Based on relevant publications (Pen ˜a 1986; Cuezzo 1998; Jaksic 1998; Jaksic and Lazo 1999; Brescovit et al. 2002; Kury and Pinto-da-Rocha 2002; Lourenc¸o 2002; Silva 2005), 76,048 of the 90,446 individual prey iden- tified were classified as either herbivorous or nonherbi- vorous (table A1, available in the online edition of the American Naturalist). The incidence of nonherbivorous prey in the diets was analyzed as the proportion of non- herbivore individuals in relation to the total number of individual prey consumed during a given year. Propor- tions of nonherbivorous individual prey were assessed independently for each predator species, providing es- timates of trophic positions, and for the combined diets of all predators, providing an estimate of the food chain length for the entire predator ensemble. The six top pred- ators studied comprise the most abundant and persistent top predators in the system, thus adequately representing the top predator assemblage in the community. Plants were a significant food item only in the P. culpaeus diet. For this fox species, the incidence of nonherbivorous items among animal prey was analyzed as in the other predators, but in addition, the incidence of feces with nonplant remains was also analyzed. The fox scat (rather than the individual prey, as in previous analyses) was used as the unit of analysis in this case because animal and plant remains (mostly seeds) are not comparable, rendering it difficult to relate number of seeds with num- ber of plant individuals consumed.
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A nutrients/food chain model was developed considering the linkage between water balance and energy balance models for Lake Zapotlan. Lake Zapotlan is located in the southern part of Jalisco State, Mexico, and is classified as a warm, tropical water body, endorheic, very shallow, and highly eutrophic. Kinetic parameters were calibrated using previously reported values in the literature for other lakes. The model simulates the concentration of eight state variables for the lake: algae, herbivore and carnivore zooplankton, nitrates, ammonium, SRP, DOC and POC. A set of eight simultaneous ordinary differential equations (ODE) were generated, assuming an initial set of conditions considering the existing hydrologic and water quality information of the streams flowing into the lake. The ODE system was solved and calibrated by using observed water quality data of the lake. In this way, we have estimated the internal fluxes of nutrients and dissolved oxygen in the lake and their interaction with the food chain.
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10 Although little information is available related to vitamin enrichment of zooplanctonic species using microalgae as food, there are reports related to the enrichment of microalgal cultures in other substances such as PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) (Fidalgo et al., 1998) and astaxantin. Astaxantin enriched microalga was used to feed the Artemia sp. which gained a reddish pigmentation. By means of this food chain, this carotenoid can be transferred to higher trophic levels, providing the characteristic colour in salmonids and crustaceans ( Orosa et al., 2001). Similarly, Fábregas et al. (2001) changed the protein, lipid and carbohydrate composition of Artemia sp. depending on the renewal rate of semicontinuous cultures of T. suecica .
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represents a potential problem for the health of the Neotropical otter and a significant risk for the human population that makes use of these resources both as hobby food and for daily consumption. A recent study in Luxembourg focused on the evaluation of heavy metals in the prey fish of the European otter (Boscher et al. 2010). There, the highest Hg concentration was 0.535 mg kg − 1 ; that of Pb was 0.181 mg kg − 1 , and for Cd it was 0.104 mg kg − 1 , one and two orders of magnitude lower than our values. Even though their results are reported in wet weight, the Luxembourg otters are probably exposed to lower contaminant concentrations.
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In general, vertical integration in both sectors should be stimulated, which would encourage the creation of cooperatives in the most atomized links (farmers and retailers). This would help balance the bargaining power of the weakest links (farmer, consumers). Additionally, it is necessary to improve controls on quality and traceability in the food chain. It is crucial to stimulate good practices in agricultural, industrial and commercial activities, and there is a need to promote transparent development in contractual relations through standardized contracts. Therefore, existing Agricultural Extension Services should be multidisciplinary, thereby covering several links of the FVC.
