Environmental impact assessment

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NOISE PREDICTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN JAPAN

NOISE PREDICTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN JAPAN

Construction Work Noise As an item of noise prediction in the environmental impact assessment, it has become necessary to predict the noises generated by construction works. For this aim, the calculation method is now being investigated in the Technical Committee for construction work noise in the ASJ. The most difficult point in this problem is that a variety of machines and devices with different noise radiation characteristics, temporally and spatially, are used in construction works. Another point is that different indices are used for noise assessment in the “Noise Regulation Law” as mentioned above. Therefore, in the prediction model proposed by the ASJ, noise sources are classified into three categories according to their temporal variation characteristics and the ways to express each acoustic radiation are prescribed as shown in Table 2. Table 3 shows the definition and actual measurement method for each index (see Fig.2).
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Ramsar COP10 DR 17 Draft Resolution X.17 Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment: updated scientific and technical guidance

Ramsar COP10 DR 17 Draft Resolution X.17 Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment: updated scientific and technical guidance

characterized by the goal of mainstreaming and up-streaming environmental considerations into strategic decision-making at the earliest stages of planning processes to ensure they are fully included and appropriately addressed. The 2001 SEA Directive of the European Union and SEA Protocol to the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo, 1991) are examples of this approach. At the other end of the spectrum is an approach, which addresses the three pillars of sustainability and aims to assess environmental, social and economic concerns in an integrated manner. Depending on the needs of SEA users and the different legal requirements, SEA can be applied in different ways along this spectrum using a variety of methodologies.
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47 Lee mas

Resolution X.17 Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment: updated scientific and technical guidance

Resolution X.17 Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment: updated scientific and technical guidance

characterized by the goal of mainstreaming and up-streaming environmental considerations into strategic decision-making at the earliest stages of planning processes to ensure they are fully included and appropriately addressed. The 2001 SEA Directive of the European Union and SEA Protocol to the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo, 1991) are examples of this approach. At the other end of the spectrum is an approach, which addresses the three pillars of sustainability and aims to assess environmental, social and economic concerns in an integrated manner. Depending on the needs of SEA users and the different legal requirements, SEA can be applied in different ways along this spectrum using a variety of methodologies.
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47 Lee mas

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT A study on costs and benefits

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT A study on costs and benefits

This case study report reviews the costs and benefits of the EIA process relating to the waste treatment plant in Patras, Greece.. It forms part of a series of 18 case studies on project[r]

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Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) “Wetlands: home and destination”

Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) “Wetlands: home and destination”

16. Transparent processes and systematic approaches for planning and decision making involving all relevant sectors can help to ensure the integration of wetland conservation and wise use into energy policies and plans, and can facilitate the participation of wetland policy makers, wetland managers, and other stakeholders in these processes. Contracting Parties have recognized the value of SEA approaches in supporting decision making that reflects the wise use of wetlands (Resolution X.17, Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment: updated scientific and technical guidance, 2008).
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Ramsar National Report to COP13 COP13 National Report

Ramsar National Report to COP13 COP13 National Report

› The national inventory of wetlands has been partially updated during the update of such databases as: The Natura 2000 sites database, the National Registry for Nature Conservation Forms (geoserwis) and the Map of the Hydrographic Division of Poland (hydroportal). The GIS Wetlands database is a reference material, which is methodologically coherent and covers the entire area of the country, yet it requires both update as well as higher detail level. Identification of wetland areas or objects carried out within various projects (e.g. identification of valuable natural habitats in the agricultural landscape), undertakings (e.g. environmental impact assessment), programmes (e.g. the so-called nature packages (4 and 5) of Agri-environment-climate measure) has only indirect inventory nature, because these data are collected unsystematically, they are scattered, and not gathered intentionally. Their major and basic value is that they can contribute to the verification of the location of wetland objects. The actual inventories oriented both on the object identification, as well as determination of their status, threats etc., coherent in terms of the applied methods, data analysis on a national scale, planning and conducting field reconnaissance, are projects of the Naturalists’ Club (Klub Przyrodników) regarding alkaline fens, raised bogs. Data gathered during the monitoring of environmental effects of the agri-environmental programme is of a similar nature - uniform methodology, proper accuracy, precise spatial location. The downside of such monitoring is the lack of wetland habitats’ identification - the reference units are registry parcels, for which the farmers use agri-environmental subsidies.
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Avoiding, mitigating, and compensating for loss and degradation of wetlands in national laws and policies

Avoiding, mitigating, and compensating for loss and degradation of wetlands in national laws and policies

Avoid-mitigate-compensate approaches in Africa Burkina Faso: The EIA decree (2001) reflects the pre- cautionary principle to prevent damage to the environ- ment as a consequence of human activities. Under this framework, an EIA must identify proposed mitigation or compensation measures, while avoiding or reducing the negative impacts to acceptable levels (Desire, 2007). Egypt: The document “Guidelines of Principles and Pro- cedures for Environmental Impact Assessment” (2009) describes the EIA process as the “systematic examina- tion of consequences of a proposed project, aiming to prevent, reduce or mitigate negative impacts on the environment, natural resources, health and social ele- ments as well capitalize on impacts of the project.” Ghana: Environmental Assessment Regulations (1999) make an EIA mandatory for undertakings that drain wet-
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Guidance for addressing the implications for wetlands of policies, plans and activities in the energy sector

