Buechler (2016a) uses a long-term, ethnographic approach, which allows for an analysis of coping strategies versus more sustainable strategies that women and men engage into address environmental change. A shorter-term study would not have revealed the dynamism in the inter- actions between the producers and their environment, especially in terms of innovation and experimentation in cropping patterns and water management. The importance of long-term research is also emphasized by Philippa Cohen and colleagues: in a temporal study a researcher can observe how latent capacities [to adapt] play out [in response to change], are facilitated or hindered, and how gender norms and relations are influential and influenced. Indeed, field visits over time become akin to visits with old friends in a process that entails discovering what has happened in the producers’ lives especially in terms of environmental change and their strategies to deal with this change (Buechler 2016b). However, the long-term ethno- graphic approach faces some challenges, particularly those related with the time and effort needed to maintain ties with key interviewees. This is even more challenging when the gender perspective is considered as each field visit should have some time to talk to women separately from male family members in order to be able to ensure that women’s experiences are shared.
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Environmental stressors and changes in land use have led to rapid and dramatic species losses. As such, we need effective monitoring programs that alert us not only to biodiversity losses, but also to functional changes in species assemblages and associated ecosystem processes. Ants are important components of terrestrial food webs and a key group in food web interactions and numerous ecosystem processes. Their sensitive and rapid response to environmental changes suggests that they are a suitable indica- tor group for the monitoring of abiotic, biotic, and functional changes. We tested the suitability of the incidence (i.e. the sum of all species occurrences at 30 baits), species richness, and functional richness of ants as indicators of ecological responses to environmental change, forest degradation, and of the ecosystem process predation on herbivorous arthropods. We sampled data along an elevational gradient (1000–3000 m a.s.l.) and across seasons (wetter and drier period) in a montane rainforest in south- ern Ecuador. The incidence of ants declined with increasing elevation but did not change with forest degradation. Ant incidence was higher during the drier season. Species richness was highly correlated with incidence and showed comparable results. Functional richness also declined with increasing ele- vation and did not change with forest degradation. However, a null-model comparison revealed that the functional richness pattern did not differ from a pattern expected for ant assemblages with ran- domly distributed sets of traits across species. Predation on artiﬁcial caterpillars decreased along the elevational gradient; the pattern was not driven by elevation itself, but by ant incidence (or inter- changeable by ant richness), which positively affected predation. In spite of lower ant incidence (or ant richness), predation was higher during the wetter season and did not change with forest degrada- tion and ant functional richness. We used path analysis to disentangle the causal relationships of the environmental factors temperature (with elevation as a proxy), season, and habitat degradation with the incidence and functional richness of ants, and their consequences for predation. Our results would suggest that the forecasted global warming might support more active and species-rich ant assem- blages, which in turn would mediate increased predation on herbivorous arthropods. However, this prediction should be made with reservation, as it assumes that the dispersal of ants keeps pace with the climatic changes as well as a one-dimensional relationship between ants and predation within a food-web that comprises species interactions of much higher complexity. Our results also suggested that degraded forests in our study area might provide suitable habitat for epigaeic, ground-dwelling ant
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In response to these arguments, social scientists have begun to analyze the nature of responsible or ‘green’ consumption and to study the extent to which the attitudes and behavior of consumers are changing in this direction. If a permanent commitment to responsible consumption is to occur, the meaning of consumption for the consumer must change radically. The basis on which the consumer constructs her social identity through consumption must be reassessed. Is there any evidence that the relationship between consumption and identity is changing in such a way as to increase the level of responsible consumption? What are the factors that inhibit these types of changes in consumers’ attitudes and behav- ior? I will examine three types of consumer goods and activities that consumers use to express their identities in order to show how consumers respond to opportunities for responsible consumption: (1) clothing and the movement toward ethical fashion; (2) food, animal welfare and household waste disposal; and (3) transpor- tation and the development of alternative forms of transport. All three of these types of consumption are susceptible to a crisis of sustainability that is being brought about by environmental change and global warming. In various but different ways, each of these forms of consumption contributes to pollution of the environment and to the exhaustion of natural resources. These three types of consumption also represent major items of expenditure for most consumers.
