Executive function (Psychology)

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2016 Ardila Is self-conciousness equivalent to executive function

2016 Ardila Is self-conciousness equivalent to executive function

The idea that executive function has two fun- damental types has indeed been proposed by different authors. For example, a distinction has been suggested between the so-called “cool” cognitive aspects of executive function (corre- sponding to metacognitive executive functions that are mostly associated with dorsolateral ar- eas of the prefrontal cortex) and the so-called hot affective aspects of executive function (i.e., emotional/motivational executive functions that are more directly related to the ventral and medial regions of the prefrontal cortex; Zelazo & Muller, 2002). This hot/cool classification has also been used to account for the develop- ment of executive function in children (Hong- wanishkul, Happaney, Lee, & Zelazo, 2005; Zelazo & Carlson, 2012) and executive function disturbances in children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (Skogli, Egeland, Ander- sen, Hovi, & Øie, 2014). Additionally, cool (metacognitive) executive functions are signifi- cantly correlated with an individual’s general intellectual ability (intelligence), whereas hot (emotional/motivational) executive functions are not related to general intellectual function- ing (e.g., verbal mental age and performance mental age). In other words, unlike hot execu- tive functions (i.e., emotional/motivational executive functions), cool (metacognitive) ex- ecutive functions are involved in controlling cognition, self-awareness, the temporality of behavior, and similar intellectual processes. Stuss (2011) referred to two major anatomical/ functional systems: a ventral-medial/orbital sys- tem for emotional and behavioral regulation and a frontopolar system for integrative— even metacognitive—functions. These two systems clearly correspond to the emotional/motiva- tional and metacognitive executive function dis- tinction that was proposed by Ardila (2008).
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7 Lee mas

Epistemological perspectives in the scientific study and evaluation of executive function

Epistemological perspectives in the scientific study and evaluation of executive function

What is most apparent at the outset is that in contrast with the significant advances attained in the neurosciences, the clinical armamentarium available to assess this most complex set of abilities lags significantly behind. A few instruments such as the Wisconsin Card Test, the StroopTest, Trail Making Test, Tower of London and variants that have sprouted along the way have been the major tools available for the evaluation of executive function for decades (Lezak, Howieson, Bigler, & Tranel, 2012). It is of note that despite the emphasis that American psychologists have tradition- ally placed on the valid, objective, reliable and accurate measurement of psychological traits, few instruments live up to those expectations (especially that purport to measure executive function). A longstanding matter of significant concern in the field has been the paucity of good normative studies for those instruments, particularly where demographic factors, which have a major impact on executive functions (e.g., Fortuny, Garolera, Hermosillo, et al., 2005; Armen- gol, 2007; Manly, 2005; McKay, 2003) are concerned, not to mention the issue of ecological validity. While efforts have been made to address those concerns, they are few and far between. Attempting to address diverse backgrounds of the clinical population faced by neuropsychologists in this day and age becomes quite daunting. The issues are so many and so complex that a truly fair, ecologically sensitive test that
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11 Lee mas

1999 Ardila et al Correlation Between Intelligence Test Scores and executive function measures

1999 Ardila et al Correlation Between Intelligence Test Scores and executive function measures

In this study, some executive function measures (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST], verbal fluency, and Trial Making Test [TMT], Form A and Form B) were correlated with Wechsler In- telligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) scores. Fifty 13- to 16-year-old normal children were selected. It was found that verbal fluency tests correlated about 0.30 with Verbal Intelli- gence Quotient (IQ) and Full Scale IQ. In the WCST only Perseverative Errors negatively cor- related with Verbal IQ and Full Scale IQ. Two correlations were found to be significant with re- gard to the TMT: TMT Form B Errors negatively correlated with WISC-R Vocabulary subtest; and TMT Form A Time negatively correlated with Performance IQ. These results support the assumption that traditional intelligence tests are not appropriately evaluating executive func- tions. © 1999 National Academy of Neuropsychology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd Keywords: intelligence, executive functions, cognitive testing, frontal lobe
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6 Lee mas

The Immediate Impact of Different Types of Television on Young Children’s Executive Function

The Immediate Impact of Different Types of Television on Young Children’s Executive Function

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this research was to study whether a fast- paced television show immediately influences preschool-aged chil- dren’s executive function (eg, self-regulation, working memory). METHODS: Sixty 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to watch a fast- paced television cartoon or an educational cartoon or draw for 9 min- utes. They were then given 4 tasks tapping executive function, including the classic delay-of-gratification and Tower of Hanoi tasks. Parents completed surveys regarding television viewing and child’s attention. RESULTS: Children who watched the fast-paced television cartoon per- formed significantly worse on the executive function tasks than chil- dren in the other 2 groups when controlling for child attention, age, and television exposure.
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2013 ardila development of metacognitive and emotional executive function in children1

2013 ardila development of metacognitive and emotional executive function in children1

children were requested to find commonalities between pairs of words (concept formation). Eight pairs of words were presented, one at a time. Abstract general- izations or categorizations (i.e., “A dog and a cat are animals”) were scored with 2 points; specific and descriptive answers (i.e., “A dog and the cat have four legs”) were scored with 1 point, and incorrect answers received a 0. The maximum score was 16. (4) Matrices was a multiple-choice subtest consisting of a series of visual pattern- matching and analogy problems pictured in nonrepresentational designs. It required the child to conceptualize spatial and design relations such as in Raven’s Progressive Matrices (Raven, Court, & Raven, 1976). One point is given to each option correctly selected by the child. The maximum score is 8. Figure 2 presents the development of the scores in these four selected executive function tests.
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7 Lee mas

Social cognition and executive function in borderline personality disorder: evidence of altered cognitive processes

Social cognition and executive function in borderline personality disorder: evidence of altered cognitive processes

Introduction. Social cognition (SC) and executive function (EF) research in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has proven to be controversial and lack of sufficient information about deficit patterns. Objective. Assess the contribution of SC and EF in the socio-emotional and cognitive patterns in BPD, as well as inves- tigate the possible relationships between SC, EF, and clinic features in BPD. Method. The study evaluated 20 females with BPD in ambulatory hospitalization and 20 healthy women in social cognition (“Reading the mind through the eyes” and the IOWA gambling task) and executive function (with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, verbal fluency tasks; digit spam test and numbers-and-letters of the WAIS-III, Trail Making Test Form A and B). Results. The results show statistically-significant differences for the tasks evaluated in social cognition, the theory of mind (u: 181, p < .001**), and the IOWA gambling task, score IOWA 4 (p < .004*), and IOWA 5 p < .003*); and executive functioning, for example in the Wisconsin card sorting test, WCST1 were found (p < .003*), WCST2 (p < .004*), WCST3 (p < .018*) or WCST4 (p < .003*). Digit span test and verbal fluency had significant differences compared to controls. Discussion and conclusion. The subdomains evaluated would be good endophenotypes as well as specific cognitive processes for research and rehabilitation.
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9 Lee mas

Assessment of different components of executive function in grief

Assessment of different components of executive function in grief

patterns of grief and the specifi c emotional dysregulations that characterize CG. Currently, the infl uences of intense symptoms of grief on a wide range of neuropsychological variables are being considered in older and young adults. A central aspect of neuropsychological performance is executive function (EF). EF can be defi ned as a series of mental and behavioral processes and competences that sustain and help regulate different cognitive and emotional processes (Chan, Shum, Toulopoulou, & Chen, 2008; Diamond, 2013; Verdejo-García & Bechara, 2010). Traditionally, a distinction has been made between two components of EF: (a) a “cold” component that includes cognitive abilities such as verbal reasoning, attention and cognitive fl exibility and (b) a “hot” component that includes emotion regulation or emotional decision-making (Chan et al., 2008).
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6 Lee mas

ADHD Symptoms and peer problems: Mediation of executive function and theory of mind

ADHD Symptoms and peer problems: Mediation of executive function and theory of mind

The symptoms of ADHD according with the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-text revision- 5th edition [DSM-V] (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013), have been considered a primary contributor to dysfunctions experienced by children with ADHD in establishing enduring social relationships. In both the hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention domains, symptom severity is related to the deterioration in interpersonal relationships, low acceptance by classmates (Kim et al., 2015; Tseng, Kawabata, Gau, & Crick, 2014), and problems in family relationships (Miranda, Berenguer, Colomer, & Roselló, 2014). Moreover, in recent years, researchers have shown increasing interest in the study of the relationship between social problems and executive functioning defi cits (see review by Roselló-Miranda, Berenguer- Forner, Baixauli-Fortea, & Miranda-Casas, 2016).
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6 Lee mas

Moderating effects of executive function between depression severity and work performance: a web based cross sectional study

Moderating effects of executive function between depression severity and work performance: a web based cross sectional study

Introduction. Depression and dysexecutive functioning share several neurocognitive features, and both often impair areas of everyday life functioning, such as work. The effect of their interaction on this outcome, how- ever, is barely known. Objective. Was to analyze the moderating effect of executive functioning (EF) on the relation between depression severity and work performance (presenteeism and absenteeism). Method. Data was collected through a non-probabilistic web-based survey. Hierarchical linear regression analyzes were used for testing the main hypothesis, with depression severity (PHQ-9) and EFs (BRIEF-A) as predictors, and presenteeism (SPS-6) and absenteeism (HPQ) as independent outcome variables. Results. There were 462 participants analyzed. The regression models showed no significant interaction, only additive effects of depression severity and EF on presenteeism, and no effect of these variables on absenteeism. Discussion and conclusion. Our main finding disagrees with the moderating effects of EF reported for other psychologi- cal variables. We hypothesize that EF alterations may have particular features for depression (e.g., cognitive inflexibility in thought rumination), which are not assessed by the BRIEF-A. Future studies should consider using EF performance tasks to test moderation and using naturalistic indicators of work performance.
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6 Lee mas

Evaluación de componentes implicados en la Función Ejecutiva en niños de 9 años / Assessing Executive Function components in 9 years old children

Evaluación de componentes implicados en la Función Ejecutiva en niños de 9 años / Assessing Executive Function components in 9 years old children

Executive Function (EF) is a multidimensional construct. It includes a set of abilities that allows to execute actions with a purpose, aimed to a goal, in an efficient way. The objective of this work is to explore some of the cognitive abilities that constitute a common factor for EF in 9 years-old children. The chosen instruments: Batería de Evaluación Neuropsicológica de la Función Ejecutiva en niños (ENFEN) (Battery of Neuropsychological Assessment for Executive Function in Children), along with the Backward Digits Subtestfrom the WISC-III, were administered to 101 children from private schools of Buenos Aires State, Argentina. The ENFEN consists on EF tasks, including Phonological and Semantic Fluency, Trail Making Test versions for children (gray and colored sets), Interference Task, and Planning disc movements according to a model. An initial confirmatory factor analysis didn’t show significant fit indexes, being the Inhibitory control the variable with the lower and non significant factorial weight. A second model excluding the Inhibitory control measure was conducted, and it showed excellent fit indexes. Therefore, it can be concluded that at this age, some of the cognitive abilities included on the EF are: Phonological and Semantic Fluency, Sustained and Selective attention, Planning and Working memory; which is not the case for Inhibitory Control (measured by the Interference Task in the ENFEN)
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16 Lee mas

Executive functions profile in extreme eating/weight conditions: from anorexia nervosa to obesity.

Executive functions profile in extreme eating/weight conditions: from anorexia nervosa to obesity.

Neuropsychological studies in EWC support the hypothesis of an alteration on the inhibitory control–emotional regulation–executive function circuit. In general terms, and although EWC have been associated with difficulties in different cognitive variables [23–27], a core cognitive trait appears to be executive dysfunction, with a focus on three distinct neurocognitive constructs: decision making, response inhibition and cognitive flexibility [28–31]. AN, for instance, has been consistently associated with alterations on attentional and executive functioning (mainly set shifting and decision making) [32–41]. Interestingly, some aspects of executive functioning, such as cognitive flexibility, have been considered as a risk indicator and are believed to be a possible endophenotype in AN [35]. A poor executive function performance has also been described in obesity [42–44] with some relevant characteristics, such as impulsivity and reduced decision making abilities, resulting in inadequate self-control [42–44]. Particularly, it has been demonstrated that obese subjects show deficits in decision making assessed by Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) [42–44]. According to these authors, the performance of OB participants was as poor as the performance of drug users, observed in previous studies [44]. These results suggested a significant deficit on decision making associated with obesity and, once again, point to overeating palatable food as addiction-like behavior. Impulsivity, relating this inappropriate sensitivity to punishment, has also been observed in obese subjects corroborating an executive dysfunctional profile in obesity [43].
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9 Lee mas

Deficits in executive and memory processes in delusional disorder: a case-control study

Deficits in executive and memory processes in delusional disorder: a case-control study

On the other hand, recent studies have demonstrated that executive function is far from being a unitary concept [6,7]. Three of the most postulated executive functions components proposed in the literature are Flexibility or Shifting (Ability to shift between different tasks or elements of the same task), Impulsivity or Inhibition (ability to inhibit inappropriate responses) and Updating (ability to incorporate relevant information and remove non relevant). Although they seem to correlate with each other, it has also been proven that they are clearly distinct components of executive function [8–11]. We find it reasonable to hypothesize that impairments in these components could be related with delusional symptoms in DD. Thus, a failure in Flexibility could account for the rigidity with which DD patients hold their delusional beliefs. Similarly, some known cognitive biases of psychosis, such as an
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8 Lee mas

