The objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of the institutional burdens on the entrepreneurial intention and how the latter manifests itself in the business networks of the Aguascalientes chili producers. For this, two hypotheses were raised: 1) there are direct and significant effects of the institutional burdens on the entrepreneurial intention of the chili producers of the state of Aguascalientes, and 2) there are direct and significant effects of the entrepreneurial intention on the entrepreneurial networks. The study was carried out with the participation of 97 producers located mainly in the municipalities of Cosío and Rincón de Romos, which collaborate with the State Product System Chili. The data was collected between October and December 2018. Descriptive analysis indicates an impact on the 819 hectares under cultivation, as follows: 1) fresh jalapeño pepper is produced in 30% of that territory; 2) dried chili only represent 21%, and 3) chili producers give priority to products such as corn, broccoli and lettuce, which constitute 78% of the cultivated land. About the profile of the producers, we can affirm the following: 1) they are all men; 2) the age of 58% of them oscillates between 45 and 64 years (only 2% have less than 24 years), and 3) 50% of farmers have basic education, while 21% have no schooling and only 3% have with postgraduate studies. On the other hand, regarding the hypotheses, it can be affirmed that these were fulfilled; this invites us to analyze in greater depth the reason for the deficiencies detected despite the constant support that the field receives, which is not reflected in better conditions for the producers.
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As has been stated, the fact of having self-employed parents makes the likelihood of the children becoming entrepreneurs greater. Then, what could the effect of the parents employed by the public sector in the entrepreneurial intention of their sons be? It has already been mentioned than in collectivist cultures like the South of Italy parents who are civil servants help their descendants to become public workers themselves (Scoppa, 2009). This, together with the existence of negative role models for entrepreneurship provided by Mungai and Velamuri (2011), leads us to the research question of this study: Are self-employed parents a positive role model for entrepreneurial intention of engineering students while parents employed as civil servants are a negative role model? This issue has not been sought after so far, to the author’s knowledge. The research question stated is depicted graphically in figure 1, with the two main hypotheses tested in this paper.
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The regional GDP per capita has a negative effect on the perception of business opportunities (H10); contrary to the expected result. One possible explanation could be the influence of the change in the trend in entrepreneurial intention or desire of the population and the change in the economic cycle (expansion until mid-2007 and recession since then) in that relationship, with a predominance of observations in which the perception business opportunities declines when GDP per capita increases, resulting in a negative correlation between the two variables, which in turn causes the negative (but significant) parameter obtained. Furthermore, the relationship between the variables of perception of business opportunities and GDP per capita presents uneven trends for each region. When they are considered together in our study, the positive trends in the different Regions are offset by negative trends in others, as shown in figure 2. However, if we consider the relationship between the two variables at a national level, i. e. the mean of all the autonomous regions for each year, there is a clear and obvious positive relationship (with a correlation coefficient of 0.95) be- tween GDP per capita and the perception of business opportunities (see figure 2.18), that is fully consistent with the theoretical approaches set out above. Consequently, the negative relationship found between the two variables is due to the regional disag- gregation performed in our study, which in our view ends up distorting the positive relationship that exists at a national level. This leads us to believe that there are dif- ferent behaviours in each Spanish region as regards the impact of GDP per capita in the perception of opportunities and entrepreneurial intentions, which are motivated by other factors, such as different regional productive specializations, the cultural dif- ferences as regards entrepreneurship between the different Spanish regions, etc. This raises the need to continue investigating the regional differences in order to improve understanding of the entrepreneurial phenomenon.
