Before the year 1912, the EnglishLanguageTeaching in high schools of Ecuador was completely strange. It was after that year that this language started to be taught in many schools of this country. It became mandatory all over in Ecuador in 1950, under the government of Galo Plaza Lasso. At first, there were fewer hours of Englishteaching and there were not enough English teachers, but with the course of time, this situation changed favorably. Twenty years ago, the EnglishLanguageTeaching in Ecuador improved thanks to the project CLADLE, implemented by the Ministry of Education of Ecuador. Later on, the education experienced positive changes when Rafael Correa became the new president of Ecuador in 2007. His government also made some changes regarding teacher and student rights. Now English teachers have to take a TOEFL test and get a B2 level certificate or higher. Fortunately, over the last twenty years, the EnglishLanguageTeaching in Ecuador has gradually developed, to such an extent that it is now taught in every school, either public, private or parochial schools.
“ Yo , Pazmiño Paredes Diana Carolina declaro ser autor (a) del presente trabajo de fin detitulación: “Factors that influence the Englishlanguageteaching- learning process in Ecuadorian privat e high schools” , de la Titulación de Ciencias de la Educación mención Inglés, siendo Mgs. Nina Nesterenko director (a) del presente trabajo; y eximo expresamente a la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja y a sus representantes legales de posibles reclamos o acciones legales. Además certifico que las ideas, conceptos, procedimientos y resultados vertidos en el presente trabajo investigativo, son de mi exclusiva responsabilidad.
The analysis of the factors affecting the teaching-learning process opened the opportunity for this research with the topic “Factors that affect the Englishlanguageteaching-learning process in Ecua dorian public high schools” . Its purpose is to analyze the factors that affect the Englishlanguageteaching-learning process. The specific objectives that are tried to reach with this study are determine the classroom conditions in which English lessons take place, identify the characteristics of in- service English teachers , and determine teachers’ instructional compete nce. Previous researches related to the theme have been conducted in different countries. One of the studies was conducted by Oyinloye (2010) and the purpose of the study was to establish the teachers’ and students’ perception about classroom
The aim of this research is to inform about the factors that influence Englishlanguage learning. The purpose is to analyze the aspects that influence the Englishlanguageteaching- learning process. This research was done in Valle de los Chillos- Quito, Pichincha Province. The sample selected was a group of 15 teachers in 7 different private High Schools. The age of students varied from 13 to 18 years old. There was a quantitative method applied for showing the exact results of this research. Different instruments such as questionnaires, interviews, and observations were used. The data was tallied, categorized, and analyzed based on four factors: teachers, student, classroom, and educational institutions.
“Yo Torres Falcón Christian Oswaldo declaro ser autor(a) del presente trabajo de fin de titulación: “Factors that influence the Englishlanguageteaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools” , de la Titulación de Ciencias de la Educación mención Inglés, siendo Lisset Vanessa Toro Gallardo director (a) del presente trabajo; y eximo expresamente a la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja y a sus representantes legales de posibles reclamos o acciones legales. Además certifico que las ideas, conceptos, procedimientos y resultados vertidos en el presente trabajo investigativo, son de mi exclusiva responsabilidad.
Nowadays in Latin American countries, learning English has become a requirement for many different activities in people’s life, especially the ones who want to increase professional status and personal development. Thus, Ecuador’s government has changed the policies and laws to improve the way of Englishlanguageteaching, and it has also invested in resources, training and educational programs for teachers, as well as, scholarships for students. Those teachers-students come from public and private schools. The purpose of this study is to provide a knowledge about the evolution of the Englishteaching process and how it was developed through the last decades. The findings of this research showed that the methods applied by the teachers varied according to the governments’ schemes of possible needs making shifts in the methodology and ways of planning the English classes. Perhaps, those changes did not cover the real students’ necessity.
It was also found that only20% of students had a high-intermediate level. In order to place a student in this level teachers have considered the following aspects: students have an effective, but not perfectuse of English. They can take part in extended conversations on a wide range of topics. If they do not know the appropriate term for something they are able to find a way of describing it. They have knowledge of some idiomatic English and colloquial expressions. In the observed classes, it was notorious how students were able to cover all the main areas of English grammar, answered to questions and used English according to their level.
teaching process in advance. It is important to mention that the presentation of the teachers of the classes that I observed, were well done. Teachers used different and interesting activities to practice what they had explained. To sum up, when a lesson is planned, teachers do not only have an order to follow, present, develop, and finish the class, but also they make it more interesting and useful for the students. However, some teachers do not write a plan; they come to classes without a lesson plan. They explained that lesson plans demand much time and sometimes their lessons plans are not fulfilled as they would want since there are other educational events that interrupt their classes.
