The coefficients portrayed in the first column capture the relative importance of each of the factors in the 2000-6 period. Marital status appears to be the strongest driving force in the participation decision: being married/cohabiting decreases by 19,3 percentage points (pp) the probability of labor market participation compared to being single/divorced/widowed. The effect of education is also important, but smaller. Having a low level of education (incomplete high school or less) decreases the probability of participating by 12,3 pp. when compared to women who have some college education. Similarly, women who are high school graduates but have no college education have a participation probability that is almost 5 pp lower than those with some college. Women’s fertility appears less relevant than marital status and education in explaining participation; having children under the age of 5 decreases the probability of participating by 2pp as compared to childless women, while having children between the ages of 6 and 18 years increases the probability of participating by 2pp. This is in contrast with observed trends in other countries such as the U.S. where the bulk of the increase in femaleparticipation has been driven by mothers of young children.
The evidence of the effects of women´s participation decision-making positions at international organizations is complex, and can be analyzed from different perspectives. It is unsure how women´s equal participation (if and when is achieved) would affect the agenda and priorities of the United Nations. Evidence so far is the inclusion of gender- based violence within the definition of war crimes, crimes against humanity and as components of the crime of genocide in the statutes of the two International Tribunals created by the Security Council to address crimes committed in the former Yugoslavia and in Rwanda (the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and the statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone). And, as Kofi Annan pointed out, “if women do not participate in the decision-making structures of a society, they are unlikely to become involved in decisions about the conflict or the peace process that follows”.
The aim of this study is to analyse the participation of women in National Police Force and in Military Personnel in Spain. To this end, data from various official secondary sources have been compiled and analysed from a gender perspective. The statistical analysis reveals the existence of a double occupational segregation in this field: women continue to be a minority in a masculinized sphere (horizontal segregation) and occupy lower categories and scales, being almost non-existent their presence in the highest ranks (vertical segregation). In this way, the recognition of women's right to access these labour fields in the end of the 20th century has not yet implied a balanced representation of both sexes.
If the United Nations intends to credibly exhort the Member States to increase the number of women in its national delegations, to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and to widen the roster of female candidates for high level posts, then the United Nations must address the improvement of the situations of women in the Secretariat. In order to avoid a serious loss of credibility in an area where the United Nations wants to provide worldwide leadership, and to finally respond after more of three decades of General Assembly resolutions on advancing the status of women in the Secretariat, the United Nations need to provide the achievements and the effectiveness of its programmes. Maybe that can explain why the majority of the mechanisms are addressed to the United Nations Secretariat and the greater impact is intended to take place at the Secretariat, of all of the main organs of the United Nations 18 .
Figure 1a shows that by 1980, fertility levels in most of the developed industrialized countries were already close to or below the replacement rate of 2.1 children per woman. Labour force participation rates of women in the prime ages of 25-54 years continued to rise in the 1990s to between 60 to 85 per cent and by the turn of the century fertility was well below replacement. Figure 1b shows that the developed countries that experienced the largest increases in female labour force participation rates (FLFPRs) in the 1980s also tended to have the largest declines in total fertility rates (TFRs). By the 1990s, changes in both FLRPRs and TFRs had slowed down. In several of the transition economies in Figures 2a and 2b, the economic participation of women has actually been falling, especially in the 1980s but there has been a clear decline in fertility rates especially in the 1990s, most to below replacement. In Figure 3a for the Asia -Pacific countries, there is no clear pattern between women’s employment and total fertility rates. There are almost as many countries with high FLFPRs and high levels of fertility (for example, Nepal, Papua New Guinea) and as there are countries with similar high FLFPRs and total fertility rates around replacement level (for example, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Thailand) and yet another group of countries where fertility had dropped below replacement but FLFPRs are only around 60 per cent (Hong Kong and Singapore). Figure 3b also does not show a clear relationship between changing FLFPRs and fertility decline; Asia -Pacific countries with little increase in femaleparticipation showed sharper falls in TFRs than many of the countries with large increases in femaleparticipation. In Latin America and the Caribbean, figure 4a shows increasing FLFPR and declining fertility since 1980. Changes in both rates in figure 4b have generally been larger in the 1980s than in the 1990s. Women in the North African and Middle Eastern countries continue to have the lowest levels of labour force participation in the world but there has been a distinct fall in total fertility rates, albeit none to below replacement levels (figure 5a). What is striking in figure 5b is that FLFPRs fell or changed very little in most North African and Middle Eastern countries in the 1990s but fertility continued to drop sharply. In contrast, women in Sub-Saharan Africa in figure 6a have very high rates of female labour force participation and their fertility rates have remained high and even in the late 1990s total fertility rates were between 4 to 7 children per woman. Figure 6b shows that there has been very little percentage change in FLFPRs especially in the 1990s and the declines in TFRs have been small.