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specific (Fitzsimmons and Douglas, 2005). General human capital is generally acquired through education and practical experience while specific capital is gained through experience and education with a scope of application limited to a particular activity or context (Becker, 1975; Davidsson and Honig, 2003; Dimov and Sheperd, 2005). For Fitzsimmons and Douglas (2005, p. 2), “the underlying premise of the human capital view is that some individuals possess the knowledge, skills, and contacts that should allow them to be ‘good’ at entrepreneurship, and after recognizing this they form the intention to become an entrepreneur.” Social capital refers to a person’s social networks and the ability to mobilize useful resources out of these networks (Goethner et al., 2012). Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998, p. 243) define it as the “sum of the actual and potential resources embedded within, available through and derived from the network of relationship possessed by an individual or social unit.” In the literature three types of social capital are discussed: structural capital, which looks at the social capital gained through an individual’s personal network (network of relatives, friends, mentors (Širec and Močnik, 2011); cognitive social capital in which actors develop mutual interpretive frameworks based on language, codes and narratives (Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998; Lee and Jones, 2006) and relational social capital, where a history of interactions between actors allows them to develop a personal relationship that may prove beneficial (Macke and Dilly, 2010). The basic tenet of social capital theory is that social relationships matters and may be the source of resources (Rumala, 2012). Financial capital, in general, refers to financial resources available for use and comprises of incomes, savings and credit. Thus financial capital refers to monetary assets (Scoones, 1998; Coppock and Desta, 2013). It is assumed that individuals with greater stocks of financial capital have more flexibility to undertake a wider array of strategies to start and manage their businesses (Pena 2002). Human, social and financial capitals have all been linked to entrepreneurial intentions. For example, Raijman (2001) posited that financial resources in the family have direct bearing on entrepreneurial intentions and Davis and Peake (2014) contend that a student may exhibit a stronger or weaker intent depending on whether he or she perceives that his or her family possesses the financial means to assist with the creation of the venture.
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En esta misma línea Calabuig (2014) señala que las intenciones de comportamiento futuro es un tema de estudio que se sigue utilizando en muchos campos de investigación, siendo este interés debido a que las intenciones de comportamiento han demostrado ser un paso previo a la conducta real, por lo que analizando las intenciones es posible acercarse de una forma clara a los posibles comportamientos futuros. Es por ello el interés de los estudios sobre intenciones para explicar la intención de emprender. El primer modelo de intención emprendedora fue el desarrollado por Shapero y Sokol (1982), denominado “Entrepreneurial Event Model” (EEM), en el cual el entrepreneurship es entendido como un acontecimiento que se puede explicar con la interacción de varios factores, como son las experiencias emprendedoras que se han tenido (todas ellas con un carácter positivo), las capacidades, la autonomía y el riesgo. De acuerdo con este modelo, la elección personal para iniciar una empresa depende de tres elementos fundamentalmente:
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related to entrepreneurship are better. The choice of regression and focus group deserves further explanation. In one side, a multivariate analysis technique: linear regression is used because it allows testing the influence and the relationships between main issues . In this case: entrepreneurial intention and employability. This type of analysis is suitable for explaining the extent to how these variables are connected with training of entrepreneurial competences, as well as its predictive ability. On the other hand, focus groups are viewed as the proper qualitative technique due to the exploratory nature of the study and it is a way to identify and report the feelings of a heterogeneous group. In discussion situations, some understanding of issues, concerns and experiences of the people involved is gained . As a result of this, the regression analysis applied in combination with focus group allows identifying omitted variables, unobservable factors that only can be identified through a qualitative approach. Both works perfectly together, one to test quantitatively the proposal model of relationships and the other to contrast based on deepener qualitative details. According to Newman et al. , this methodological choice serves to generate new knowledge and test new ideas.