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Food defence Some authors use this to indicate ideologically motivated incidents of malicious food adulteration (Manning and Soon 2015; GFSI 2014) whereas other use a broader definition to include other protection activities (BRC 2015). In this paper food defence is defined as the methodology and countermeasures taken to prevent and mitigate the effects of intentional incidents and threats to the food chain. The type of threat that can be
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Salmonella spp. is one of the different pathogenic microorganisms isolated in foods that have shown resistance to different antimicrobials, affecting a large extent the food chain (Puig et al., 2011; Hur et al., 2012; WHO, 2018d). Resistance to antimicrobials by Salmonella spp., can be observed and transmitted mainly by consuming food contaminated with antibiotics or eating food contaminated with feces of animals or human carriers, who continue to suffer from the disease after various incomplete or failed treatments (Rivera et al., 2012). In the search for strains resistant to antimicrobials, several studies on animals and food have been carried out globally in order to improve the analysis, control, and prevention of infections by this bacterium, such as the case of food from fisheries where Rahimi et al. (2013) analyzed the prevalence and susceptibility to antimicrobials by different serotypes of Salmonella spp., such as Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella paratyphi B, and Salmonella newport isolated in fishery products from three provinces (Bushehr, Hormozgan and Khuzestan) from the Persian Gulf on the southern coast of Iran, reporting the susceptibility of 19 isolates to different antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion method; the resistance to nalidixic acid was 47.4%, followed by resistance to tetracycline in 36.8%, streptomycin 15.8%, trimethoprim 15.8% and ciprofloxacin 5.3%. On the other hand, Budiati et al. (2013) conducted a study to determine the prevalence and resistance to antibiotics by Salmonella spp., in fish isolates such as: catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (T. mossambica) obtained from wet markets and ponds fed chicken offal, eggs and commercial fish feed during the period of 2008 to 2009 in Malaysia; from a total of 172 samples (32 catfish and 32 catfish intestines, 32 tilapia carcass and 32 tilapia intestines and 44 water samples), the isolation of seven Salmonella serovars in catfish 9/32 (28.1%), tilapia 14/32 (43.8%) and water samples 11/44 (25%) were reported. Isolated serotypes include Salmonella albany, Salmonella agona, Salmonella corvallis, Salmonella stanley, S. Typhimurium, Salmonella mikawashima and Salmonella bovis-mobificans. The sensitivity of these isolates to different antibiotics was for chloramphenicol (37.2%), clindamycin (100%), rifampicin (90.7%), spectinomycin (27.9%) and tetracycline (67.4%).
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The present investigation is carried out in the commercial company IMPORT AND EXPORT PANITA EIRL in the city of Jaen, department of Cajamarca, whose purpose is to improve the effectiveness of the supply chain processes, applying the standard questionnaire SCOR model and tools Of logistics management. This research is carried out by corroborating that the company under study presents significant gaps in the performance of the processes of the supply chain in relation to the standards established by the SCOR model; That is to say that they do not use adequate engineering tools for the development of their operations at logistic level, which generates a precarious effectiveness in complying with the optimum development of its processes and fulfillment of objectives. Being these main bases of information, it has been necessary an investigation for the efficient flow of its activities and processes.
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Para que el proyecto de “Easy Food” sea útil para los usuarios de la Universidad de La Sabana, se debe desarrollar un plan de implementación, aceptación y uso. Antes del desarrollo de este esquema, el equipo del proyecto analizó detalladamente al público objetivo para el uso de la aplicación. Sobra decir que aunque este desarrollo tecnológico está diseñado para cualquier persona que se encuentre dentro del campus, se debe segmentar la audiencia para crear grupos y saber cómo informarlos de manera adecuada.
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762 built capabilities, enhance value propositions, adapt right technology, collaborate with stakeholders and deliver environmentally sustainable outcomes with minimum resources. Major forces among those shaping the topography of supply chain operational landscape are: accelerated pace of ongoing globalization of markets, social economic landscape are: accelerated pace of ongoing globalization for markets, societal demands for the higher environmental performance, regulatory complications, financial market demands for increased profitability and capital productivity, dynamic expectations of the customers, shorter economic life cycles of product & technology and changing work force requirements.(S.N.Panigrahi, 2007)
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El restaurante Rinconcito del Mundo (fast food S.A.) Tiene como misión dar a conocer distintas variedades de comida de alta calidad que son tradicionales en otros países, con el fin de satisfacer las necesidades del cliente. Se pretende crear una oferta en la capital, Managua. Para llevar a cabo lo anterior, es importante basarse en un proceso productivo y estándar mediante la elaboración de comidas rápidas de distintos tipos, procedente de varios países, producida en Nicaragua que promueva una oferta de productos innovadores en el mercado nacional.