Guidance for addressing the implications for wetlands of policies, plans and activities in the energy sector

16. Transparent processes and systematic approaches for planning and decision making involving all relevant sectors can help to ensure the integration of wetland conservation and wise use into energy policies and plans, and can facilitate the participation of wetland policy makers, wetland managers, and other stakeholders in these processes. Contracting Parties have recognized the value of SEA approaches in supporting decision making that reflects the wise use of wetlands (Resolution X.17, Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment: updated scientific and technical guidance, 2008).
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8 Lee mas

Metabolic Impact Analysis’ for Urban Planning

Metabolic Impact Analysis’ for Urban Planning

The first section of the paper, after this brief introduction, presents the fundaments of evaluation activity, focusing then on five fields of knowledge – urban planning, urban form, impact assessment, environmental accounting and energy, and urban metabolism. The review is oriented to the identification and characterization of evaluation methods and techniques for planning practice that relate urban form and urban development with urban metabolism – focusing on the consumption of energy, water, materials and land. Based on the literature review, and particularly on three specific methods – threshold analysis, land suitability analysis, and environmental impact assessment – a set of principles framing the design of the methodology is defined – it should evaluate the urban development process (from a metabolic perspective), focus on plans and projects as fundamental drivers of the urban development process, assess the city wide metabolic impact of the proposals included in plans and projects, have an evaluation rationale provided by the territory, be better suited to short-term (ex-ante or ex-post) analysis although it may address different temporal scales, and deal with the environment in an integrated way. We then move to a characterization of MIA against the background of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). In addition we describe its main components, and structure the evaluation procedure in six main stages. Finally, we present our main conclusions on the design of the methodology and reflect on our future research particularly on the application of MIA in a set of European cities in order to validate it in different geographical and planning contexts.
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Ramsar COP11 DR10, Rev.1 Draft Resolution XI.10 , Rev. 1 Wetlands and energy issues

Ramsar COP11 DR10, Rev.1 Draft Resolution XI.10 , Rev. 1 Wetlands and energy issues

15. ENCOURAGESURGES Contracting Parties to identify the capacity, expertise and technical information which are needed, particularly in relevant public sector and local government institutions, forto addressing the specific issues and potential impacts of the energy sector on wetlands as describedaddressed in this document, particularly in relevant public sector and local government institutions, and FURTHER URGES Contracting Parties to implement, where necessary through the Regional Wetland Centres and where necessary through partnerships with public, private and NGO sector organizations, appropriate training and capacity building programmes in order to strengthen regulatory oversight of energy sector activities and to enhance application of guidance for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) contained in Resolution X.17, as well as application of the guidelines in Resolution VIII.1 on allocation and management of water for maintaining the ecological functions of wetlandsCROSS CHECK DR 8.2 [ and determination of wetland water needs and]and regulatory oversight of energy sector activities; and REQUESTS the Secretariat, in collaboration with the STRP, the CEPA Oversight Panel, the Rregional Iinitiatives and Contracting Parties, to support, resources permitting, Contracting Parties‟ training and capacity building efforts, resources permitting;
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Valuing benefits derived from wetland ecosystems

Valuing benefits derived from wetland ecosystems

Policy Measures Management Measures Multi Functional Use Total Economic Valuation Environmental Impact Assessment.. Communication and Dissemination.[r]

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Background materials concerning environmental and strategic impact assessment

Background materials concerning environmental and strategic impact assessment

30. Decision-making takes place throughout the process of environmental impact assessment in a incremental way from the screening and scoping stages to decisions during data- collecting and analysis, and impact prediction to making choices between alternatives and mitigation measures and finally the decision between refusal or authorization of the project. Biodiversity issues should play a part in decision-making throughout. This final decision is essentially a political choice about whether or not the proposal is to proceed, and under what conditions. If rejected, the project can be redesigned and resubmitted. It is desirable that the proponent and the decision-making body are two different entities.
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The Welfare State in Spain : An Impact Assessment

The Welfare State in Spain : An Impact Assessment

The evolution of the percentage of individuals per income category shown in Figure 6 highlights three important facts about the income distribution in Spain. The first one is that the majority of the population lives in the middle and wealthy classes, as defined by the 10 to 50 or the above 50 PPP dollars parameters. The second one is that vulnerable and poor groups are almost non-existing when analyzed with an international perspective. Finally, the redistribution system seems to be having a positive impact on the Spanish society, since individuals seem to be moving from lower income groups to higher income ones.
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The impact of innovation on firms' performance: an analysis of the hotel sector in Majorca

The impact of innovation on firms' performance: an analysis of the hotel sector in Majorca