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chemical and mineralogical characteristics of all buried paleosols point to pedogenic processes typical for humid ecosystems, namely: weathering and neoformation of kaolinitic-halloysitic clay, gleization, and clay illuviation, whereas the surface late Holocene soil is characterized by precipitation of carbonates, indicative of a drier climate. In Tlalpan section, the lowest Red Unit demonstrates the strongest development of weathering features, together with maximum accumulation of clay and crystallized iron oxides. The overlying paleosols have lower weathering status; the intermediate Brown Unit shows prominent features of clay illuviation whereas the upper Grey Unit is marked by surface redoximorphic properties. We hypothesize that the Red Unit paleosols correspond to the period of the Mid Pleistocene Climate Transition, when less pronounced glacial/interglacial climate cyclicity permitted more advanced soil development through long periods of landscape stability. In the Mamut section vertic features are present in the lower paleosol, weathering and clay illuviation are more pronounced in the middle one, and the incipient upper soil is dominated by gleization features. This trend indicates the change from drier climate with strong seasonality in the second half of MIS3 to uniform cool humid conditions during major part of MIS2 and then to unstable climate with uneven, occasionally excessive precipitation in the late Glacial, which promoted local synsedimentary soil formation in a wetland environment.
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change in the landscape and/or induced change by climatic factors (Wiseman, 1978; Leyden, 2002). Other research included the importance of wetlands as suitable habitat for agriculture (Beach et al., 2008; Luzzadder-Beach et al., 2012). Other indicative pollen taxa that imply change in vegetation cover include Poaceae, Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Malvaceae, among others dis- turbance taxa (Wiseman, 1978; Islebe et al., 1996; Leyden et al., 1998), which generally appear before and after corn pollen records in many pollen dia- grams. Slash and burn agriculture, different forms of agroforestry, and forestry harvesting were main
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Several recent research reports and reviews have emphasized the importance of considering physiological mechanisms when forecasting the effects of global climate change on organisms and ecosystems (Chown et al., 2004; Kearney et al., 2008; Pörtner, 2002; Pörtner and Farrell, 2008). Specifically, these studies have highlighted a need to understand how environmental conditions vary in space and time as well as how organisms respond to those variables (Helmuth, 2009; Tewksbury et al., 2008), and have suggested that studies based on simple correlations between environmental measurements and species distributions may fail under the novel conditions presented by climate change (Kearney, 2006). While correlative approaches (‘climate envelope models’) may potentially serve as good ‘first cut’ approximations of ecological responses to climate change (Hijmans and Graham, 2006), predictions are likely to be significantly enhanced by: (i) comprehensive, spatially- and temporally-explicit measurements and models of current and future weather conditions; (ii) explorations of the mechanistic relationships between changes in abiotic variables and the changes experienced by organisms at the niche level [‘organismal sensitivity’ to environmental change (Gilman et al., 2006) or ‘climate space’ (Porter and Gates, 1969)]; (iii) a quantitative understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying tolerance to abiotic stress [‘organismal vulnerability’ to environmental change
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At 30 °C, differences in SMR and body mass loss between naïve and LPS-treated larvae are easily explained by the high immune per- formance observed in PO and antibacterial activities. However, dif- ferences in body mass loss at 10 °C without change in SMR may be rather related to a stress process. During acute stress, insects release octopamine to haemolymph, a neurohormone that induces a num- ber of physiological changes in insects, including the liberation of energy (e.g. lipids) from the body fat that is needed to fuel ﬁght or ﬂight behaviours (Woodring et al., 1989; Adamo, 2010). Hence, body mass loss without change in SMR and low immune activity at 10 °C can be the result of both the hyperlipaemia caused by thermal stress and by the immune challenge (Mullen et al., 2004; Adamo, 2010). And due to illness-induced anorexia is a common phenomenon whereby insects immune-challenged tend to decrease feeding Fig. 4. Body mass loss (±SE) of naïve, PBS- (Phosphate Buffered Saline solution) and
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farm to the next. The result is that the homogeneous payment scheme often acts as an income support tool, rather than as a means of offsetting the extra costs incurred by farmers. For instance, Armsworth et al. (2012) found that less than half (between 12% and 46%) the public funds invested in AECS were actually used to compensate farmers for the income they had foregone, with the remaining amount being pure subsidy. In research on their social efficiency, Per Hasund (2013) pointed out that uniform, non- targeted, cost-based payment tariffs do not consider the differences in environmental values, clearly threatening the inherent multi-dimensional heterogeneity of agricultural landscape and practices. Finally, from an innovation perspective, payments linked to inputs and production processes rather than to environmental outcomes hamper the development of incentives for producers themselves to seek innovative methods of reducing costs (Hodge, 2011).