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El éxito histórico de la logística impulsó a las empresas a adoptar, rápidamente, sus principios y a adaptarlos en consecuencia a su realidad cotidiana. En primer lugar, se integró en sus principios identificándolo a la distribución física. La dirección logística tuvo por objeto principal la coordinación de los flujos de los productos terminados de los centros de producción en los puntos de consumo final. Esta concepción evolucionó con el paso del tiempo para referirse a otros segmentos del proceso de explotación. En realidad, las empresas se dieron cuenta de que existen aún yacimientos de productividad en los otros procesos de realización de los productos como el suministro, el almacenaje de las materias primas y productos terminados e incluso en la producción. En adelante, la logística engloba todas las actividades de gestión material y da lugar a nuevos conceptos y técnicas Supply Chain Management, Just In Time…. Los flujos materiales deben coordinarse en una única esfera de fase preliminar antes y después y la logística se convirtió en una función de arbitraje que se situaba al cruce de todas las actividades de las empresas. Una función de máximo aprovechamiento de los costes y de seguridad de los niveles de servicio a los clientes que reconcilia así Eficiencia y Eficacia de la empresa según el triángulo del control de gestión [Eficacia, Eficiencia Pertinencia].
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Value chain analysis can help to explain this growing disjuncture between the global spread of activities and incomes, particularly in a dynamic perspective. First, by mapping the range of activities in the chain it provides the capacity to decompose total value chain earnings into the rewards which are achieved by different parties in the chain. The value of this mapping exercise should not be underestimated, because no other form of analysis provides this synoptic overview of earnings (both international and intranational) in globally linked activities. Other ways of viewing global distributional patterns provide only partial insights into these phenomena. For example, trade statistics only provide data on aggregate, gross returns rather than on net earnings, and branch-specific analyses (agriculture, industry, services) only capture part of the story. Secondly, a value chain perspective analyses the way in which particular firms, regions and countries are linked to the global economy. This mode of insertion will determine to a large extent the distributional outcomes of global production systems and the capacity which individual producers have to upgrade their operations and thus to launch themselves onto a path of sustainable income growth. This is really important in understanding the dynamics of income distribution over time. And, thirdly, at the same time, by focusing on the institutions which drive international specialisation, value chain analysis identifies the normative levers which can be used to alter these distributional patterns. Let us consider each of these in turn.
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Despite all the challenges and limitations, the use of RFID in agriculture and food industry provides new features that have the potential to be an economically viable, speeding up operations and improving data accuracy. The value of technology can be best realized when integrated with agronomic knowledge, using the information gathered in the improvement of decision support sys- tems. Also improving operations by providing early warning of equipment failure and a predictive maintenance tool, improving energy management, providing automatic record-keeping for reg- ulatory compliance, eliminating personnel training costs or reduc- ing insurance costs. The collaboration and synergy of sensing, processing, communication and actuation is the next step to ex- ploit the potential of these technologies.
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Sin em bargo, en la segunda parte del periodo, se ob servó un incre m e nto no ta b le de las m ism as m o stra n d o que su peso en re la ció n al total, representó casi un 50 por ciento de las exportaciones. Por otra parte, el sector agroalim entario contribuye con el 6% del PBI nacional (INDEC, 2006; SAGPyA, 2006). Estas cifras ponen de m anifiesto, por un lado la im portancia del sector agroalim entario, com o dinam izador económ ico y social del país, y por el otro la necesidad de contar con herram ientas y tecnologías que faciliten su desarrollo y crecim iento de m anera sustentable. En el presente artículo, se plantea analizar y re fle xio n a r sobre alg uno s a sp e cto s lig a d o s a la ca lid a d y a la se g urid a d alim entaria -in o c u id a d , re saltando la necesidad de fo rtalece r y difu n dir estos conceptos, tratando de contribuir con la cadena agroalim entaria argentina, en la in te n c ió n de fa v o re c e r la p ro d u c c ió n de los a lim e n to s que el c o n s u m id o r dem anda, tanto en el m ercado dom éstico, com o en el internacional. El térm ino seguridad alimentaria / seguridad de alim entos (“Food S afety”), será usado a lo largo del artículo para referirse a los aspectos de inocuidad de alim entos, ya que con este significado es am pliam ente utilizado por la industria (Foro Cad. Agroind. Arg., 2005b) y los organism os especializados del sector (EC, 2000; FAO/W HO, 20 02). En el se n tid o d e scrip to , lo d ife re n c ia m o s de la a ce p ció n se g u rid a d a lim e n ta ria (“ Food S e c u rity ” ), que se re fie re al a cce so o d is p o n ib ilid a d de alimentos sanos y nutritivos, de acuerdo a la D eclaración de Roma suscripta en la Cum bre Mundial sobre la Alim entación (FAO, 1996).