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The measurement model and structural model are valid. However, differences are evident in terms of the significant relationships between constructs, revealing that in the case of women, the exogenous variables SN and SE have both a direct (SN) and indirect (SN and SE) impact on the entrepreneurial intention, which is something that does not occur in the case of men, where the entrepreneurial intention is only indirectly impacted by SN. The literature review shows the opposite results; there are studies indicating that no direct relationship can be established between the subjective norms and the entrepreneurial intention (Krueger et al., 2000), while others demonstrate that said relationship does exist, and it is positive (Kolvereid & Isaksen, 2006). It may be that the response to this controversy can be found in the gender of the population surveyed. Different studies indicate that there is an important relationship between gender and EI (Farrington, Venter & Louw, 2012; Gird & Bagraim, 2008; Engle et al., 2010; Sahinidis et al., 2012; Goyanes, 2015). More specifically, some of the studies that found that environmental factors barely had any influence on men, but they did affect women (Leroy, Maes, Sels, Debrulle & Meuleman, 2009) are reinforced. In this regard, González-Serrano, Valantine, Campos, Berenguer, Moreno and Hervás (2016) observed that female physical activity and sports sciences students assess the social norm with a higher score than men. In the case of male journalism students, the relationships with one of the environmental variables were not significant.
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In this sense the EU Member States have recognized the need of entrepreneurship education to be integrated in the offi cial educational curricula. Nevertheless, changes still need to be carried out to make possible this implementation. The total number of countries of the EU that have integrated entrepreneurship into their curricula is very low. So it is necessary to promote the inclusion of entrepreneurship as a key competence in the all members’ national programme. For this reason, additional research should be conducted to defi ne the necessary knowledge, skills and competences, in the fi eld of entrepreneurship, that are necessary for individuals to enter the labour market and to become entrepreneurs. This extensive study could contribute to the design of better educational programmes. At the same time, a better knowing of the entrepreneurial skills and competences, and its dissemination, could «convince» more countries to adopt such programmes in the offi cial school.
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I think that you’re educating the people that are going to lead these companies. You’re educating creatives, and most people will tell you that creativity is the new premium for anybody. So, if you are teaching how to be creative, how to build a creative process and not get dis- couraged but get energized by it, then you are creating the most de- sirable people to go into the workforce. I’ll never forget when Len Schlesinger, our former president, gave a talk to our incoming MBA class. He said: “Let me be really clear: the world does not need another MBA who understands marketing, finance, accounting, supply chain, technology and operations. These are things that everybody is going to have to know, and issues are going to change because industries are changing. However, what the world does need are entrepreneurial thinkers and actors.” What this meant was that we need people who know the creative process.
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Through the years new approaches has been used at the Center for Entrepreneurship Development at Universidad Icesi trying to find the most appropriate way to develop an entrepreneurial orientation to our students considering the specific social, economical, cultural, educational, political and environmental situation of our students.
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One limitation of the intention-based approach is that one individual only has reciprocal behaviour when other individuals have shown to have kind intentions. Suppose in our example player 2 is constrained to “choose” do not participate. Player 1 will not consider this action as kind because player 2 has no option. In fact, although nowadays there is almost consensus about the existence of reciprocal behaviour, there is still disagreement about the foundations of that behaviour. For instance, other theoretical approaches focus on inequity aversion (Bolton and Ockenfels, 2000) or the type of persons one faces (Levine, 1998). Hence, in an inequity model player 1 will behave kind when there is an inequity issue even if player 2 is forced to choose do not participate. Discussion is opened regarding this point. 15
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This research’s objective is to know and describe the predisposition factors, the unchaining factors and the maintenance factors in the development of the Entrepreneurial Career of a group of entrepreneurial professionals. The research was based in Dyer’s Entrepreneurial Career developed in 1994, the career planning concepts of Schein and contributions from other researchers. The sample used was made of forty four Business Administration, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering graduates from three universities from the city of Cali, Colombia, who actually manage their own company or work for family business. The research used the “In-depth interview technique”, carried out by psychologists, in order to investigate aspects like family environment, educational development, juvenile experiences, managerial development stages and many other psycho-social aspects related to the entrepreneurial process. From the results you can determine certain specific factors that supplement Dyer’s pattern, especially it was determined that there are situational variables, deeply defined by family formative experiences and work experiences, that frame the whole model. In the same way, we could detect that formal education in Entrepreneurial Spirit, is more a complementary tool and a stimulant of previous situations than a fundamental variable of the entrepreneurial process.