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Studies carried out in the United States and the United Kingdom have revealed that the news representations of ‘skeptical’ or ‘denialist’ discourse of scientific consensus about climate change have empowered posturing that rejects the actions or measures to address the problem. In the case of the most important newspaper in Argentina, Clarín, there is a consensus in climate science, as well as the present gravity of the problem with roots in human actions (Gonzaléz Alcáraz, 2015). As several researchers have stressed, it can be considered that the ‘skeptical discourse’ about climate change is produced in the Anglo-Saxon world (Boykoff, 2007b; Boykoff and Boykoff, 2004; Carvalho, 2007; Grundmann and Scott, 2012; Painter, 2012), whereas in other latitudes climate change is presented as a legitimate problem that demands solutions. From the Argentinean perspective, the confrontation is clear between industrialized and developing countries. This goes at least for Clarín, through the chronicles of its special correspondent at the COP15 that shows this different approach to that of the European or North American countries. But this media construction is not found in La Nación as most of their pieces about the summit, and in the International pages in general, come from international agencies (Mercado, 2012).
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But it does not follow that the agreement should be regarded as a fail- ure. In view of the limits of what could have been achieved, it is re- markable that Cancun achieved so much. Thus while the adaptation arrangements are imperfect, it remains possible that the countries with sufficient financial muscle will over the months that lie ahead agree to fund them adequately. Then again, in matters of equity and environ- mental adequacy, it remains possible that countries sympathetic to agreements of sufficient scale, scope and strength will persuade enough of the others to adopt convergent approaches, although this would in- volve a change of attitude on the parts of Japan, Russia and Canada, concessions from China, and a rather large change in public opinion in USA and thus on the part of American voters and members of Con- gress. It also remains possible that the progress achieved at Cancun will lead to greater progress at Durban.
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8. Climate change policies also have significant influences on energy policies and demands. Resolution X.24 on Climate change and wetlands (2008) stresses the need to ensure that climate change policy responses do not lead to further degradation and loss of wetlands, as well as the need for integrated coordination in developing national policies related to water management, agriculture, energy production, poverty reduction, and human health in order to ensure that sectoral objectives are mutually supportive in addressing the likely negative impacts of climate change. In some cases the implementation of measures to mitigate climate change could potentially compromise the ability of wetlands to provide options for climate change adaptation measures.
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9. Attempting to increase energy security and economic development as well as reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has been cited as an urgent global priority (Resolution X.25, Wetlands and “biofuels”, 2008), and there is increasing global attention to the use of low-emission and renewable sources of energy, including biofuel production. Whilst the Contracting Parties have recognized the potential contribution of the sustainable production and use of biofuels for the promotion of sustainable development and the achievement of Millennium Development Goals, they have also noted the potential negative environmental and socio-economic impacts of unsustainable production and use of biofuels (Resolution X.25).