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Conocer la importancia que tiene el Supply Chain Management para el éxito de las empresas, ya que esta le suministra herramientas que le permite crear ventajas comparativas frente a sus competidores. En el Supply Chain Management, la meta más importante es lograr la satisfacción del cliente, motivo por el cual todos los procesos del Supply Chain se enfocan a este fin y deben trabajar en conjunto para ello.
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The proposed solution by this project is to develop various mathematical programming models and their related tools to support the decision making pro-cess at all levels for AFSC planning in a deterministic and uncertain context. These models are supposed to be representative of the agri-food sector by including its differentiating characteristics such as perishability, food quality or food safety among others, which have not been adequately addressed by previous literature. As a first step to justify the novelty of this project, a review of existing literature reviews (LR) related to OR and the AFSC has been made. This review is made up of a descriptive analysis in which the frequency of publication among years is analysed; an identification of the supply chain topics which have been analysed by AFSC LR; an analysis of the dimensions employed by these LR to classify the models; and, an analysis of the future research lines proposed by LR with the iden- tification of which of them remain valid.
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13. Parlamento Europeo and El Consejo de la Unión Europea, Reglamento (CE) No 178/2002 Del Parlamento Europeo y El Consejo de la Unión Europea, Parlamento Europeo and El Consejo de la Unión Europea, Editors. 2002. 14. Cabrera Delgado, E. and N.I. Coello Machado, Incertidumbre y efectividad del control dimensional con calibre limitadores lisos., in Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica. 2001, Universidad Central "Marta Abreu de las Villas" 15. Frohberg, K., U. Grote, and E. Winter, EU Food Safety Standards, Traceability and Other Regulations: A Growing Trade Barrier to Developing Countries’ Exports, in International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference. 2006: Gold Coast, Australia, 16. Peña, R.A. and S. Grocin Hernández, Guía básica de gestión de trazabilidad en el sector alimentario de Navarra, ed. C.A.d.I. Agroalimentarias. 2006, Navarro, España: CONSEBRO. Asociación de Industrias Agroalimentarias.
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Abstract: An increasingly customer-oriented food industry needs faster response times to address dynamic and collaborative supply chains. Good traceability systems help to minimize the production and distribution of unsafe or poor quality products. Therefore, traceability is applied as a tool to help ensure the safety and quality of food, as well as to achieve consumer con- fidence. New technologies are being used and new proposals are being tested in this field. Industry 4.0 includes a variety of technologies that enable the development of a digital and automated manufacturing environment. These new technologies are implying a drastic change in the way companies operates. These tech-nologies are having a high impact in different areas of the company, and naturally, the traceability processes are included in this new wave of changes. The terms "tracing" and "tracking" are generally discussed in traceability. Tracing is defined as a retroactive process in which the origin is identified by the history or the records in the supply chain and tracking is the direct process in which the end users and the trading partners are identified by the location in the supply chain, both terms provide visibility in supply chains. In the present work a literature review is real- ized on the implementation of in-dustry 4.0 in the traceability of the food supply chain. As a result of this literature re-view have been possible to note that the interest is growing and is concentrated in the last five years. Furthermore, the temporal evolution of technologies applied in the trace-ability of food supply chain is becoming increasingly complex due to the inclusion of new proposals (RFID, QR, NFC, Barcode, …). Finally, an analysis of the technologies applied to different areas of the food sector is presented, thus proposals for fruit, vege-tables, meat or fish have been analyzed and the Industry 4.0 technologies have been identified for each area. This study makes it possible to reveal clearly those sectors that have not yet been approached by these new proposals, as well as technologies that are been applied in Industry 4.0 proposals but have not been used for traceability. Thus, the present work enables the identification of research gaps in this field.
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Although this course is primarily focused on food regulations of various types dealing with standards and food safety, the broader context is the interna- tional market and trading system for food and agricultural commodities. Most countries have food standards, which go back in time as far as the Magna Car- ta, and food safety regulations either developed internally or were adopted from other countries or international bodies.
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