On the evolutionary origins of executive functions

On the evolutionary origins of executive functions

In this paper it is proposed that the prefrontal lobe participates in two closely related but different exec- utive function abilities: (1) ‘‘metacognitive executive functions”: problem solving, planning, concept for- mation, strategy development and implementation, controlling attention, working memory, and the like; that is, executive functions as they are usually understood in contemporary neuroscience; and (2) ‘‘emo- tional/motivational executive functions”: coordinating cognition and emotion/motivation (that is, fulfill- ing biological needs according to some existing conditions). The first one depends on the dorsolateral prefrontal areas, whereas the second one is associated with orbitofrontal and medial frontal areas. Cur- rent tests of executive functions basically tap the first ability (metacognitive). Solving everyday problems (functional application of executive functions), however, mostly requires the second ability (emotional/ motivational); therefore, these tests have limited ecological validity. Contrary to the traditional points of view, recent evidence suggests that the human prefrontal lobe is similar to other primates and hominids. Other primates and hominids may possess the second (emotional executive functions) prefrontal ability, -but not the first (metacognitive executive functions) one. It is argued that metacognitive executive func- tions are significantly dependent on culture and cultural instruments. They probably are the result of the development and evolution of some ‘‘conceptualization instruments”; language (and written language as an extension of oral language) may represent the most important one. The second executive function ability (emotional/motivational) probably is the result of a biological evolution shared by other primates. Ó 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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9 Lee mas

On the evolutionary origins of executive functions

On the evolutionary origins of executive functions

In this paper it is proposed that the prefrontal lobe participates in two closely related but different exec- utive function abilities: (1) ‘‘metacognitive executive functions”: problem solving, planning, concept for- mation, strategy development and implementation, controlling attention, working memory, and the like; that is, executive functions as they are usually understood in contemporary neuroscience; and (2) ‘‘emo- tional/motivational executive functions”: coordinating cognition and emotion/motivation (that is, fulfill- ing biological needs according to some existing conditions). The first one depends on the dorsolateral prefrontal areas, whereas the second one is associated with orbitofrontal and medial frontal areas. Cur- rent tests of executive functions basically tap the first ability (metacognitive). Solving everyday problems (functional application of executive functions), however, mostly requires the second ability (emotional/ motivational); therefore, these tests have limited ecological validity. Contrary to the traditional points of view, recent evidence suggests that the human prefrontal lobe is similar to other primates and hominids. Other primates and hominids may possess the second (emotional executive functions) prefrontal ability, -but not the first (metacognitive executive functions) one. It is argued that metacognitive executive func- tions are significantly dependent on culture and cultural instruments. They probably are the result of the development and evolution of some ‘‘conceptualization instruments”; language (and written language as an extension of oral language) may represent the most important one. The second executive function ability (emotional/motivational) probably is the result of a biological evolution shared by other primates. Ó 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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8 Lee mas

Compromiso social como medida de reserva cognitiva y su relación con distintos procesos cognitivos en jóvenes universitarios

Compromiso social como medida de reserva cognitiva y su relación con distintos procesos cognitivos en jóvenes universitarios

The executive function can be defined as a set of skills and abilities involved in generating, planning, controlling, regulating, executing and readjusting those behaviors and cognitive skills needed to achieve complex objectives (Lezak et al., 2012). These functions begin to develop during the first year of life and from there all throughout it. Even in adult life, these functions can still be sharpened and improved by adequate stimulation (Rosselli, Jurado, & Matute, 2008). Flores, Ostrosky and Lozano (2014) in- clude the following, among others, as executive functions: cognitive flexibility, which is the ability to inhibit a wrong cognitive response or strategy, curbing the tendency to use it repetitively, and to generate an appropriate alternative response for the specific task; sequential planning ability, which is the ability to execute a series of steps in an orderly manner, so that together they lead to a specific goal; and verbal fluency, which reflects how efficient the individual is in articulating the greatest possible number of words within a certain time limit, under a specific criterion.
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11 Lee mas

A Working Hypothesis for the Role of the Cerebellum in Impulsivity and Compulsivity

A Working Hypothesis for the Role of the Cerebellum in Impulsivity and Compulsivity