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En el año 2009 el Programa de Investigaciones sobre Cambio Global en Estados Unidos (U.S. Global Change Research Program) expresaba: “los cambios en el clima se encuentran actualmente en progreso en los Estados Unidos y se estima que continúen aumentado” (U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2009). Este Programa declaraba que algunos de los cambios observados en este país eran: aumento de las temperaturas, aumento del nivel del mar, rápida retirada de los glaciares, derretimiento del permahielo, mayor duración de las estaciones, cambios en el flujo de los ríos, entre otros. Como enunciaba el Programa en el 2009 estos cambios han continuado hasta la actualidad con mayor frecuencia y repercusiones (U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2014). A causa de todo lo abordado anteriormente es que la comunidad científica de Estados Unidos se encuentra preocupada por los cambios que están ocurriendo en su país. Es por ello que las investigaciones que se llevan a cabo en este país tratan principalmente acerca del cambio climático ligado a la adaptación, para elegir la mejor respuesta a las condiciones climáticas con el objetivo de reducir el daño o tomar ventaja de las oportunidades. También se han realizado trabajos acerca de los impactos, la gestión de riesgo, la vulnerabilidad, variabilidad, todo ello asociado también al cambio climático. Los países que más producen en el dominio luego de Estados Unidos son todos países desarrollados, los cuales se enfocan principalmente en la adaptación al cambio climático, en lugar de intentar erradicar sus impactos, pues esto interferiría con sus intereses económicos. Por otra parte son los países en vía de desarrollo los que se verían más afectados, como puede verse en el Informe sobre desarrollo mundial realizado por el Banco Mundial (2010), en el cual declara que:
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depend on the design employed in our CE application. In fact, given that individuals have first been requested to choose over T=10 and, then, they were asked whether they would change their preferences over T=70, it would be legitimate to think that they might have reported to be unwilling to modify their preferred choices over the longer time horizon to avoid repeating the exercise. In this sense, one might assert that the analysis of time sensitivity should have best been performed by splitting the sample of respondents into different groups, each of which presented with a separate time scenario, as commonly done in the valuation studies dealing with time sensitivity. Even though the split sample approach may be argued to be more desirable because it minimizes the cognitive burden on respondents (Day et al. 2012), thus providing possibly more reliable results, it can be replied that implementing it would not have been feasible in our case. In fact, collecting at least four, instead of two, representative split samples of respondents, one for each probability scenario and for each time horizon, would have been difficult due to budget constraints. Despite not following a split sample approach, a low percentage of respondents in our study protested against the prospect to think about an additional time horizon (3.11% in the split sample with 80% probability and 5.48% in the split sample with 60% probability) and, apart from that, no important signs of cognitive burden were detected. Hence, there are no clues that the design might have driven our results. In any case, the issue of outcomes’ consistency between the results in our approach and in a split sample treatment of time sensitivity remains one of interest for future research.
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phytoplankton (Weyhenmeyer et al., 1999), terrestrial birds (Crick et al., 1997; Forchhammer et al., 1998; Visser et al., 1998; Brown et al., 1999; Both & Visser, 2001; Thomas et al., 2001; Sanz et al., 2003) as well as seabirds (Aebischer et al., 1990; Moller et al., 2006; Brommer et al., 2008; Votier et al., 2009). Indeed, a similar strong relationship (50%) between breeding onset and seabirds was also found by M. Frederiksen et al. (2004). In this study, however, the relationship was positive and high NAO values (i.e. mild winters) were associated with earlier breeding for black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and common guillemot (Uria aalge) but had no effect on European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis). This difference is to be expected as positive wNAO values favour mild winter in northern Europe (Durant et al., 2004; Lloret et al., 2004; Frederiksen et al., 2004; Moller et al., 2006; Reed et al., 2006) but colder winters in Western Europe and wetter conditions in the Mediterranean. Here positive phases had a negative effect on the density of small pelagic fish (the main prey of shearwater together with squid; Genovart et al., 2012). The mechanisms underlying the relationship between wNAO and laying date in Shearwaters however are still not clear. Seabirds’ response probably reflects the complex nature of bottom-up effects of environmental conditions on fish population dynamics, including spatial differences in the effect of NAO on environmental conditions (Hallett et al., 2004, Stige et al., 2006) and non-linear effects of NAO (Durant et al. 2004). Also, it is possible that carry-over effects (Harrison et al., 2011) of wintering conditions are translated into the reproductive onset. However, other aspects, e.g. flying speed, prey accessibility…etc.., cannot be excluded.
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nomena will be accelerated by the impact of human action on Earth’s systems. The resulting risk scenarios remain largely underestimated, despite of the complex interdisciplinary challenges for public health programs they pose. From a Global Bioethics perspective, I analyze this set of risks and the concretions of the principle of non-maleficence ap- plied to vulnerable populations, whose livelihoods can be more directly affected by a catastrophic combination of emerging diseases and natu- ral-technological factors. A short review of interdisciplinary literature, and the empirical evidence obtained from recent natural catastrophes, reinforce the need for adequate sizing of available resources. Without new and more effective international agreements to mitigate the im- pacts of climate change on the world’s population, the strategies and public health programs at the local or regional level will have a very limited impact.
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There are limitations to the Arctic Council’s functioning, which make government and state involvement outside of Arctic Council forum meetings so vital in environmental protection efforts. The Council is a forum and a research hub primarily, it is not a state departments or ministry that can collectively make decisions to change or create international laws, nor enforce them. They hold soft power in regard to their oversight of the Arctic, although they can provide the space to negotiate a legally binding agreement. So, while it is true that within the Council, three legally binding agreements have been generated, which that obligates members to act, they are less frequent. The majority of their work revolves around the research and recommendations proposed in their meetings. The Arctic Council also cannot use or discuss military means as a way of inciting a response or fostering debate inside the Council, nor deal with any security or territorial matters in general, as stated in the Ottawa Declaration. It is an effective forum aiming to increase environmental protection and climate change research and discussions, but as mentioned, without the ability to actually shape international environmental policy. They do however possess great influence in the region and are constantly referred to as a framework forum for how to proceed in the Arctic and what to focus on, namely environmental protection. The Arctic Council is often compared in effectiveness to another Arctic group meeting called the Arctic Five, which purely consists of the narrowed down list of foreign ministers from the United States, Canada, Russia, Norway and Denmark. The advantage that the Arctic Council contains is the voice and diverse opinions of multiple members, participants and observers, who all have a stake in the Arctic. The Arctic Five meetings can either function to foster more debate when Arctic Council Ministerial are held, or by contrast they can purposely avoid the opinions of other Arctic stakeholders not included. While some appreciate the efficiency of the Artic Five, the inclusion of the Arctic Council is something that gives us a broader vision of what is at stake in the Arctic. Including the indigenous councils and leaders, plus additional observers and non-Arctic states provides a more international perspective.
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people’s ability to exploit natural resources may actually increase the vulnerability of coastal communities to climate change by under- mining the long-term sustainability of coastal ecosystems. This rep- resents both temporal and social trade-offs inherent in adaptation strategies, which must be heeded when designing interventions to enhance adaptive capacity. For example, in Tanzania, fishers who were more likely to intensify fishing effort in response to lower catches (thereby increasing exploitation) were those who had assets, but lacked flexibility to change livelihood strategies 28 . Wealthier
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Three important reasons for considering aesthetics to anticipate landscape change and environmental impacts can be traced: landscape aesthetics provides a critical linkage between humans and ecological processes, aesthetic experiences can drive the landscape change, and the attention to ecological quality can be influenced by the perceived aesthetic value of landscape (Gobster et al. 2007). People usually appreciate ecologically rich environments, but also draw conclusions about ecological quality based on their aesthetic preferences (Parsons, 1995; Nassauer, 2011). Are "ugly" or undistinguished landscapes likely to be less protected?
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constructions, and thus identify possible model biases or other problems (e.g. Hopcroft and Valdes, 2015a). An en- semble of metrics has already been developed for the PMIP3- CMIP5 midHolocene and lgm simulations (e.g. Harrison et al., 2014). Applied to the PMIP4-CMIP6 midHolocene and lgm “entry card” simulations, these will provide a rigorous assessment of model improvements compared to previous phases of PMIP. Furthermore, for the first time, thanks to the design of the PMIP4-CMIP6 experiments, we will be able to consider the impact of forcing uncertainties on simulated climate in the benchmarking. The benchmarking metrics will also be expanded to other periods and data sets so that sys- tematic biases for different periods and for the present day can be compared. Benchmarking the ensemble of the PMIP4- CMIP6 simulations for all the periods will therefore allow quantification of the climate-state dependence of the model biases, a topic which is highly relevant for a better assess- ment of potential biases in the projected climates in CMIP6. In addition, it will be possible to analyse the potential re- lationships between model biases in different regions and/or in different variables (such as temperature vs. hydrological cycle) across the PMIP ensemble, as well as for the recent climate. One further objective for the PMIP4-CMIP6 bench- marking will be to develop more process-oriented metrics, making use of the fact that palaeoclimatic data document different aspects of climate change. There are many aspects of the climate system that are difficult to measure directly, and which are therefore difficult to evaluate using traditional methods. The “emergent constraint” (e.g. Sherwood et al., 2014) concept, which is based on identifying a relationship with a more easily measurable variable, has been success- fully used by the carbon-cycle and modern climate commu- nities and holds great potential for the analysis of palaeo- climate simulations. Using multiple time periods to examine “emergent” constraints will ensure that they are robust across climate states.
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