Abstract. Pharmaceutical innovation is the basis of the health sector, since it constantly improves the quality of life of the human being. Schumpeter have influenced notably the theories of innovation, stating that economic development is driven by it, speaking of the dynamic process in which new technologies replace the old ones and that feed the process of change. On the other hand, the Research and Development (R&D) process manages the returns on investment, allowing demonstrating how profitable the innovation process can be. In Mexico, the signs of innovation have remained on the side of foreigncompanies, while Mexican companies have settled for the majority of the generic market. This quantitative study collects data on the perception of experts in the pharmaceutical field, mostly students of the biotechnology pharmaceutical chemistry career at the Universidad del Valle de México, in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, using surveys based on the OECD manuals for innovation and R&D, comparing both the quality of innovation and the R & D process in Mexican companies and foreigncompanies. The perception of the students intuits the current context of the pharmaceutical industry in Mexico. The study shows a great relationship between the variables and a disparity of perception between foreign and Mexican companies.
AbstrAct: The international expansion of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is one of the topics most frequently discussed amongst international business scholars. In particular, decisions regarding firm location and its effects on performance have received great attention. The results obtained in the study about this relationship are inconclusive, though, since a large number of studies have been conducted from very different perspectives. One of these perspectives suggests that the location in agglomerations allows MNEs to benefit from potential knowledge spillovers en- couraging innovation and local adaptation. However, this co-location increases the risk of imitation by domestic companies as well. Furthermore, the acquisition by each firm of the external knowledge generated by means of concentration depends on its internal capabilities, and especially on its absorptive capacity. The aim sought with this work consists in analyzing the location decisions adopted by MNEs in an attempt to clarify the following issues: Are MNEs more likely to be established in agglomerations? Which companies benefit the most from geographical proximity in terms of innovation, domestic or foreign ones? What is the role of absorptive capacity? The results obtained in the analysis, carried out with a sample of firms and using data from a survey conducted in 2013 by PITEC, reveal the differences between foreign and local companies when it comes to using external knowledge.
Further to the changes occurring in Europes most advanced regions, it is especially relevant that only half the subsidiaries established in the Barcelona area have stated that they have fresh proposals for attracting new activities or services from the group they belong to. This figure is too low. With the support of public institutions, companies should adopt a more proactive approach to ensure the continuity and development of their activities. It is important to stress that the initiative of Catalan subsidiaries has been a key reason why many of these companies have progressed from carrying out activities with low added value to working in areas that require greater specialization and/or generate greater added value. Through direct investment, foreigncompanies have played an important role in the economic and social development of Catalonia. If it wants to remain among Europes leading regions, Catalonia must continue to support companies interested in operating here so they can take advantage of the opportunities offered by the new world economic order. The fact that 97% of foreigncompanies have expressed satisfaction with their decision to set up in the Barcelona area is an excellent reason for public institutions to continue working in this
Another example of joint action in the Nicara- guan cluster is the creation of the milk produc- ers’ association (CANISLAC) in 2000, which was established with advice from UNIDO and PRODEGA (a Finnish cooperation project that has operated in the sector for several years). This group plays a lobbying role on issues such as international trade negotiations (fol- lowing the closing of the Salvadorian market to Nicaraguan milk) and government subsidies (for providing a glass of milk per schoolchild per day throughout the country). Large foreigncompanies, such as Parmalat and Nestlé- Prolacsa, are also members of this association. This has its pros and cons because of the di- versity of the interests being represented. An interesting example of joint action is the creation of the Brazilian Wine Institute (IBRAVIN) by the wine cluster of Serra Gaúcha (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) during the 1990s. IBRAVIN was originally created to manage a series of projects approved through the so-called Fund for Support to the Wine Sector (Fundovitis), which was financed through the state government. Initially, the in- stitute attempted to bring together efforts be- ing carried out by the main wine associations in order to upgrade the whole wine production chain. This process involved development pro- jects in several areas, including market infor- mation, improved viticulture practices, coop- eration between growers and wineries, im- provements in wine and grape quality, creation of a viticulture directory in the region, and a new legislative proposal for the sector. As a result, the institute became a potential regula- tory body, emulating a model that had been successful in Uruguay in the 1980s. The insti- tute was also able to bring together the needs of the sector with research carried out by re-
• Invest in Spain, Investor Network with both national and international investors interested in Spanish and foreigncompanies with an investment plan for their implemen- tation, growth or expansion needs. Projects must be developed in Spain and require investment in excess of € 500,000. > www.investinspain.org/investornetwork • ESBAN, the Spanish network of business angels: > www.esban.com
foreign direct investment applied to the creation of new companies or new business activities and the most trustworthy indicator of the effects on GDP. When counting the flows of foreign investment, the majority of European coun- tries follow the recommendation of the OECD (“Benchmark Defi- nition of Foreign Direct Invest- ment”, Third edition) and they count the re-investments of foreigncompanies already set-up in their countries. In the case of Spain, this country also follows the OECD recommendations but doesn’t count the re-investments, which can constitute important amounts, and which according to our estimations can be almost as important as those new invest- ment flows with a direct effect on the GDP. Foreign investments in (Holding of Foreign Stock), even though they have a significant weight in the overall levels of foreign investment in Catalonia, shouldn’t be taken into account. What these assets bring to the producing economy is minimum, since they do not generate a significant number of jobs nor investments in fixed assets. Other entries that shouldn’t be included are mergers, acquisitions nor changes in shareholder title when the buyer is a non-resident.
The research followed four successive steps. In the first step, we compiled an inventory of 139 nanotech- nology companies in Mexico. In the second step, the products with nanotechnology were classified accord- ing to the United Nations’ International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities. This revealed that 40 % of the nanotech-related products corresponded to the manufacturing of chem- ical products and substances, followed by 14 % for the manufacturing of electronic, optic, and information products. In the third step, we located companies according to their role in the nanotechnology value chain, indicating that approximately half of the nanotechnology products on the market are final products, and half are primary nano-materials, inter- mediary materials, and instruments. The fourth and final step consisted of classifying the products accord- ing to whether they primarily lead to new productive processes, or are destined for personal consumption. The results showed that almost four-fifths of the products ended up as consumer goods.
International is one of the largest hotel companies in the world, market leader in Spanish market, in the leisure and the business resort hotel chains. Currently has more than 350 hotels in 35 countries on four continents under the brands: Meliá, Gran Meliá , ME by Meliá , Paradisus, Innside by Meliá, TRYP by Wyndham, Sol Meliá Hotels and Club. The Organizational structure Meliá Hotels International, SA is the head company of Meliá Hotels Group International, which form an integrated group of companies engaged primarily to tourism in general and more specifically to the management and operation of hotels owned or rented, under a " management" or " franchise, and asset management.
During the second stage, information collection phase, over 50% of companies answer that they commonly use sources of information from their partners in research projects. That shows the level of relationship that comes to have companies so protective towards the security of their information when it happens to investígate with other companies. There are also a high percentage of companies using information from other subsidiarles of the group at times or on many occasions. Bearing in mind they were asked in the context of Cl, it is noteworthy that the percentages of consultation between partners and between subsidiarles of the same group are not far.
The present study addressed whether this kind of perceptual learning comes to the aid of a listener confronted with an unfamiliar foreign regional accent. Subtitles indicate which words are being spoken, and so could boost lexically-guided learning about foreign speech sounds. Given the prior work on lexical retuning within the native language [4–8], and the suggestion that adaptation to foreign-accented speech is in part lexically driven , there may be lexical retuning also in second-language listening. That is, listeners may be able to retune speech-sound categories based on their knowledge about how foreign words ought to sound (imagine, e.g., a Spanish listener fluent in English learning about ‘‘?’’ in English hor?/gira? experiments). We tested that prediction here, but in a novel way, by asking whether subtitles can support learning about unfamiliar regional accents in a foreign language. If so, this would suggest not only that subtitles can help foreign speech understand- ing, but also that one way in which they do so is through the mechanism of lexically-guided perceptual learning.
This way, the model of industrial district analyses the conditions which are necessary to be able to identify an agglomeration of small companies. Thus, the development of different methodologies, which on the one hand combines quantitative and qualitative criteria, allows the identification of industrial districts in countries such as Spain or Italy. There are different works which allow to claim that the industrial agglomerations which are identified as districts are currently subject to a process of adjustment, restructuration, or we could even say failure or deterioration. It is true that the change and the readjustment generated are due to the natural development of the districts (Asheim,2000), in which they are more specialists and at the same time the model is submitted to increasing pressures because of the globalization, the relocation of the economic activity plus a more important concentration of flows of production and technology.
Abstract: Over the past few years, the phenomenon of foreign terrorist fighters has deeply influenced criminal law. The United Nations, the Council of Europe and the European Union have called upon States to criminalise certain conducts linked to the behaviour of these criminals, such as travelling abroad for terrorist purposes. These measures have been considered by many as an unjustified restriction on the free movement of persons guaranteed by several human rights instruments. Taking into account that the development of EU criminal law is based on the assumption that every member State has an adequate system of protection of fundamental rights, this criticism cannot be ignored. In this sense, an analysis of relevant case law on the restrictions of freedom of movement is highly useful to understand the position of the judiciary on the matter, and to identify possible difficulties in implementing these restrictions of free movement in national systems.
The recent massive increase in international liquidity has created concerns about the possible misalignment of the real exchange rate relative to its equilibrium level, especially because it can be deemed a temporary response to the current phase of the cycle in developed economies, but with a potentially lasting negative impact on the tradable sector of the economy. The domestic response to this situation has been an intensification of sterilized intervention in the foreign exchange market and the use of reserve requirements on local banks’ foreign currency liabilities. Additionally, changes in the fiscal liabilities management and further prudential supervision measures are being introduced by the Treasury and by the Supervisory Agency to limit the exposure of local agents to foreign exchange risks. In view of these considerable challenges to real sector competitiveness, the acceleration of the structural reform agenda must be an important part of the policy effort.
El proceso de producción de Henic Foreign Languages comienza desde el momento en que se recibe el alumno, después se debe verificar cual es el nivel de idioma ingles que posee y si requiere la asesoría del seguimiento de tareas de su formación formal , a continuación se debe asignar el profesor especialista, el desarrollo de la clase se divide en dos; la parte académica del programa y la parte de las asesorías de trabajos prácticos si requiere y finalmente termina cuando se hace la evaluación final del tema planteado.
Salvador de Madariaga et le Foreign Office S DE MADARIAGA ET LE FOREIGN OFFICE (*1 Un episode d'histoire diplomatique Juillet d?cembre 1936 Por ISABEL DE MADARIAGA Au printemps de 1936, Madariaga se t[.]
Therefore, companies should adopt formalized CSR practices and thus establish the procedures and tools that are aligned with their corporate strategy (Bocquet, Le Bas, Mothe & Poussing, 2013). So much so that there are studies that suggest that CSR has a significant positive contribution to national competitiveness and even levels of quality of life (Boulouta & Pitelis, 2014). In other words, it is expected that innovation will increase when the company is responsible and that increased innovation translates into greater competitive success, enhancing the effect itself already exercised CSR in the competitiveness of the company (Vázquez & Sánchez, 2013). As suggest Vilanova, Lozano and Arenas (2009) whether CSR is integrated into business processes generates innovative practices and therefore improved competitiveness and further this integration can be facilitated by standardized management processes previously implanted.