  we proved that the slow modulation produces an adiabatic decoupling of the light dynamic which can be effectively described by a simpler reduced Hamiltonian. The latter shows the structure of a matrix-valued Harper operator and this seems to be a good indication for the appearance of a Hofstadter-like pattern of spectra also in the ambit of the physics of photonic crystals.
Relational education is not limited to utility nor is it merely a vehicle for solving social problems. It sees the indivi dual as the main subject of all social action, open to his or her setting and to others, and constantly committed to society and social improvement, beyond his or her material well-being. It seeks to educate active and committed citizens who can create rela- tionships and goods for others in line with human nature and in which reciprocity, team work, and assistance are key ele- ments (Sandoval & Garro, 2012). One challenge in entrepreneurship education is to contribute to the establishment of solid, meaningful, and ethical social rela- tionships and give them meaning beyond utilitarian criteria. In this approach, the pillars supporting entrepreneurship ed- ucation are social virtues like sociabili- ty, solidarity, and social cooperation, the service dimension, and the common good because they show the supportive poten- tial and humanising character of relation- ships. Individuals are capable of identify- ing shared objectives and goals based on shared needs and so come to create a col- lective identity in which all of them rec- ognise themselves, always respecting and welcoming the personal identity of each one (Sandoval & Garro, 2012). This way, relationships are humanised and the indi- vidualism that denies the relational char- acter of the individual and closes it in on itself is avoided.
The photons from solar radiation that have more energy at the earth's surface level correspond to ultraviolet radiation. For this reason they produce biological actions of relevance to human health, such as skin burns, cataracts, vision and break of the bonds of DNA molecules . It have been defined internationally an index on the erythematic action (reddening of human skin) of this radiation, called UVI  which is a measure of the intensity of UV radiation on Earth's surface. Its value is bigger than zero and as it increases, the possibility of producing injuries in the skin and sight growths. This index can be obtained by measuring or by calculating its value based on models. The expression to calculate the UVI is based on the reference action spectrum of the erythemal of the International Commission on Illumination (ICI) and it is normalized to 1 for the 298 nm. The referral rate is dimensionless and is defined for a horizontal surface by the following expression: