ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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Explaining tourists´ support for environmental protection

Explaining tourists´ support for environmental protection

The methodology proposed represents a new way of analysing the impacts of contextual and individual characteristics on ex- plaining tourist support for environmental protection. On the one hand, macroeconomic data is usually explored to answer the question how differences among nations is shown (country ef- fect). On the other hand, the microeconomic analysis of the household that may enrich the analysis, since proenvironmental attitudes can still be observed (compositional effect). If the econometric model takes into account both effects simultaneous- ly, then the linkage between GDP changes and tourists´ behav- iour is enriched and it may be estimated more accurately. The econometric approach is a multilevel model, where the individu- al´s level of support for the environment, yij is modelled at dif- ferent stages. Model 1 is a null model without explanatory vari- ables, where the tourists are grouped at country level:
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7 Lee mas

THE DEVELOPMENT OF AIRPORT AREAS ACCORDING TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION FROM NOISE POLLUTION: THE CASE OF ROME CITY

THE DEVELOPMENT OF AIRPORT AREAS ACCORDING TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION FROM NOISE POLLUTION: THE CASE OF ROME CITY

Curcuruto Salvatore (1) ; Fabozzi Concetta (2); Micozzi Franco (2); (1) National Agency for the Environmental Protection of Italy Via V. Brancati, 48 – 00144 Roma (Italy); e-mail: scurcur@tin.it (2)Regional Agency for the Environmental Protection of Lazio Via Garibaldi, 114 – Rieti 02100 (Italy), Tel./Fax +39-0746-200508,

5 Lee mas

EU Energy Taxation System & State Aid Control Critical Analysis from Competitiveness and Environmental Protection Objectives

EU Energy Taxation System & State Aid Control Critical Analysis from Competitiveness and Environmental Protection Objectives

Abstract: This research inquires on the balance between two goals, competitiveness and environmental protection, and identify the contributions of the different legal instruments under examination to this balance, in particular, State aid instruments (GBER and Environmental Guidelines), the Energy Tax Directive (ETD), the Emissions Trade System (ETS) and Environmental Border Tax Adjustments (EBTAs).

49 Lee mas

Environmental Protection Efforts and the Threat of Climate Change in the Arctic : Examined Through International Perspectives Including the European Union and the United States of America

Environmental Protection Efforts and the Threat of Climate Change in the Arctic : Examined Through International Perspectives Including the European Union and the United States of America

In order to investigate and manage the interests of the stakeholders of the Arctic, the high-level international cooperation forum called the Arctic Council was created in 1996 by the Ottawa Declaration to collectively research and debate the issues surrounding the region. It was an evolvement of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS) created in 1991, where some of the first Arctic working groups were established. Designed to be a forum first and foremost, it addresses the challenges the Arctic poses and set goals for improving intergovernmental communication, but with a main focus on promoting and researching environmental protection and sustainable development. The eight permanent member states are Canada, the Kingdom of Denmark (which includes Greenland and the Faroe Islands), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States of America. Of these eight members, five of them are considered the original “Arctic Five” (Canada, Denmark, Norway, Russia, and the U.S.) and three are a part of the European Union (Denmark, Finland and Sweden). In addition, there are six international organizations that represent indigenous communities in the region that have Permanent Participant status within the Council. They are as follows: Aleut International Association (AIA), Arctic Athabaskan Council (AAC), Gwich’in Council International (GCI), Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North (RAIPON), and the Saami Council (SC). Also included are eight working groups and additionally observer states and organizations that are non-permanent members but would like to contribute to dialogue and cooperation. 27
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70 Lee mas

The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil

The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil

Sampling methods: Specimens of the non-native species were recorded from Febru- ary 2005 to April 2009 in the municipalities of Parnaíba, Luis Correia, Cajueiro da Praia (State of Piauí) and Araioses (State of Mara- nhão). Individuals were obtained by the fol- lowing methods: (1) Snorkeling; this method was performed sporadically on the beaches of Barra Grande (Cajueiro da Praia) and Coqueiro (Luis Correia) during the low tide (ca. 2 hours each dive); (2) Intensive search for unfa- miliar individuals on rocky outcrops, which was conducted monthly on the beaches of Cajueiro da Praia and Barra Grande (Cajueiro da Praia), and Coqueiro (Luis Correia) during the low tide (ca. 3 hours each search); and (3) Monitoring the local fisheries (casting nets) during the season fishery of the white shrimp (May to July). Total length of each specimen collected was measured. Voucher specimens were fixed in 10% formalin, preserved in 70% alcohol, and deposited at the Zoological col- lection of the Natural History Museum of the Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA) and the Crustacean collection of the Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG). Collecting permits were authorized by the Brazilian Environmental Protection Agency, the Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA) (Proc. Number 18027-2).
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16 Lee mas

The influence of cooperative relations of small businesses on environmental protection intensity

The influence of cooperative relations of small businesses on environmental protection intensity

According to Uhlaner, et al. (2012), only a few studies rely on inferential statistics and large random samples of firms (including SMEs) to test hypotheses (e.g. Russo and Fouts, 1997: Perrini et al., 2007; Brand and Dam 2009; Gadenne et al. 2009). This paper uses a large-scale sample and statistical tools to enhance our knowledge of the different business factors which influence the environmental management practices of Spanish SMEs. Specifically, the aim of our work is to study the relationship between one of the most important social responsibility policies in manufacturing: environmental protection and cooperative business relations in the case of small businesses (fewer than 50 employees).
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36 Lee mas

Sector  Turistico en Costa Rica

Sector Turistico en Costa Rica

Unfortunately, tourism activities and operations do occur at a cost to the physical and biological environment which they are designed in part to highlight. Siting of tourism operations does sometimes occur in sensitive ecological areas, with resulting damage to coral and mangrove ecosystems, for example. Even in the coastal zone which is subject to the most rigorous land-use controls under existing law, environmental protection is far from guaranteed. Additionally, where careful planning and controls are demanded as a consequence of political pressures, models and methods for planning and mitigation of environmental damages are not always adequate to the task. It must be argued that the tourism industry itself is both the aggressor and the victim in this regard; and it is in tourism's interest to drive for better practices even if so doing sometimes will increase the short-term costs of doing business.
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43 Lee mas

SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT FOR EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT FOR EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

In this paradigm, natural resources and environment were considered as a means of achieving well-being, such as education or health. Rather than opposing the primary objective of monetary stability and economic growth recommended by other international organizations (i.e. the World Bank), this approach to development complements it and looks at new growth factors such as social and natural capital, environmental protection, participation of local commu- nities, governance, and so on (Dubois et al., 2002). The interrelated nature of poverty and environmental degradation is useful for under- standing the real meaning of a sustainable human development approach. Although it is true that poverty can be a cause of environmental degradation due to lack of investment and overexploitation of finite resources, it is also true that poor people are often forced to live in places where the standard of living (including environmental conditions) is very low. In this context, policy options to break this vicious circle can be geared both towards reducing poverty and improving living (environmental) conditions.
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23 Lee mas

Faculty Research Working Papers Series

Faculty Research Working Papers Series

Business leaders, government officials, and academics are focusing considerable attention on the concept of “corporate social responsibility” (CSR), particularly in the realm of environmental protection. Beyond complete compliance with environmental regulations, do firms have additional moral or social responsibilities to commit resources to environmental protection? How should we think about the notion of firms sacrificing profits in the social interest? May they do so within the scope of their fiduciary responsibilities to their shareholders? Can they do so on a sustainable basis, or will the forces of a competitive marketplace render such efforts and their impacts transient at best? Do firms, in fact, frequently or at least sometimes behave this way, reducing their earnings by voluntarily engaging in environmental stewardship? And finally, should firms carry out such profit- sacrificing activities (i.e., is this an efficient use of social resources)? We address these questions through the lens of economics, including insights from legal analysis and business scholarship.
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37 Lee mas

La economía política de China e India: lidiar con la contaminación del aire en las dos economías en auge

La economía política de China e India: lidiar con la contaminación del aire en las dos economías en auge

Resumen: China and India are two booming economies today, but both are suffering fromo environmental damages. To achieve sustainable development, the two countries have to pay more attention to the protection of environment. This article first examines the causes and consequences of the serious air pollution problem and suggests ways for improvement. The autor argues that air pollution control and environmental protection in general are a comprehensive project that requires concerted efforts by governments at all levels, the scientific community, businesses, legal scholars, non-governmental and grass-roots groups, the international community, and individual citizens. Education and stricter law enforcement remains the key to success. China and India’s experience in air pollution control provides some useful lessons for other developing countries.
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10 Lee mas

Avoiding, mitigating, and compensating for loss and degradation of wetlands in national laws and policies

Avoiding, mitigating, and compensating for loss and degradation of wetlands in national laws and policies

Several Canadian provinces also follow the hierarchical progression of avoid-minimize-compensate, including Alberta, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia (Rubec and Hanson, 2009). Interestingly, the New Brunswick Wetlands Conservation Policy (2002) con- tains a particularly strong endorsement of avoidance of wetland impacts. It commits to “no loss of Provincially Significant Wetland habitat and [to] no net loss of wet- land functions for all other wetlands” in the province. México: The General Law for Ecological Equilibrium and Environmental Protection (2011) requires the “preven- tion, minimization, or reparation” of adverse environ- mental impacts from projects/activities. The law also requires an EIA for projects on wetlands, mangroves, lakes, rivers, lagoons, and estuaries to “preserve and restore” the impacted ecosystems in order to “avoid or reduce to a minimum” adverse environmental impacts.
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12 Lee mas

Ramsar National Report to COP13 COP13 National Report

Ramsar National Report to COP13 COP13 National Report

The members of the committee included officers from Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Ministry of Water Development, Sanitation and Environmental Protection, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Ministry of Fisheries, Department of National Parks and wildlife, Zambia Environmental Management Agency (ZEMA), Birdwatch Zambia, , University of Zambia (UNZA), The Nature Conservancy (TNC), International Crane Foundation(ICF), World Wide Fund (WWF), Community Based Natural Resources Management Forum (CBNRMF), Zambia Agriculture Research Institute (ZARI), Policy Analysis and Coordination Division (PAC), Wildlife Environment and Conservation Society Zambia (WECSZ) and National Heritage Conservation Commission (NHCC) among others.
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55 Lee mas

Ramsar National Report to COP13 COP13 National Report

Ramsar National Report to COP13 COP13 National Report

In accordance with bilateral agreements, Belarus cooperates with neighboring countries on common transboundary water resources. There is joint Belarussian-Russian commission on transboundary waters in basins of rivers Dnieper, Western Dvina and Neman (in accordance with agreement with Russian Federation); there is agreement with Ukraine on joint use and protection of transboundary waters in basins of rivers Dnieper, Pripyat and Western Bug; there is agreement with Poland on river Western Bug. Issues related to cross-border cooperation on water bodies are included in the agreements on environmental protection between Belarus and Latvia regarding the Wester Dvina River. Belarus and Lithuania are working on the development of an inter-ministerial technical protocol on cooperation in the field of protection and use of water resources in the transboundary basin of the Neman River. According to the relevant agreements, Belarus and neighboring countries exchange hydrological data and information on water quality, agree on measures for the protection and use of water resources and coordinate actions to mitigate the effects of floods and other emergencies.
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90 Lee mas

Ramsar National Report to COP13 COP13 National Report

Ramsar National Report to COP13 COP13 National Report

At the level of all habitats (not only wetlands), Poland possesses a list of alien plant, animal and fungi species which may threaten native species or natural habitats, if introduced to the environment (Regulation of the Minister of the Environment of 09 September 2011, Journal of Laws 2011.210.1260). Moreover, two books have been published: „Gatunki obce w faunie Polski” (“Alien species of the Polish fauna” Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2011) and „Rośliny obcego pochodzenia w Polsce ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem gatunków inwazyjnych” (“ Alien plant species in Poland with special emphasis on invasive species”, General Directorate for Environmental Protection, 2012). Within the framework of the POIS.02.04.00- 00-0100/16-00, a project entitled “Development of the rules for the control of invasive alien species with pilot actions and social education”, a task will be implemented consisting in determination of the invasiveness degree for 118 alien species occuring in Poland, including 49 species from the EU list. The analysis will be based on existing data, including data and inventory results listed above, and will determine the degree of invasiveness based on the results from the responses to the procedure Harmonia+ for every species (including impact of the species on nature).
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70 Lee mas

TEST DE CONTRASTE DE HIPÓTESIS

TEST DE CONTRASTE DE HIPÓTESIS

 millas. La Environmental Protection Agency de Estados Unidos de América quiere probar esta afirmación para ver si la figura afirmada debería ser más alta o más baja que 35 millas por galón. Para esto, se saca una muestra aleatoria de 50 modelos de este tipo y se prueban bajo circunstancias iguales. Los resultados dan un promedio muestral de 33.6 millas por galón. Probar el reclamo del departamento de ingeniería usando un nivel de significancia de 0.05.

25 Lee mas

Rachel Carson, DDT y la lucha contra la malaria pdf

Rachel Carson, DDT y la lucha contra la malaria pdf

La llegada a la Presidencia de Estados Unidos de Donald J. Trump, un personaje atrabiliario, se traduce en nombramientos estrafalarios. Uno de estos es Scott Pruitt. Su designación para la «Agencia de Protección Ambiental» (Environmental Protection Agency, más conocida por su acrónimo en inglés EPA) pretende limitar las atribuciones que la Agencia ha ido adquiriendo desde su creación durante la Administración de Richard Nixon.

6 Lee mas

http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/48-pin-Data-Sheet-megaAVR-0-series-DS40002016B.pdf

http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/48-pin-Data-Sheet-megaAVR-0-series-DS40002016B.pdf

• There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property.

82 Lee mas

Investigation on the applicability of biofuels in the operation of commercial aircraft

Investigation on the applicability of biofuels in the operation of commercial aircraft

During the second half of 2013, both the European Council and the European Parliament were extensively discussing the possibility of putting a cap on the first generation biofuels utilisation and how to include the ILUC factor in the accounting of the environmental impact of biofuels. No agreement was reached, but the issue is expected to appear again after the recent European Elections, with the goal of achieving a final decision at the end of 2015. On the blending obligations, each country may apply its selected amount, based on a percentage of energy or volume, making it indicative or obligatory or minimum level. For example, Estonia, Greece and Lithuania have only indicative blending amounts, and Denmark adopted a first-ever obligatory quota in 2011. Those blending levels may be different for biodiesel and bioethanol, and have been slowly increasing during the last years. Table 36 shows the status of blending obligations in the EU and Norway (Associated State in bioenergy policies) in the year 2011. Sales of biofuels reached 13.9 million tonnes; a 77% of biodiesel, 21.5% of bioethanol and 1.5% of the vegetable oil. As it was indicated before, the present mandate is 5.75%, and the final target is 10% of renewable content in 2020.
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247 Lee mas

Operational characterisation of a Micro-SME producing farmhouse cheese in the south of Venezuela

Operational characterisation of a Micro-SME producing farmhouse cheese in the south of Venezuela

A questionnaire based on good food production practice was used as a data gather- ing technique. The questionnaire included: employment capacity, raw material handling, environmental conditions of the production process, sanitary aspects, work area, workers’ personal protection system, laboratory analysis and produc- tion capacity in kilos. Version 15.2 of STATGRAPHICS computational software was used for data processing.

7 Lee mas

Establecimiento y modelización de indicadores vegetales del estado ecológico de humedales mediterráneos semiáridos salinos= Modelling and establishment of plant indicators of ecological status for semiarid mediterranean saline wetlands

Establecimiento y modelización de indicadores vegetales del estado ecológico de humedales mediterráneos semiáridos salinos= Modelling and establishment of plant indicators of ecological status for semiarid mediterranean saline wetlands

Murcia province (SE Spain: 37°N, 1°W) has a semiarid Mediterranean climate with a mean annual temperature of 16 °C and a mean annual precipitation of 339 mm (Esteve et al, 2006). Eleven semiarid saline wetlands were selected, i.e. 7 coastal and 4 inland wetlands (Fig. 2.1). Selected sites are included in the regional inventory of wetlands (Vidal-Abarca et al, 2003) and their protection status ranges from regional, national to international level due to their high ecological values (Ramsar Site, Special Protection Area for Birds, Site of Community Importance and Special Protection Area for the Mediterranean), except for Matalentisco and Boquera de Tabala wetlands, which do not benefit from any protection status. Marina del Carmolí, Lo Poyo and Playa de la Hita wetlands are in a lowland coastal plain, called Campo de Cartagena, associated with the internal shore of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon which comprises 12,700 ha (Conesa and Jiménez-Cárceles, 2007). The lagoon and its associated wetlands are all RAMSAR sites, containing eighteen Habitats of Community Interest according to the European Habitat Directive (Council of Europe, 1992). Salinas del Rasall is a coastal wetland associated with a salt extraction pond embedded in the Calblanque Natural Park, and also included in the Mar Menor RAMSAR protected area. Matalentisco, Sombrerico and Cañada Brusca are coastal wetlands located in the southern part of the region on the Mediterranean Sea. Boquera de Tabala, Ajauque, Derramadores and Alcanara are inland wetlands associated with an ephemeral river and with a saline alluvial plain, respectively.
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127 Lee mas

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