Palabras clave: participación ciudadana, sesiones municipales, crimen y corrupción, tamaño del lugar y educación.
This article shows that in the Latin American context, participation in municipal meetings remains generally low. By looking at the data provided by the AmericasBarometer 2008 survey, we find in 20 countries that individuals who have been victimized by crime or corruption are more likely to participate in their local governments. This pattern is also observed among individuals who live in rural areas and who are more educated. These findings suggest that individuals participate to increase security and transparency and that governmental decentralization may have a more pronounced impact in rural municipalities and among educated people.
him (ID4466). Soria vented his despair after a lady asked him what more he could want for she was already sympathetic to his sorrow (ID6276). A caballero gave advice on a very material question posed by a lady as to the proper attire to wear for fleeing Valencia during a bout of pestilence in the city. The poem mixes the minute detail of the material advice with notes on the symbolism attached to clothes and baggage. Her shirt must be, for example, «embroidered with honesty» (ID6587, vv. 46-48). But the list is intended to be a very concrete answer to the lady’s query and the items for the journey are listed and described in minute detail with careful attention to any contingency. Cancioneros are filled with poems prompted by female discourse and actions in a wide range of situations. A lady told Soria that she was sorry for his complaint (ID6289); Alonso de Cardona sighed in front of a lady and she argued that he should not sigh for he declared himself to be happy with his passion (ID6677); a lady sent a poet a message asking what she should do in order to pray as much as she was supposed to do (ID6801); another sent a poet a letter written in such garbled handwriting that all that was legible just before her signature was a suggestive quote from Psalm 42 (ID6799); a lady told Jerónimo de Artes that she was turning thoughts in her mind as to how to better annoy him (ID4360); another told Juan Fernández de Heredia 33 that she was coming from confession (ID1092, LB1);
Prior studies suggest that female sexua- lity at older ages depends on male sexuality, to the point that if the woman does not have a stable partner, sexual activity ceases (Ló- pez and Olazábal, 2006; Maciel and Laganà, 2014). In this regard, women construct their sexual desire based on the quality of their relationship with a partner. From the dimen- sions analysed what is found to be decisive is an active sex life with a partner, the sexual attitude toward the partner and the feelings and satisfaction produced by having sex with that partner. As Freixas et al. confirmed: “The central issue lies in the nexus between se- xual desire and the quality of the relations- hip” (2010: 44). Ruben (1978), on the other hand, stated that the determinants of sexual desire at older ages include shame and sin. Thus, women who break with the roles they have been socialised into and who experien- ce their own sexuality within a broad fra- mework of stimuli and sensations in which, for example, they can experience satisfac- tion, pleasure and well-being (as opposed to dissatisfaction, pain and guilt) after having sex, have a greater likelihood of increased sexual desire.
In regards to our new unnamed female martyr, it seems she may have been of Egyptian origin, and her date of martyrdom is recorded in the Coptic calendar. The following text is very interesting because it is a rare example of Arabic texts relating to a female martyr.