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The BDI model, as a practical reasoning architecture aims at making decisions about what to do based on cognitive notions as Beliefs, Desires and Intentions. A very important design issue in BDI agents concerns defining the intention re- consideration policy [1, 2]. This policy will define under which circumstances the BDI agent will use computational resources to deliberate about its intentions. At present there is no consensus on when or how an agent should reconsider its in- tentions. Current proposals consider the agents’ commitment levels, which range from cautious agents (which reconsider their intentions after each action exe- cution) to bold agents (where no reconsideration is performed until the current plan has been completely executed).
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Por medio de la presente hago constar que soy autor y titular de la obra denominada “Improving performance and entrepreneurial competences at the base of the pyramid. The impact of entrepreneurial development agencies”, en los sucesivo LA OBRA, en virtud de lo cual autorizo a el Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (EL INSTITUTO) para que efectúe la divulgación, publicación, comunicación pública, distribución, distribución pública y reproducción, así como la digitalización de la misma, con fines académicos o propios al objeto de EL INSTITUTO, dentro del círculo de la comunidad del Tecnológico de Monterrey.
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However, to date, most research has focused on three major themes; socially constituted organizations (e.g. NGOs); public and government institutions; and business organizations’ efforts to maximize profit and shareholders’ value while reaching out social needs (Mulgan, 2006). Almost no research has addressed the role of family firms in promoting social innovation, despite their influential role in society. This lack of systematic research becomes even more striking when interpreted in the light of most findings on social innovation. These findings show that social innovation tends to be successful in the presence of a mutual understanding of policy and social contexts, along with that of business design, growth, and management (Mulgan, Tucker, Ali, & Sanders, 2007). The previously mentioned mix clearly resonates with family firms’ nature and embeddedness in societies, which make them perfect candidates to marshal their resources and entrepreneurial capabilities 4 towards social innovation. Thus, an important question becomes, What is the role of family firms in promoting social innovation and what are the inducements and barriers associated with this role?
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Human capital has been argued to be especially important in young businesses (Davidsson and Honig, 2003). Young enterprises suffer from the liability of newness, which refers to a higher propensity to fail for young enterprises as compared to older, more established enterprises (Aldrich and Wiedenmayer, 1993; Stinchcombe, 1965). The liability of newness is partially due to skill gaps and lack of information, and, therefore, human capital can reduce the liability of newness (Aldrich and Auster, 1986). For example, owners of young businesses are typically confronted with many different and potentially new tasks. They have to respond to new situations that may require immediate decisions and actions. Routines and strategies, however, have yet to be developed (cf. Bantel, 1998). Thus, accomplishing daily tasks in the business, solving problems, and making entrepreneurial decisions (e.g., decisions to act upon business opportunities) pose cognitive challenges to owners of young businesses. High human capital assists such owners to learn new tasks and roles and to adapt to new situations (Weick, 1996). In contrast, owners of older businesses have a “ track record ” and routines and established practices they can refer to. Over the years, variables other than the owners' human capital may become more important. Since human capital created legitimacy for young enterprises, owners' human capital should be more important in the initial years of business rather than during later stages.