Next, we will attend to some background on this issue. Even though the primary reason for second language study in the first part of the past century was to access to the great literary masterpieces of civilization, as Flewelling (1993, p. 339) notes, "It was through reading that students learned of the civilization associated with the target language"; at present, learning a foreign language, mainly English, is linked basically, not only to mere interest in the language as such, but more to the necessity of being prepared to face the increasing challenges of globalization. Young students are increasingly interchanging experience and information through travelling abroad, key pal schemes, television, music and songs and networks, like YouTube or Facebook.
On this same matter, Larsen-Freeman (2000) indicates that in Total Physical Response, the target language is used for communication in order to help students listen to it from the beginning of their learning. This author also states that teachers in Total Physical Response encourage the comprehension of the language being taught through the use of pictures and a few words introduced in the native language of learners. The same author points out that a teacher using Total Physical Response in his/her classroom considers to be important to make learners enjoy their learning experience while they learn to communicate in the target language.
Similarly, Harmer (2004) describes language aptitude as the fact that students learn languages better than others. There were several exercises to establish this paradigm by means of t ests that measured linguistic aptitude. They were carried out in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Although the concern of measuring how well a student can learn a language through these tests, they proved to be flawed in several aspects and became a test that measured general learning ability. Yet, the tests gave light to realizing that those who have a general, analytical way of learning in general have to struggle more to learn another language.
On the other hand, there were teachers who did not agree in using group work activities in class because, as they commented, only one or two of the student work and the others do not help. Moreover, it was observed that group work was used only in three classes; in fact, not all students worked as they should because the majority of them talked between them and did activities not related to the class. About this, teachers who used group work activities failed in organizing students, giving clear rules, and monitoring groups. Therefore, students without appropriate supervision of their group activities did not take advantage of the benefits of the technique for their own learning. Do teachers use English most of the time in their classes?
This research was directed to analyze the factors that affect the Englishlanguageteaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools. The sample analyzed consisted of fifteen students and fifteen teachers, who were surveyed and interviewed to determine their skills and competences and a similar number of classrooms observed to find out their physical conditions. The research was carried out at daytime and ev ening in four public high schools and one “fiscomisional” in rural and urban areas of Quito. To collect data, the techniques used were surveys and note taking; additionally, the applied instruments were observation forms, interviews and questionnaires. The quantitative analysis, description and interpretation of results were based on the information gotten from: Teacher’s and Student’s Questionnaires and Interviews, Observation Sheets and researcher’s field observations. The most relevant factors found were students’ basic level of English knowledge, use of few teaching resources and a high percentage of Spanish use in class, the overcrowded classrooms and inappropriate physical conditions, which affected negatively.
During a lot of time it has been thought that the poetry was a difficult activity to develop at school and for that there has been many teachers have reacted to work out it at class. But the reading and writing of poetry seen as literacy activity as helped to keep the linguistic expression in the tongue in what it is developed, as well as it helps to the acquisition of a language; in our case English. Working poetry, it also adds cultural knowledge and concepts that are shown in the poems and transmitted to the readers. However, a poetic activity also can be taken to the personal field owing to it is a very useful tool to express our feelings while grammar and vocabulary are also worked. This project is specially focused on the Japanese poetic form Haiku, worked through the Englishlanguage at classroom of Spanish children, so we will be mixing three cultures at the same time.
According to previous analysis of available documents (Curriculum C and Curriculum D) of the EnglishLanguage with a Second Foreign Language (French) course at this institution, the author of this paper has reached to the conclusion that despite the great progress, the EnglishLanguageTeaching (education) at UCLV places more emphasis on teaching competence in what Hall (1976) calls macroskills (speaking, listening, reading, and writing), and microskills (vocabulary and grammar), without much emphasis on the development of intercultural skills. The proposal of languageteaching with an intercultural dimension helps learners to acquire the linguistic competence needed to communicate in macro and micro skills, to formulate what they want to say and write in correct and appropriate ways. But it also develops their intercultural competence, for example their ability to ensure a shared understanding by people of different social identities, and their ability to interact with people as complex human beings with multiple identities and their own individuality.