Al Baraka Turk and Faisal Finance are the first participation banks in Turkey which are set up in 1985. Participation banking operates in more than 60 countries today and conservatives generally prefer to work with because they are working to principles of profit instead of interest. In participation banking saving holders has not guaranteed their income, conversely, they can lose. Because of more than 1.8 million Islam people some western classical banks (Citibank, HSBC) have set up units which work according to profit share principle. In 2015 two public banks starts to work according to profit share principle in Turkey. Participation banks have great potential in Turkey to achieve their growth in banking sector. More than %90 of Turkish population is Muslim. The share of total collected funds of participation banks in banking industry is 5.6% while the share of total used funds of participation banks in banking industry is 4.8% (http://www.tkbb.org.tr/mukayeseli-tablolar). It can be said that participation banks could not reach their potential.
Short and long LEPR isoforms as well as the soluble receptor have been characterized in human placenta . Moreover, it has been reported that multiple signal trans- duction pathways are activated in response to leptin both in JEG-3 cell culture and in human term placenta . Leptin is able to stimulate Janus kinase (JAK)-signal trans- ducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway by promoting JAK-2 and STAT-3 tyrosine phosphorylation, which have been correlated with trophoblast invasive- ness . The signal transduction pathways involving mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which mediates a proliferative response, as well as PI3K, which regulates the invasive differentiation of human trophoblast, have also been found to be signaling pathways activated in response to leptin [89, 91]. Therefore, as trophoblast cells produce leptin locally, once bound to placental receptors, leptin triggers local and peripheral effects. In this way, it has been reported that placental leptin induces hCG pro- duction in trophoblast cells and increases the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins and metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) that are involved in extracellular matrix remodeling . In addition, leptin is a trophic and mitogenic factor for trophoblastic cell line by virtue of inhibiting apoptosis and promoting proliferation . In this context, it has reported that leptin promotes growth, proliferation and cell survival of trophoblastic cells  by activating JAK-STAT, MAPK, and PI3K signaling pathways [93–96]. More specifically, leptin enhances cell prolifera- tion in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, displaced the cells towards a G2/M phase as well as upregulated cyclin D1 expression, one of the key cell cycle-signaling proteins . In fact, it was demonstrated that the MAPK pathway is the major signaling pathway to mediate the antiapop- totic effect of leptin in placenta  while that PI3K activa- tion may mediate other functions of leptin in placenta. In this sense, both PI3K and MAPK pathways were reported to mediate the protein synthesis effect of leptin in pla- centa, via activation of the translational machinery (phos- phorylation state of EIF4EBP1 and EIF4E) [94, 95]. This may be relevant both physiologically and pathophysiolog- ically since a decrease in EIF4EBP1 phosphorylation has been recently found in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction resulting from impaired placental development . Recently, we have described the participation of the RNA binding protein Sam68 in leptin signaling in human trophoblastic cells, mediating the growth promoting
Nuestra Señora del Perpetuo Socorro Mental Hos- pital had 225 hospitalized female patients in ages from 15 to 80 years-old between July and December 2007. This group of low-income patients came from different parts of the country. A sample of 137 patients was obtained. The inclusion criteria were that patients must be over 25 years old and have more than 8 teeth. Only 59 (43%) out of 137 patients met these criteria and were evaluated. The study design was previously approved by the Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto, Ethics Co mmittee (Act N° CE003-07).
Thirdly, broaden the knowledge base of planning by introducing various interest groups to the planning process. According to Lindblom, the ’bounded’ analyses of planners cannot be given a value-free status. Such knowledge is based on partial information, and it necessarily prioritizes certain value considerations over others. Pluralistic politics between various interest groups is therefore needed to fill the knowledge gaps that still remain after the public manager’s analysis and to bring alternative values to the agenda. Lindblom conceives of the political process as a game where each interest group acts as a ”watchdog” for its values. Each decision-maker is allowed to concentrate on a deliberately narrow problem definition – especially on questions that are important for the interest group one represents – because complete knowledge is beyond one’s reach anyway. Participation by many decision-makers is therefore needed to guarantee that the essential interests are given adequate