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1. On the Web of Science, we find 282 papers dealing with the topic “Entrepreneurial University”, and dating from 1985 to 2017. On Google Scholar, we find 16.600 items, including articles, books, and quotes. We will quote some of the most rel- evant papers in the following pages of our paper. Here, our main concern is to mention some volumes which have by now the function of handbooks, and in certain cases are even conferred a procedural nature to clarify EU-related administrative and legal aspects: J. Bercovitz, M. Feldmann, “Entrepreneurial Universities and Technology Transfer”, in G. D. Libecap, (ed.), University Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer: Process, Design, and Intellectual Property, Jai press, Emerald, 2005, pp. 335; G. P. West, E. J. Gatewood, K. G. Shaver, (eds.), Handbook of University-wide Entrepreneurship Education, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, 2009, pp. 256; J. D. Toma, Managing the Entrepreneurial University, Legal Issues and Commercial Realities, Routledge, Taylor & Francis, New York, 2011, pp. 248; A. Fayolle, D. T. Redford (eds.), Handbook on the Entrepreneurial University, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, 2014, pp. 496; A. Fayolle, P. Kyro, F. Linan (eds.), Developing, Shaping and Growing Entrepreneurship, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, 2015, pp. 348; D. Audretsch, E. Lehmann, M. Meoli, S. Vismara (eds.), University Evolution, Entrepreneurial Activity and Regional Competitiveness, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016, pp. 447; M. Peris-Ortiz, J. A. Gómez, J. M. Merigó-Lindahl, C. Rueda-Armengot (eds.), Entrepreneurial Universities. Exploring the Academic and Innovative Dimensions of Entrepreneurship in Higher Edu- cation, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2017, pp. 310.
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In Chile, the level of contact between universities and the business world is scarce. Entrepreneurs generally do not receive enough support from the universi- ties to encourage the creation of new businesses. Mueller (2007) points out that, despite the relevance of all forms of entrepreneurship, an increase in entrepreneurial activity that incorporates innovation is more crucial than entrepreneurial activity in general. Therefore the low linkages observed between universities and entrepreneur- ship avoids contact with a potential provider of innovation. Additionally, Mueller (2007) suggest that in order to make an efficient transfer, an important component is the geographical proximity. Regions with little research would be characterized by a low capacity to absorb new knowledge, which means they experience lower levels of economic growth.
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Objective. To review evidence on the efficacy of HPV vaccines in the prevention of non-cancer lesions (anogenital warts [AGW], recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis and oral papillomatosis). Materials and methods. We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials. We performed random effect models and effects were reported as relative risks (RR) and their confidence intervals (95%CI) following both intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. Results. We included six studies (n=27 078). One study was rated as high risk of bias. One study could not be included in the meta-analysis because it provided combined results. We found that quadrivalent vaccine reduced the risk of AGW by 62% (RR: 0.38, 95%CI:0.32-0.45, I2:0%) in the ITT analysis and by 95% (RR: 0.05, 95%CI:0.01-0.25, I2:66%) in the PP analysis. Subgroup analyses of studies in women or with low-risk of bias provided similar results. Conclusion. HPV quadrivalent vaccine is efficacious in preventing AGW in men and women.
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The aim of this manuscript is to provide a novel approach to reputational management as a driver of entrepreneurial sustainability [23,24], using game theory to integrate three dimensions of reputation. In the first dimension, the entrepreneur can perceive reputation as a risk source. In this situation, the entrepreneur enters into a prisoners’ dilemma framework, which has a unique solution when the entrepreneur protects against the reputational threats driven by entrepreneurial sustainability. A second dimension arises when the entrepreneur considers reputation to be a competitive advantage. In this scenario, the entrepreneur enters into an innovator’s dilemma schema, which also has a unique solution when the entrepreneur turns innovative ideas into reputational opportunities derived from entrepreneurial sustainability. Finally, a new schema is proposed, based on the entrepreneur fully thinking in reputational terms, with reputation perceived as a core value. This approach leads to a new business philosophy that can be contextualized into a coordination game schema, where reputation permeates every action or decision and, as a final outcome, the results are consistent with the theory of multiple intelligences, allowing the development of a new skill that can be called reputational intelligence. As a result, this manuscript provides an original multidisciplinary analysis of reputational management by relating well-known theoretical results from game theory to organizational realities, considering that an organization can adopt different identities when facing sustainability issues  and favoring the appearance of new approaches  as well as the reconsideration of the traditional ones . This is done in order to rethink and advance the existing academic knowledge [28–30], taking into account that there is no need for theories of organizations to be exact or general in order to become helpful .
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