The PPP illustrates a well established procedure in most classrooms. P1 is first and allows for the presentation of the new language or content to be learned. P2 is devoted to practice. It is aimed at consolidating such new language through rehearsal. P3 fully enters the production stage: after the practice phase, students should demonstrate their skills in using the language autonomously. This model can be associated with a traditional procedure habitual in the classroom and inherited by teachers without even questioning its validity and efficacy. No doubt, this tradition is closely connected to daily practice and common sense leading to action and practical work, but it is not derived from experimental findings. Still, the model is not to be necessarily linked to failure in the learning process as some critics maintain (Lewis, 1996; Skehan, 1998; D. Willis and J. Willis, 2007, etc.). Mostly the deductive approach underlies and supports this model, although inductive presentation can also be included in the first stage.
Butler (2002) has further accentuated the need for integrating language and literature in his article Language through literature through Language: An Action Research Report on the English 100 Course at the University of North West. Pulverness (2003) offered valuable advice for teachers to make learning Englishlanguage a joyful journey. In order to draw the attention of students, teachers are expected to pay a lot of attention to pre-reading tasks, icebreakers etc. Students can be encouraged to modify the texts, change the ending etc. using their creativity, creativity etc. Murat (2005) speaks of the semiotic elements i.e. signifier and the signified, in literature which the students can learn while studying a poem (according to T. S. Eliot a poem refers to any literary piece of writing). Poems are actually wired signs which are a combination of two constituents: signifier and the signified, so says Hiller (1983) as seen in Murat (2005). Murat precedes his study with stating the benefits of different literary genres like drama, short story, novel and particularly poetry. Hismanoglu (2005) argued that for teaching both language areas (vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation) and basic language skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking) the use of literature can be a popular technique. He provided some reasons for using literature in teachingEnglish by quoting Collie and Slater (1990: 3). These are valuable authentic material, cultural enhancement, language enrichment, and personal involvement. Duff and Maley (2007) also proposed easy tasks to motivate the interest of students. One should move gradually from easy tasks to difficult tasks. Teachers can completely exploit the material by conducting brainstorming sessions, pre-reading tasks etc. for the benefit of students.
Defined as the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman, it roughly lasts 9 months and makes more troubling to do daily activities. Just one out of five participants (P2) dealt with this factor. Although there are flexible schedules to conclude the curricula finding and adjust the time to take classes made it difficult for her. She responded, “I got pregnant and finding the time to study and take care of my child ended up dragging me away.” The reason that made her drop out is absolutely not related to school or not being fond of teaching, but she just did not plan properly her priorities. “Although there are flexible schedules to conclude the curricula, I do not think I had the time to focus on it.”
Total physical response (TPR) is a languageteaching method established between the conexion of speech and action; it tries to teach language trough physical (motor) activity. Developed by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jose State University, California, it draws on several traditions, including developmental psychology, learning theory, and humanistic pedagogy, as well as on languageteaching producers proposed by Harold and Dorothy Palmer in 1925. In a developmental sense, Asher sees successful adult second language learning as a parallel process to child first language acquisition. He states that speech directed to young learners consists firstly of commands which children respond to physically before they begin to produce verbal responses. Asher (1969) shares with the school of humanistic psychology a concern for the role of affective (emotional) factors in language learning. A method that is undemanding in terms of linguistic production and that involves game-like movements reduces learner stress, he believes, and creates a positive mood in the learner, which facilitates learning.
Since 1990, English has been very present in the education of our country with the law “LOGSE”, which establishes that children must understand and produce simple messages in the language. With the passage of time, English has become more important, being more necessary to establish its teaching from an early age. I've always admired that children have the opportunity to approach the language from an early age because I did not have that opportunity. Because of that, I think the youth of my age have lost more opportunities, leaving behind a greater cultural and linguistic learning. Research of authors and the experience of many teachers leave us a wide range of options when teaching a second language, providing us with so much work. Despite the existence of numerous studies on methodologies, resources and models in teachingEnglish, I think a teacher should always try to innovate, look beyond what is already written. I wanted to contribute with my little grain so I have analyzed information about teachingEnglish through stories and I have expressed opinions and my own experience, thanks to the practice period that allowed me to make it.