Growing evidence associates cerebellar abnormalities with several neuropsychiatric disorders in which compulsive symptomatology and impulsivity are part of the disease pattern. Symptomatology of autism, addiction, obsessive-compulsive (OCD), and attention deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) disorders transcends the sphere of motor dysfunction and essentially entails integrative processes under control of prefrontal- thalamic-cerebellar loops. Patients with brain lesions affecting the cortico-striatum thalamic circuitry and the cerebellum indeed exhibit compulsive symptoms. Specifically, lesions of the posterior cerebellar vermis cause affective dysregulation and deficits in executive function. These deficits may be due to impairment of one of the main functions of the cerebellum, implementation of forward internal models of the environment. Actions that are independent of internal models may not be guided by predictive relationships or a mental representation of the goal. In this review article, we explain how this deficit might affect executive functions. Additionally, regionalized cerebellar lesions have been demonstrated to impair other brain functions such as the emergence of habits and behavioral inhibition, which are also altered in compulsive disorders. Similar to the infralimbic cortex, clinical studies and research in animal models suggest that the cerebellum is not required for learning goal-directed behaviors, but it is critical for habit formation. Despite this accumulating data, the role of the cerebellum in compulsive symptomatology and impulsivity is still a matter of discussion. Overall, findings point to a modulatory function of the cerebellum in terminating or initiating actions through regulation of the prefrontal cortices. Specifically, the cerebellum may be crucial for restraining ongoing actions when environmental conditions change by adjusting prefrontal activity in response to the new external and internal stimuli, thereby promoting flexible behavioral control. We elaborate on this explanatory framework and propose a working hypothesis for the involvement of the cerebellum in compulsive and impulsive endophenotypes.
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14 Lee mas

Psychometric characteristics of the brief scale for the assessment of executive functions in spanish clinical population

Psychometric characteristics of the brief scale for the assessment of executive functions in spanish clinical population

An alternative to this type of measures is the use of questionnaires based on the observation of the behavior, such as the BRIEF (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function; Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000). There are several hetero-report versions of this questionnaire. The most frequently employed is based on information provided by the family. It is applicable from ages 5 to 18 years and it assesses the frequency with which children and adolescents display certain problematic behaviors related to defi cits in executive functions at home and/or in school. For this purpose, it uses a Likert-type response format ranging from 1 to 3, where 1 is never, 2 is sometimes, and 3 is often. The scale is made up of 86 items (72 computable items and 14 additional ones). The latter do not contribute to the score but are useful to orient possible interventions. The remaining 72 items form 8 scales: Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, Organization of Materials, and Monitor, which in turn are grouped into two main indexes: the Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI), made up of the fi rst three scales, and the Metacognition Index (MI), made up of the remaining fi ve. Both indexes made up the Global Executive Composite (GEC) score. High scores in these scales and indexes indicate executive defi cit. It also includes two validity scales to identify problematic response styles. These scales are based on the analysis of the excessive frequency assigned to certain items (Negativity) or the correspondence between pairs of items (Inconsistency) and are not submitted to statistical analysis.
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8 Lee mas

Effect of school-based motor stimulation intervention on executive  function and attention performance in children

Effect of school-based motor stimulation intervention on executive function and attention performance in children

ABSTRACT The influence of physical activity in children’s development of executive function is not yet consensus among previous studies. So this study aims to evaluate the effects of school based motor stimulation in cognitive function responses in children aged 6 to 10 years of public schools at Brasília-Federal District, Brazil. It was formed two groups control (n = 40) and experimental (n = 40) who were studied before and after the intervention. The variable analyzed was: motor skills, executive function, reaction time and selective attention. The intervention occurred during 7 months, two times week, in a 50 minutes physical education classes. The results showed that there was a significant difference between groups in tests of executive function [F (1, 118) = 13.768, p = .001], reaction time [F (1, 118) = 18.352, p = .001] and attention selective [F (1, 64) = 14.531, p = .001]. Thus, it was observed that the experimental group improved not only its motor performance, but also significantly improved the performance of cognitive functions tested.
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14 Lee mas

Psychology Journal

Psychology Journal

Licoppe and Smoreda (2005), starting from some previous data, advanced some reflections on the relation between social networks and Technology (in the larger sense of this term). These reflections were inserted in a broader analysis context of how technologies can influence communication finalities and modalities. It seems very interesting over all the finding that the most recent media (like SMS or Instant Messaging Softwares) are often centred on the phatic function of communication (as intended by Jakobson, 1960). The discursive content of the communication gestures results less important than the message itself, and how, instead of the play between absence and co-presence (as in traditional phone mediated communications), we would have a play between lack of attention and absorption, between safety and interactional vulnerability. “The risk is that ties with friends will become institutionalised in the form of expectations and mutual obligations to be constantly available electronically” (Licoppe & Smoreda, 2005).
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34 Lee mas

Introduction to psychology From 2018 (1)

Introduction to psychology From 2018 (1)

Students learn more than just the business world, studying most intimate and important aspects of our life, such as whether we are happy, how we grow up, how we grow old, how the society affects us, and how our body affects us. Since it is a vast field, we will only sample some parts of psychology—those that have to do with important parts of life, and of the business world.

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