Thus, the first specification shows that four variables related to environmental and NE innovation are significant and have a positive sign on the capacity to obtain extra revenues. However, other environmental innovative measures do not turn out to be significant. Hotels with the application of NE innovations in the last three years and those that have implemented particular environmen- tal innovations attained significantly higher performance results for the firm. These results support hypothesis H5 at this earlier stage, but it is worth mentioning that this support is robust to other variables being included later on. The likelihood of having a better performance in terms of competitive extra revenues also increases in a significant way, although with a smaller effect, with the entrepreneurs’ valuation of their sensitivity to innovative ideas. This sub- jective variable attempts to capture the willingness of the hotel manager to accept innovative ideas.
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4  IMPACTOS ATMOSFERICOS pdf

4 IMPACTOS ATMOSFERICOS pdf

Las imágenes muestran cómo las áreas de Groenlandia que se derriten en verano (en anaranjado) se han expandido en años recientes. Fuente: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment[r]

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TítuloFinance, Sustainability and Negative Externalities: An Overview of the European Context

TítuloFinance, Sustainability and Negative Externalities: An Overview of the European Context

Buchanan and Tullock (1965) are noted for discoveries that show when individualistic market logic is applied unrelentingly to political decision-making. Paradoxically, the lessons of public choice tell us that when a government is called on to resolve externality problems, the action taken can result in a Pareto optimal outcome. Saying this, however, is not the same thing as saying that the politically obtained outcome will be superior to a resolution of the externality problem by means of private bargaining [44]. In view of the development of the Baumol external effects concept, Oates has shown that they arise when an individual (a person, company, government) influences the function of production or the utility of another entity. The former does not take into account the impact of its conduct on the well-being of the other unit. Decision-makers whose activities affect the level of utility or production function, do not receive compensation equal to the value of benefits generated or in the case of costs-do not pay any compensation [45]. Karl-Goran Maler presented the public good as the quality of the environment, which is important for the development of sustainable development [46]. The development of the Pareto understanding is an intertemporal optimal Pareto. The release of static assumptions shows that no one will enrich their prosperity in any of the studied periods without depleting the welfare of other people in other periods. Discounting the usefulness of future periods according to the discount rate expressing social preferences for the well-being of present and future generations are necessary for the correct allocation of well-being [47]. This approach indicates that the achievement of well-being by specific units is associated with the negative effects of the use of the environment, the disturbance of the balance, which results in specific external effects for other units of society functioning in space. Negative external effects affecting the space through irrational management of its resources are of significant importance only to the direct victim [48].
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Low environmental impact hybrid cements: reducing clinker content

Low environmental impact hybrid cements: reducing clinker content

One of the approaches, widely accepted today, to reducing this impact while helping solve other environmental problems (finding a use for industrial by-products or waste that would otherwise be the object of costly and pollution-prone stockpiling) is to include active industrial by-product or mineral additions in portland cement clinker. This gives rise to different types of ordinary cements, officially recognised in Spanish and European standard UNE-EN 197-1:2000, which specifies both the type and maximum amount of additions allowed. Another more innovative option consists of developing alternative, less expensive and where possible less environmentally damaging cements (involving lower CO 2 emissions or the re-use of industrial by-products) whose
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15 Lee mas

Low environmental impact hybrid cements: reducing clinker content

Low environmental impact hybrid cements: reducing clinker content

The environmental problems posed by Portland cement manufacture have prompted the scientific committee to seek more eco-efficient binders with the same technological features as OPC; hybrid cements are among such alternative materials. Hybrid alkaline cements are multi-component systems containing a high mineral addition (fly ash (FA), metakaolin (MK), blast furnace slag (BFS)) content, low proportions (<30 %) of portland clinker and moderately alkaline activators. The substantially lower amount of clinker needed to manufacture these binders than ordinary Portland cement is both economically and ecologically beneficial. The present study explored strength development and the reaction products generated by several hybrid cements, consisting of a number of industrial by-products and very low Portland clinker contents.
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La Unión Europea y el Mercado Común del Sur: dos integraciones regionales complementarias ante un escenario de grandes desafíos globales e internos

La Unión Europea y el Mercado Común del Sur: dos integraciones regionales complementarias ante un escenario de grandes desafíos globales e internos

Más recientemente, en 2009, el Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) del acuerdo de asociación en negociación entre la entonces Comunidad Europea y el Mercosur calculó que la libera[r]

26 Lee mas

Hygrothermal Performance of Worship Spaces: Preservation, Comfort and Energy Consumption

Hygrothermal Performance of Worship Spaces: Preservation, Comfort and Energy Consumption

At present, simulation software for the calculation of environmental conditions and energy consumption in buildings is extremely useful for predicting the behaviour of the different climate conditioning systems and facilities [12]. However, as this type of software is geared towards the evaluation of more modern buildings, the results obtained for heritage buildings can be less accurate [13]. Therefore, monitoring and real measurements are needed in order to validate and contrast the results obtained from the simulation. Onsite measurements make it possible to generate simulation models with behaviour close to reality [14].
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